• Title, Summary, Keyword: constant rate infusion

Search Result 38, Processing Time 0.049 seconds

Development of an IV Infusion Rate Regulator Using Optical Drip Rate Meter (광센서 점적계를 이용한 정맥내 주입률 조절기의 개발)

  • Yang, Y.S.;Kim, H.C.
    • Proceedings of the KOSOMBE Conference
    • /
    • v.1998 no.11
    • /
    • pp.127-128
    • /
    • 1998
  • It is necessary to maintain constant intravenous (IV) infusion rate. While infusion pump is able to control infusion rate with great accuracy, its rather large size and weight make it difficult for patients to move around. The most commonly used infusion device is gravity IV infusion set with its administration chamber being clamped according to the observed drip rate. In this case it may be easier and more accurate to maintain IV rate to given value if we automate the drip-counting process and tube-clamping work by electronic devices. We calculated volume infusion rate of specific fluid using optical drip rate meter which we had developed. To regulate fluid flow rate, we equipped the rate meter which we had developed with a miniaturized clamping apparatus using DC motor. Also, we Implemented drip detection and clamp control algorithm with PIC16C73 $\mu$-controller (Microchip). This system provides user interface through LCD display and key buttons.

  • PDF

Evaluations of vital signs and echocardiographic left ventricular function after the constant rate infusion of lidocaine and/or ketamine in Beagle dogs

  • Kim, Ye-Won;Choi, Miru;Kim, Tae-Jun;Hyun, Changbaig
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.55 no.4
    • /
    • pp.215-219
    • /
    • 2015
  • Cardiopulmonary depression of long-term constant rate infusion (CRI) administration of multiple analgesic drugs is important, especially in critically ill dogs. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of lidocaine, ketamine or combined lidocaine-ketamine combination CRI treatment on vital signs and left ventricular (LV) function in healthy dogs. Six adult Beagle dogs were administered either ketamine (initial loading dose of 0.5 mg/kg followed by $10{\mu}g/kg/min$ CRI), lidocaine (initial loading dose of 2 mg/kg followed by 0.025 mg/kg/min CRI), or combined lidocaine-ketamine intravenously. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), body temperature (BT) and echocardiographic LV dimensions were measured before administration of medications, immediately after administration of drugs, and then every 10 min for 2 h. There were no significant changes in HR, RR, BT and BP after the administration of either lidocaine CRI, ketamine CRI, or combined lidocaine and ketamine CRI. There were also no significant changes in LV dimensions and stroke volume. The results revealed that treatment with either lidocaine, ketamine or combined lidocaine-ketamine may not cause cardiopulmonary suppression in healthy dogs.

Effects of Xylazine or Acepromazine in dogs under constant rate infusion with alfaxalone

  • Yun, Sungho;Kwon, Young-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
    • /
    • v.39 no.2
    • /
    • pp.93-99
    • /
    • 2016
  • The anesthetic depth and cardiovascular effect of alfaxalone constant rate infusion in dogs premedicated with xylazine or acepromazine were evaluated. Ten dogs were randomly allocated into 2 groups. In group AA, dogs were premedicated with 0.02 mg/kg of intravenous acepromazine at 15 min before induction. In group XA 1.1 mg/kg of intravenous xylazine was premedicated at 5 min before induction. The anesthesia was maintained with 6 mg/kg/hr of alfaxalone after induction with 2 mg/kg alfaxalone in both groups. In both of groups, the qualities of induction were satisfactory without any adverse event, but adequate analgesia could not be provided, according to the withdrawal test. $PaO_2$ and $SaO_2$ implied a slight hypoxemia state in XA group, while those values of group AA were not significantly changed. The acepromazine and alfaxalone combination induce mild tachycardia. The bispectral index score were significantly decreased in group XA, compared with that in group AA. The premedication of xylazine before alfaxalone constant rate infusion in this study could provide adequate analgesia during 30 min, while the premedication with acepromazine could not.

부화장 위생검사

  • Kim, Jin-Hyeon;Ha, Jong-Su;Seon, Jeong-Won;Yun, Mi-Yeong;Kim, Gi-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.86-87
    • /
    • 2006
  • The hatchery sanitation has a significant impact on chick quality. This study was carried out to investigate the bacterial contamination in the broiler hatchery. The aerosol bacterial contamination was low except for the operating hatcher that the bacterial counts were measured almost over 300 counts/64cm$^{2}$. The bacterial contamination of the facilities and equipments had a similar tendency as compared with the aerosol bacterial contamination. More than six groups of the Salmonella species were isolated almost from the hatcher and the related facilities and equipments. Also, in this study, we compared the effects of four methods of 37% formalin adminstration in hatcher. At hatch, the aerosol bacterial counts in hatcher receiving 37% formalin as constant rate infusion method during hatching were significantly lower than in each hatcher receiving 37% formalin once at transfer and not receiving 37% formalin, respectively(p<0.05).

  • PDF

Changes in bispectral index score and cardiorespiratory function under constant rate infusion with alfaxalone in dogs

  • Yun, Sungho;Kwon, Young-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.56 no.3
    • /
    • pp.133-137
    • /
    • 2016
  • Changes in the cardiovascular and bispectral index score were evaluated in dogs subjected to constant rate infusion (CRI) with alfaxalone. Fifteen dogs were assigned to three groups of 5. Groups and doses of alfaxalone were as follows: group 1, 3 mg/kg for induction and 6 mg/kg/h for CRI; group 2, 3 mg/kg for induction and 8 mg/kg/h for CRI; and group 3, 3 mg/kg for induction and 10 mg/kg/h for CRI. CRI was maintained for 1 h. Respiratory rates and blood pressures showed minimal changes; however, mild tachycardia and mild hypoxemia occurred, especially in group 3. There were some disparities between bispectral index score, electromyography and pedal withdrawal reflex test when measuring anesthetic depth. Additional premedications and/or analgesic agents would be helpful to avoid adverse effects of alfaxalone and provide improved cardiopulmonary functions.

Response of Muscle Protein Synthesis to the Infusion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Fasting in Young Chickens

  • Kita, K.;Shibata, T.;Aman Yaman, M.;Nagao, K.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.15 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1760-1764
    • /
    • 2002
  • In order to elucidate the physiological function of circulating IGF-I on muscle protein synthesis in the chicken under malnutritional conditions, we administrated recombinant chicken IGF-I using a osmotic mini pump to fasted young chickens and measured the rate of muscle protein synthesis and plasma metabolite. The pumps delivered IGF-I at the rate of $22{\mu}g/d\{300{\mu}g{\cdot}(kg\;body\;weight{\cdot}d)^{-1}\}$. Fractional rate of protein synthesis in the muscle was measured using a large dose injection of L-[$2,6-^3H$]phenylalanine. Constant infusion of chicken IGF-I did not affect plasma glucose level. Significant interaction between dietary treatment and IGF-I infusion was observed in plasma NEFA and total cholesterol concentrations. When chicks were fasted, IGF-I infusion decreased plasma NEFA and total cholesterol concentrations. On the other hand, IGF-I administration did not affect plasma levels of both metabolites. Fasting reduced plasma triglyceride concentration significantly. IGF-I infusion also decreased the level of plasma triglyceride. Plasma IGF-I concentration of young chickens was halved by fasting for 1 d. IGF-I infusion using an osmotic minipump for 1 d increased plasma IGF-I concentration in fasted chicks to the level of fed chicks. Fasting decreased body weight and the loss of body weight was significantly ameliorated by IGF-I infusion. There was a significant interaction between dietary treatment and IGF-I infusion in the fractional rate of breast muscle protein synthesis. There was no effect of IGF-I infusion on muscle protein synthesis in fed chicks. Muscle protein synthesis reduced by fasting was ameliorated by IGF-I infusion, but did not reach to the level of fed control. Muscle weight of fasted chicks infused with IGF-I was similar to fasted birds without IGF-I infusion, which suggests that muscle protein degradation would be increased by IGF-I infusion as well as protein synthesis in fasted chicks.

Effect of Atrial Natriuretic Factor on the Renal Function and Renin Release in Unanesthetized Rabbit (무마취 가토 신장기능에 미치는 Atrial Natriuretic Factor의 영향)

  • Lee, June-K.;Cho, Kyung-W.
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.103-124
    • /
    • 1986
  • Since it has been suggested that atrial receptor may be involved in the mechanism of extracellular volume regulation, it was shown that the granularity of atrial cardiocytes can be changed by water and salt depletion, and that an extract of cardiac atrial tissue, when injected intravenously into anesthetized rats, was shown to cause a large and rapid increase in renal excretion of sodium. Various natriuretic peptides were isolated and synthetized, and the effects were investigated by many workers. Most studies, however, have been carried out under anesthesia and there have teen some controversies over direct effect of the factor on the renal function. Therefore, it was attempted in this study to access the effects of an atrial extract and a synthetic natriuretic factor in unanesthetized rabbits. Intrarenal arterial infusion of atrial extract caused a rapid increase of urinary volume and excretion of sodium. Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were both increased with no change in filtration fraction. The ventricular extract produced no change in urinary excretion of electrolytes, nor in renal hemodynamics. Intrarenal infusion of synthetic atrial natriuretic factor caused increases of renal excretory rate of sodium, chloride and potassium, and $FE_{Na}$. Glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow increased. And free water clearance also increased. Accentuated excretory function correlated well with increased glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow during infusion and for 10 minutes following the cessation of the infusion. Renin secretion rate decreased during constant infusion of atrial natriuretic factor. However, no correlation was found with the changes in glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, or urinary excretion of sodium. These results suggest that atrial extract or atrial natriuretic factor induces changes in renal hemodynamics, as in excretion of electrolytes either indirectly through hemodynamic changes or directly by inhibiting tubular reabsorption. At the same time, renin secretory function is affected by the factor possibly through an unknown mechanism.

  • PDF

What is the Appropriate Infusion Rate during Whitaker Test in Children? (소아 Whitaker 검사시에 적절한 관류속도는?)

  • Chung, Ky-Hyun;Lee, Gyeong-Ik
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
    • /
    • v.2 no.2
    • /
    • pp.178-182
    • /
    • 1998
  • Purpose : The conventional Whitaker test assesses the renal pelvic pressure response to a constant infusion rate of 10 mL/min in adult and 5 mL/min in children. We evaluated whether the infusion rate,5 mL/min is appropriate during Whitaker test in children. Materials and Methods : The study included 3 children with unilateral hydronephrosis, whose diuretic renography results were equivocal to define the presence of urinary obstruction. The kidneys were perfused at increasing flow rates from lmL/min. Results : There were intrapelvic pressure increases $26\;cmH_2O$ at 3 mL/min, $50\;cmH_2O$ at 2 mL/min and $80\;cmH_2O$ at 3 mL/min infusion rate, respectively. There was no need to increase the infusion rate over 4 mL/min to get a positive Whitaker test. Conclusion : Our experience with Whitaker test at variable low flow rates (1-5 mL/min) confirmed its usefulness in differentiating obstructive from nonobstructive uropathy. We recommend the increasing infusion rate from 1 mL/min during Whitaker test in children.

  • PDF

ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF RETROGRADE INFUSION OF WATER-SOLUBLE CONTRAST MEDIA ON THE RABBIT SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND (수용성조영제의 주입이 가토악하선조직에 미치는 영향에 관한 전자현미경적 연구)

  • Kim Eun-Kyung;Park Tae-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Maxillofacial Radiology
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.123-135
    • /
    • 1987
  • The author observed the effects of retrograde infusion of water soluble contrast media (Tele- brix 30) on the rabbit submandibular glands and compared the effects of different degrees of filling. 26 rabbits were divided into 2 groups of 12 each as experimentals and I group of 2 as normal controls. One experimental group was filled with 0.2㎖ and the other with 0.4㎖. Right submandibular gland of each rabbit was infused with contrast media and left one with physiologic saline as a experimental control, at a constant rate of 0.12㎖/min. using an infusion pump via the main excretory duct. Immediately after the infusion of contrast media, oblique lateral radiographs of the glands were made with occlusal film in order to confirm the glandular filling. The rabbits were sacrificed after varying periods (1, 8, 24 hours and 3, 6, 10 days) and the tissues were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. The results were as follows: 1. In glands filled with 0.2㎖ contrast media, the initial changes were a few vacuole formation in the acini and slight dilation of the intralobular duct. The moderately severe changes such as vacuole formation in the acini, the abnormal substructure within the secretory granule, dilation of acinar and intercalated duct lumen, scalloping of striated duct lumen and inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed at 3 days. The general appearance was successively recovered, so the tissue had a normal appearance at 10 days. 2. In glands filled with 0.4㎖ contrast media, the most prominent alterations such as severe acinar atrophy, decreased number of secretory granules, proliferation of connective tissue stroma and pronounced inflammatory cell infiltrates appeared at 6 days. Although the general appearance returned to be almost normal at 10 days, acinar cells showed some atrophy and decreased secretory granules. 3. In glands subjected to 0.4㎖ infusion, the alterations were more severe and the recovery was slower than those seen in the glands to 0.2㎖ infusion.

  • PDF

No Effect of Diltiazem on the Hepatic Clearance of Indocyanine Green in the Rats

  • Joo, Eun-Hee;Lee, Yong-Bok
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.411-417
    • /
    • 1998
  • In order to investigate the effect of the pretreatment with various doses of diltiazem (DTZ) on the pharmacokinetics of indocyanine green (ICG) at steady state, especially the hepatic blood clearance due to the change of hepatic blood flow, the following experiments were carried out with ICG, a hepatic function test marker, not metabolized in liver and only excreted in bile. The intravenous bolus injection ($3,780\mu\textrm{g}$/kg) and the constant-rate infusion ($10,100\mu\textrm{g}$/kg/hr) of ICG into the left femoral vein were made in order to check the steady-state plasma concentration ($C_{ss} of $10\mu\textrm{g}$/ml) of ICG at 20, 25 and 30 min. Following a 90-min washout period, the intravenous bolus injection (108, 430, 860 and $1,720\mu\textrm{g}$/kg) and the constant-rate infusion (108, 433, 866 and $1,730\mu\textrm{g}$/kg/hr) of DTZ into the right femoral vein were made and the achievement of the steady-state plasma levels ($C_{ss} of 50, 200, 400 and 800 ng/ml) of DTZ were conformed at 60, 70 and 80 min. During the steady state of DTZ, the intravenous bolus injection ($3,780\mu\textrm{g}$/kg) and the constant-rate infusion ($10,200\mu\textrm{g}$/kg/hr) of ICG into the left femoral vein were made and also the steady-state plasma concentration of ICG was checked at 20, 25 and 30 min. The plasma concentrations of DTZ and ICG were determined using a high performance liquid chromatographic technique. At the steady state, the hepatic blood clearance of ICG was obtained from the plasma concentration and blood-to-plasma concentration ratio ($R_B$) of ICG. The pretreatment with various doses of DTZ did not influence the plasma concentrations, $R_B$ and plasma free fraction ($f_p$) of ICG. So the hepatic blood clearance of ICG was independent of concentration of DTZ. The hepatic blood clearance of ICG could be affected by both hepatic bood flow and hepatic intrinsic clearance. But there was no change of the hepatic blood clearance of ICG between the control and the DTZ-pretreated rats in this study. So it may be suggested that DTZ does not influence hepatic blood flow.

  • PDF