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Route Optimization Scheme for Mobile Content Sources in Content Centric Networking

  • Lee, Jihoon;Rhee, Eugene
    • Journal of information and communication convergence engineering
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.22-27
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    • 2020
  • Content centric networking (CCN) is regarded as promising internet architecture because it can provide network efficiency in terms of bandwidth consumption by separating contents from a specific network location and decrease network congestion events. However, the application of a CCN does not widely consider the side effects of mobile devices, particularly mobile content sources. For content source mobility, a full routing update is required. Therefore, in this study, a route optimization scheme is proposed for mobile content sources in a CCN environment to provide low communication overhead, short download time, and low resource consumption. The proposed scheme establishes a direct path between content requesters and a mobile content source for the exchange of interest and data packets using interest-piggybacked data packets. Based on the inherent CCN naming characteristics, the content source does not know the name prefix of the content consumer, and thus the proposed optimized CCN scheme utilizes the content router in the home domain of the content source.

Study on the Preparation and Characterization of Ophthalmic Polymer with High and Low-Water Content

  • Lee, Min-Jae;Sung, A-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.61 no.6
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    • pp.346-351
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    • 2017
  • This study was planned considering the chain length, hydrophilicity, and hydrophobicity of the additives to be used in the polymerization, while various ophthalmic lenses that use various additives with similar water contents were manufactured before their optical and physical properties were compared and analyzed. With regard to the additives required for manufacturing high-, medium-, and low-water content lens groups, HEA (hydroxyethyl acrylate), PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone), and NMV(N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide) were used as additives for preparing the high-water content lens group, HEMA(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), HPMA(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) and BD(1,4-butanediol) were used for the medium-water content lens group. For the low-water content lens group, BMA(buthyl methacrylate), BDDA(1,4-butanediol diacrylate), and Bis-GMA(bisphenol A glycerolate diacrylate) were used, respectively. The average water content of HEA was 40.14%; that of PVP, 39.63%; and that of NMV, 40.52%. The mean of water content was 35.92% for HEMA, 35.74% for BD, and 34.62% for HPMA. For the low-water content lens group, the mean of water content was 26.69% for BMA, 27.76% for BDDA, and 26.14% for Bis-GMA. With regard to the results of the water content measurement using a moisture analyzer, the average water content of the high-water content lens group was 41.34% for HEA, 42.62% for PVP, and 42.73% for NMV. Finally, for the low-water content lens group, the average water content was 28.62% for BMA, 28.82% for BDDA, and 28.32% for Bis-GMA. The measurements of the water contents of the lenses using the two methods showed that the water content and refractive index of the lenses were similar in all the lens groups. The measurements of the contact angles, however, showed a different wettability value for each lens with a similar water content. Also, the change tendency of the lens curvature according to the change of time showed that the change amount became larger and the recovery time became longer from the lens samples with a lower water content to those with a higher water content. Based on these results that will be helpful for the study of ophthalmic lenses.

Effects of Strawberry Puree and Red Pepper Powder Contents on Physicochemical Properties of Kochujang Analyzed Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Lee, Jun-Ho;Kim, Hui-Jeong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.231-236
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    • 2008
  • Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the analysis and optimization of the production process of strawberry Kochujang. Experiments were carried out according to a central composite design, selecting strawberry puree content and red pepper powder content as independent variables and soluble solids content, moisture content, water activity, color characteristics ($L^*-$, $a^*-$, and $b^*$-values) as response variables. The polynomial models developed by RSM were highly effective for describing the relationships between the study factors and the responses. Kochujang containing a higher amount of red pepper powder had a higher soluble solids content; on the contrary, soluble solids content decreased with the increase in the strawberry puree content in the sample. Moisture content increased with increased strawberry puree content but decreased with increased red pepper powder content. Water activity increased with the increase in strawberry puree content in the sample but was less affected by the amount of red pepper powder content. Decreases in $L^*$-values with increasing amount of red pepper powder were noted. $a^*$-values decreased with the increases in red pepper powder content but increased with the increase in strawberry puree content in the Kochujang formulation. $b^*$-values decreased with the increases in red pepper powder content but was less affected by the strawberry puree content. Overall optimization, conducted by overlaying the contour plots under investigation, was able to point out an optimal range of the independent variables within which the six responses were simultaneously optimized. The point chosen as representative of this optimal area corresponded to strawberry puree content=14.36% and red pepper powder content=11.33%, conditions under which the model predicted soluble solids content=$59.31^{\circ}Brix$, moisture content=45.30% (w.b.), water activity=0.758, $L^*$-value=24.81, $a^*$-value=7.250, and $b^*$-value=10.19.

Efficient Content Delivery Method in Wireless Content-Centric Network (무선 Content-Centric Network에서 효과적인 콘텐츠 전달 방식)

  • Park, Chan-Min;Kim, Byung-Seo
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 2017
  • Recently, researches to adopt Content-centric network (CCN), which is one of the promising technologies for replacing TCP/IP-based networks, to wireless networks has actively performed. However, because of erroneous and unreliable channel characteristics, there are many problems to be resolved to adopt CCN to wireless networks. This paper proposes a method to reduce content download time because nodes possess only parts of content chunks. The proposed method enables a node having parts of content chunks to request the rest of parts of content chunks to a provider before a Consumer requests the content. As a consequence, the content download time is reduced.

Content Distribution for 5G Systems Based on Distributed Cloud Service Network Architecture

  • Jiang, Lirong;Feng, Gang;Qin, Shuang
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.9 no.11
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    • pp.4268-4290
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    • 2015
  • Future mobile communications face enormous challenges as traditional voice services are replaced with increasing mobile multimedia and data services. To address the vast data traffic volume and the requirement of user Quality of Experience (QoE) in the next generation mobile networks, it is imperative to develop efficient content distribution technique, aiming at significantly reducing redundant data transmissions and improving content delivery performance. On the other hand, in recent years cloud computing as a promising new content-centric paradigm is exploited to fulfil the multimedia requirements by provisioning data and computing resources on demand. In this paper, we propose a cooperative caching framework which implements State based Content Distribution (SCD) algorithm for future mobile networks. In our proposed framework, cloud service providers deploy a plurality of cloudlets in the network forming a Distributed Cloud Service Network (DCSN), and pre-allocate content services in local cloudlets to avoid redundant content transmissions. We use content popularity and content state which is determined by content requests, editorial updates and new arrivals to formulate a content distribution optimization model. Data contents are deployed in local cloudlets according to the optimal solution to achieve the lowest average content delivery latency. We use simulation experiments to validate the effectiveness of our proposed framework. Numerical results show that the proposed framework can significantly improve content cache hit rate, reduce content delivery latency and outbound traffic volume in comparison with known existing caching strategies.

Multi-path Routing Policy for Content Distribution in Content Network

  • Yang, Lei;Tang, Chaowei;Wang, Heng;Tang, Hui
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.2379-2397
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    • 2017
  • Content distribution technology, which routes content to the cache servers, is considered as an effective method to reduce the response time of the user requests. However, due to the exponential increases of content traffic, traditional content routing methods suffer from high delay and consequent inefficient delivery. In this paper, a content selection policy is proposed, which combines the histories of cache hit and cache hit rate to collaboratively determine the content popularity. Specifically, the CGM policy promotes the probability of possible superior paths considering the storage cost and transmission cost of content network. Then, the content routing table is updated with the proportion of the distribution on the paths. Extensive simulation results show that our proposed scheme improves the content routing and outperforms existing routing schemes in terms of Internet traffic and access latency.

A Study on the Improvement of Digital Content Distribution System - The Focus of Digital Content Transaction Authentication System - (디지털콘텐츠 유통 활성화를 위한 제도개선방안 연구 - 디지털콘텐츠 거래인증제도를 중심으로 -)

  • O, Sang-Hun;Ham, Jeong-Hun;Park, Yeo-Won;Lee, Yong-Gyu
    • 한국디지털정책학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.45-57
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    • 2003
  • In recent years, the number of digital content transaction has increased dramatically, in main, owing to the innovation of IT technology. At the same time, it creates new problems which have never been found in traditional transactions. Especially, due to the easy-copy characteristics of digital content, the illegal usage of digital content proliferates. Also the conflicts between seller an d buyer in digital content transactions on cyberspace market take place frequently because contracts were made without face-to-face discussion. The increase of illegal usage and conflict in digital content market would diminish motivation of creators for their work, furthermore break down digital content market on cyberspace. Digital content transaction authentication system would play an important role in creating sound digital content market. Especially, it would make big contribution to reducing the number of conflict between seller and buyer. In this context, the main objective of this study is to suggest operational model of digital content transaction authentication and to explain critical success factors in organizing digital content transaction authentication system.

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A Study about Data Broadcasting Sub-Content Architecture Model in Bi-directional Broadcasting Environment (양방향 데이터 방송 환경에서의 부가 영상 콘텐츠 제작 모델 연구)

  • Oh, Jung-Min;Moon, Nam-Mee
    • Journal of The Institute of Information and Telecommunication Facilities Engineering
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2009
  • The demand of digital broadcasting via networks has increased slowly in spite of the development of bidirectional broadcasting service technology and the effort of revitalization are actively performed nowadays. There are some reasons that the content differentiation is necessary. First, bidirectional digital broadcasting has no special content that attracts public attention. Second, bidirectional video content such as UCC is expected to revitalize economy due to simplification of authoring tool and user's desire to communicate interactively. So this paper proposes the data broadcasting sub-content architecture model by scenario using original data broadcasting content. At the same time, we design the content object metadata schema from the analysis of original data broadcasting content. It is restricted by 25 metadata in order to make it more smoothly working contents under the ubiquitous environment. This proposal is expected to affect the revitalization of content development and find out new sub-content model by rework original content.

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A Content-Name Encoding Scheme for CCN (콘텐츠 중심 네트워킹의 콘텐츠 이름 인코딩 기법)

  • Kim, DaeYoub
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.697-705
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    • 2014
  • For enhancing network efficiency, content-centric networking (CCN) allows network nodes to temporally cache a transmitted response message(Data) and then to directly respond to a request message (Interest) for previously cached contents. Also, CCN is designed to utilize a hierarchical content-name for transmitting Interest/Data instead of a host identity like IP address. This content-name included in Interest/Data reveals both content information itself and the structure of network domain of a content source which is needed for transmitting Interest/Data. To make matters worse, This content-name is human-readable like URL. Hence, through analyzing the content-name in Interest/Data, it is possible to analyze the creator of the requested contents. Also, hosts around the requester can analyze contents which are asked by the requester. Hence, for securely implementing CCN, it is essentially needed to make the content-name illegible. In this paper, we propose content-name encoding schemes for CCN so as to make the content-name illegible and evaluate the performance of our proposal.

Content Modeling Based on Social Network Community Activity

  • Kim, Kyung-Rog;Moon, Nammee
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.271-282
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    • 2014
  • The advancement of knowledge society has enabled the social network community (SNC) to be perceived as another space for learning where individuals produce, share, and apply content in self-directed ways. The content generated within social networks provides information of value for the participants in real time. Thus, this study proposes the social network community activity-based content model (SoACo Model), which takes SNC-based activities and embodies them within learning objects. The SoACo Model consists of content objects, aggregation levels, and information models. Content objects are composed of relationship-building elements, including real-time, changeable activities such as making friends, and participation-activity elements such as "Liking" specific content. Aggregation levels apply one of three granularity levels considering the reusability of elements: activity assets, real-time, changeable learning objects, and content. The SoACo Model is meaningful because it transforms SNC-based activities into learning objects for learning and teaching activities and applies to learning management systems since they organize activities -- such as tweets from Twitter -- depending on the teacher's intention.