• Title, Summary, Keyword: concentration

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Characteristics of air pollution concentration on Dongsamdong, Pusan (부산 동삼동 지역의 대기오염농도 특성)

  • 전병일
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.281-286
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    • 1999
  • This study was conduced to examine the monthly and seasonal variation of $SO_2$, TSP, $O_3$ concentration in Dongsamdong, Pusan coastal area. And the characteristics of air pollution of this area was compared to Kwangbokdong in Pusan and Taehadong in Ullungdo. Monthly mean concentration of $SO_2$ and TSP showed lower than Kwangbokdong, $O_3$ was higher than Kwangbokdong. In case of $SO_2$, seasonal variation of Dongsamdong was remarkabler thn Kwangbokdong and the concentration difference of early morning and daytime was higher than Kwangbokdong. Taehadong showed very lower concentration as background area. In case of TSP, Dongsamdong was lower concentration and smaller diurnal change than Kwangbokdong, Taehadong showed very lower concentration as backgound area. In case of $O_3$, Dongsamdong was 10ppb higher than Kwangbokdong at daytime maximum concentration, diurnal change of concentration was higher, too. In case of frequency distribution of concentration, $SO_2$, and TSP at Dongsamdong showed higher frequency in low concentration class and $O_3$ showed in high concentration class as compared with Kwangbokdong.

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The Study on the High Nocturnal Concentration of Ground Level Ozone (야간 지표 고농도 오존에 관한 연구)

  • 김유근;홍정혜
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.545-554
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    • 1998
  • The diurnal variation of O3 concentration shows two peaks, the first peak at noontime and the secondary peak at night. In order to show why the secondary peak, high nocturnal O3 concentration, occurs without sunlight which is a essential factor of a photochemical response, the O3 concentration, several weather elements and synoptic weather map were used for June∼September at 1995, 1996. The mean concentration of high nocturnal O3 concentration days is higher by 5.4 ppb than that of low nocturnal O3 concentration days. The nocturnal O3 concentration is higher than that of diurnal O3 concentration during high nocturnal O3 concentration days, at July, 1995 and June, 1996. The high nocturnal O3 concentration is related to low air pressure, high cloud cover and high wind speed. The correlation coefficient, r. between nocturnal O3 concentration and wind speed, pressure and cloud cover is 0.387, -0.218, and 0.194, respeftiviely. It is interesting that the O3 concentration increases at Pusan when the typhoon passes by. The same result showed at Taegu when the typhoon FAYE passed by. According to the analysis of nocturnal O3 concentration for June∼September at 1995 and 1996, it seems that the high nocturnal O3 concentration relates to the trough and cyclones passing by Pusan.

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On-line Measurement of $H_2$O/LiBr Concentration using Electric Conductivity (전기 전도도를 이용한 $H_2$O/LiBr 용액의 실시간 농도의 측정)

  • 박찬우;김정환;강용태
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1078-1083
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    • 2002
  • The objectives of this paper are to measure the concentration of $H_2$O/LiBr solution by measuring the electrical conductivity and to study the effect of the solution temperature and the concentration on the electrical conductivity of the solution. The solution temperature ranges $20^{\circ},\;40^{\circ},\;and\; 60^{\circ}$ for a fixed concentration during the experiment. The valid ranges of the concentration are two regions, low concentration region (1~20% of LiBr) and high concentration region (55~66% of LiBr). The results show that the conductivity of the solution increases linearly with increasing the solution temperature while it increases without creasing the concentration lower than about 35% of LiBr and decreases with increasing the concentration higher than 35%. This paper proposes experimental correlations for the concentration as functions of the solution temperature and the concentration with error band of $\pm7$% for the low concentration region and $\pm1$% for the high concentration region, respectively. The experimental correlation can be practically used in the on-line measurement without any sampling of solution from the closed system.

Study on Sludge Concentration Change in Batch Column (Batch Column에서의 슬러지농도변화에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Suk Gyun;Kang, Seon-Hong;Kim, Dong-Ha
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.443-450
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    • 2006
  • For understanding sludge concentration profile as a function of time, sludge was sampled at each sampling port. When sludge concentration was 3g/L, the vertical sludge concentration distribution was similar to that of 2g/L of sludge concentration. During the early stage of sludge settling, sludge concentration increased remarkably as the sludge interface height in batch column became lower. The higher sludge concentration became, the worse sludge setteability became. Also, the type of sludge settling was influenced with sludge concentration gradient in batch column. In the same concentration, the greater sludge concentration gradient was, the faster sludge interface settled down. And the changing sludge concentrations in a batch settling or a continuous settling were simulated by using the equation of sludge interface height change model.

Comparison of Dustiness of Eleven Nanomaterials using Voltex Shaker Method (볼텍스쉐이커를 이용한 11개 나노물질의 분진날림 비교)

  • Lee, Naroo;Park, Jinwoo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.273-282
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: Dustiness of nanomaterials is considered as exposure index of essential material. Research on dustiness of nanomaterial is needed to control exposure in workplaces. Method: Dustiness measurement using vortex shaker were installed in the laboratory. Nanomaterials, 1 g, was put in the glass test tube and shaked using vortex shaker. Aerosol dispersed was measured using scanning mobility particle sizer(SMPS) and optical particle counter(OPC). Mass concentration using PVC filter and cassette was measured and TEM grid sampling was conducted. Total particle concentration and size distribution were calculated. Image and chemical composition of particles in the air were observed using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Eleven different test nanomaterials were used in the study. Results: Rank of mass concentration and particle number concentration were coincided in most cases. Rank of nanomateirals with low concentration were not coincided. Two types of fumed silica had the highest mass concentration and particle number concentration. Indium tin oxide, a mixture of indium oxide and tin oxide, had high mass concentration and particle number concentration. Indium oxide had very low mass concentration and particle number concentration. Agglomeration of nanoparticles in the air were observed in TEM analysis and size distribution. In this study, mass concentration and particle number concentration were coincided and two index can be used together. The range of dustiness in particle number concentration were too wide to measure in one method. Conclusion: Particle number concentration ranged from low concentration to high concentration depend on type of nanomaterial, and varied by preparation and amount of nanomaterial used. Further study is needed to measure dustiness of all nanomaterial as one reference method.

Characteristics of Concentration Distribution of Coastal Urban Air Pollutants (연안 도시 대기오염 물질의 농도분포 특성)

  • 박종길;석경하;김지형;차주완
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.12
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    • pp.1243-1252
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    • 2002
  • This paper aims to find the characteristics of concentration distribution of coastal urban air pollutants. For this purpose, It was used the daily meteorological data and the hourly concentration data for $O_3$and NO$_2$ in Busan metropolitan city from 1994 to 1996. It was investigated the annual and monthly distribution of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration at each site in Busan, and also investigated the characteristics of concentration change of air pollutants with time under the sea breeze. As a results, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide and ozone tend to be increased every year and nitrogen dioxide concentration is higher than ozone concentration at all sites in Busan. The concentration of ozone is high in summer season and low in winter season, but the concentration of nitrogen dioxide have a reversed trend. The monthly peak concentration of ozone occurred in April and September, while the monthly minimum concentration of nitrogen dioxide occurred in August. Their trend were identified by sites near the coastline than sites stands apart from the coastline. The sea breeze occurred annual mean 81 day in Busan from 1994 to 1996. The main wind direction of sea breeze was classified into southwesterly and southeasterly. In case of southwesterly, It was pronounced the south wind and southwest wind. In case of southeasterly, the occurrence frequency of east wind was high. Especially, the concentrations of urban air pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen dioxide, were high on time which the sea breeze flow, and the areas that ozone concentration was high moved from outside part to central part of city with time. In costal urban such as Busan, the wind direction of sea breeze is influenced the change of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration on time which the sea breeze flow at each site and also influenced the change of air pollutants concentration of sites on the pathway of sea breeze.

Effects of Ni Concentration on Residual Stress in Electrodeposited Ni Thin Film for 63Ni Sealed Source (63Ni 밀봉선원용 Ni 전기도금 박막에서 Ni 농도가 잔류응력에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Pilgeun;Park, Deok-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2017
  • Chloride plating solution was fabricated by dissolving metal Ni powders in a mixed solution with HCl and de-ionized water. Effects of $Ni^{2+}$ and saccharin concentrations in the plating baths on current efficiency, residual stress, surface morphology and microstructure of Ni films were studied. In the case of $0.2M\;Ni^{2+}$ concentration, current efficiency was decreased to about 65 % with increasing saccharin concentration, but, in the case of $0.7M\;Ni^{2+}$ concentration, it was shown more than 90 % with the increase of saccharin concentration. Residual stress of Ni thin film was appeared to be about 400 MPa up to 0.0244 M saccharin concentration at the $0.2M\;Ni^{2+}$ concentration and surface morphology with severe cracks was observed in the range of 0.0487~0.0975 M saccharin concentration. Residual stress of Ni thin films was measured to be about 750 MPa without saccharin addition and 114~148 MPa at the range of 0.0097~0.0975 M saccharin concentration for the $0.7M\;Ni^{2+}$ concentration. Relatively low residual stress values (114~148 MPa) of the Ni films at the range of 0.0097~0.0975 M saccharin concentration may be resulted from codeposition of S from saccharin. Ni films at $0.7M\;Ni^{2+}$ concentration showed smooth surface morphology and were independent of saccharin concentration. Ni films at $0.7M\;Ni^{2+}$ concentration consist of FCC(111), FCC(200), FCC(220) and FCC(311) peaks and the intensities of FCC(111) and FCC(200) peaks increased with increasing saccharin concentration. Also, the average grain size decreased with increasing saccharin concentration from about 30 nm to about 15 nm.

An Effectiveness of Simultaneous Measurement of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 Concentrations in Asian Dust and Haze Monitoring

  • Cho, Changbum;Park, Gilun;Kim, Baekjo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.651-666
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    • 2013
  • This study introduces a novel approach to the differentiation of two phenomena, Asian Dust and haze, which are extremely difficult to distinguish based solely on comparisons of PM10 concentration, through use of the Optical Particle Counter (OPC), which simultaneously generates PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. In the case of Asian Dust, PM10 concentration rose to the exclusion of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. The relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration were below 40%, which is consistent with the conclusion that Asian Dust, as a prime example of the coarse-particle phenomenon, only impacts PM10 concentration, not PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. In contrast, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration simultaneously increased with haze. The relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration were generally above 70%. In this case, PM1.0 concentration varies because a haze event consists of secondary aerosol in the fine-mode, and the relative ratios of PM10 and PM2.5 concentration remain intact as these values already subsume PM1.0 concentration. The sequential shift of the peaks in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentrations also serve to individually track the transport of coarse-mode versus fine-mode aerosols. The distinction in the relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration in an Asian Dust versus a haze event, when collected on a national or global scale using OPC monitoring networks, provides realistic information on outbreaks and transport of Asian Dust and haze.

Characteristics of Surface High Ozone Concentration on Pusan Coastal area, Korea (부산 해안지역의 고농도 오존 발생 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 전병일
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.295-302
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of surface ozone concentration and occurrence of high ozone concentration using hourly ozone, nitrogen dioxide and meteorological data for 1997~1998 in Pusan coastal area. Monthly mean ozone concentration was the highest at Dongsamdong in Spring(35.4ppb), at Kwangbokdong in Fall(25.1ppb) and the lowest Dongsamdong(22.2ppb) and Kwangbokdong(16.0ppb) in Winter. Relative standard deviation indicating clearness of observation site was 0.42 at Dongsamdong and 0.49 at Kwangbokdong that is similar to urban area. The diurnal variation of ozone concentration of Dongsamdong and Kwangbokdong showed maximum at 1500~1600LST and minimum 0700~0800LST that typical pattern of ozone concentration. In ozone episode period(Sept. 10~15, 1998), diurnal change of ozone concentration was very high, and ozone concentration was related to meteorological parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud amount and radiation on a horizontal surface. During the episode days peak ozone concentrations are much higher than the normal values, wind speeds are always lower, and solar radiation is high with the exception of the September episode.

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Field Measurements of Indoor Air Quality in Apartment Units at Medium-size Cities (중소도시 공동주택의 실내공기질(새집증후군) 실측에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, JaeOck
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2010
  • The main sources of the new house syndrome(sometimes it called sick building syndrome) are a concentration of formaldehyde (HCHO) and a concentration of total volatile organic compounds(TVOC). I had field measurements of indoor air quality in the apartment unit at medium-size cities(Y city, C city). I measured indoor air temperature, HCHO concentration in 16 units, TVOC concentration in 6 units and air tightness in 7 units. And I measured outdoor air quality, HCHO concentration and TVOC concentration. Mean concentration of HCHO was $357{\mu}g/m^3$(2006 standard=$120{\mu}g/m^3$), mean concentration of TVOC was $3,092{\mu}g/m^3$ and mean effective air leakage area was 193 cm2. There was a close relation between the indoor air temperature and HCHO concentration, between the indoor air temperature and TVOC concentration. Air tightness also had relation.