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Detecting the Climate Factors related to Dry Matter Yield of Whole Crop Maize (사일리지용 옥수수의 건물수량에 영향을 미치는 기후요인 탐색)

  • Peng, Jing-lun;Kim, Moon-ju;Kim, Young-ju;Jo, Mu-hwan;Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi;Lee, Bae-hun;Ji, Do-hyeon;Kim, Ji-yung;Oh, Seung-min;Kim, Byong-wan;Kim, Kyung-dae;So, Min-jeong;Park, Hyung-soo;Sung, Kyung-il
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.261-269
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this research is to identify the significance of climate factors related to the significance of change of dry matter yield (DMY) of whole crop maize (WCM) by year through the exploratory data analysis. The data (124 varieties; n=993 in 7 provinces) was prepared after deletion and modification of the insufficient and repetitive data from the results (124 varieties; n=1027 in 7 provinces) of import adaptation experiment done by National Agricultural Cooperation Federation. WCM was classified into early-maturity (25 varieties, n=200), mid-maturity (40 varieties, n=409), late-maturity (27 varieties, n=234) and others (32 varieties, n=150) based on relative maturity and days to silking. For determining climate factors, 6 weather variables were generated using weather data. For detecting DMY and climate factors, SPSS21.0 was used for operating descriptive statistics and Shapiro-Wilk test. Mean DMY by year was classified into upper and lower groups, and a statistically significant difference in DMY was found between two groups (p<0.05). To find the reasons of significant difference between two groups, after statistics analysis of the climate variables, it was found that Seeding-Harvesting Accumulated Growing Degree Days (SHAGDD), Seeding-Harvesting Precipitation (SHP) and Seeding-Harvesting Hour of sunshine (SHH) were significantly different between two groups (p<0.05), whereas Seeding-Harvesting number of Days with Precipitation (SHDP) had no significant effects on DMY (p>0.05). These results indicate that the SHAGDD, SHP and SHH are related to DMY of WCM, but the comparison of R2 among three variables (SHAGDD, SHP and SHH) couldn't be obtained which is needed to be done by regression analysis as well as the prediction model of DMY in the future study.

Domestic and International Experts' Perception of Policy and Direction on STEAM Education (융합인재교육(STEAM)의 정책과 실행 방향에 대한 국내외 전문가들의 인식)

  • Jung, Jaehwa;Jeon, Jaedon;Lee, Hyonyong
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.358-375
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    • 2015
  • The purposes of this study were to investigate the value, necessity and legitimacy of STEAM Education and to propose practical approaching methods for STEAM Education to be applicable in Korea through a variety of literature review, case studies and collecting suggestions from domestic and international educational experts. The research questions are as follows: (1) To investigate the perception, understanding and recognitions of domestic and foreign professionals in STEAM education. (2) To analyze policy implications for an improvement in STEAM. The following aspects of STEAM were found to be challenges in our current STEAM policy after analyzing multiple questionnaires with the professionals and case studies including their experiences, understanding, supports and directions of the policy from the governments. The results indicate that (1) there was a lack of precise and conceptual understanding of STEAM in respect to experience. Training sessions for teachers in this field to help transform their perception is necessary. Development of practical programs with an easy access is also required. It is important to get the aims of related educational activities recognized by the professionals and established standards for an evaluation. The experts perceived that a theme-based learning is the most preferred and effective approaching method and the programs that develop creative thinking and learning applicable to practice are required to promote. (2) The results indicate that there was a lack of programs and inducements for supporting outstanding STEAM educators. It is shown that making an appropriate environment for STEAM education takes the first priority before training numbers of teachers unilaterally, thus securing enough budget seems critical. The professionals also emphasize on developing specialized teaching materials that include diverse inter-related subjects such as science technology, engineering, arts and humanities and social science with diverse viewpoints and advanced technology. This work requires a STEAM network for teachers to link up and share their materials, documents and experiences. It is necessary to get corporations, universities, and research centers participated in the network. (3) With respect to direction, it is necessary to propose policy that makes STEAM education ordinary and more practical in the present education system. The professionals have recommended training sessions that help develop creative thinking and amalgamative problem-solving techniques. They require reducing the workload of teachers and changing teachers' perspectives towards STEAM. They further urge a tight cooperation between departments of the government related with STEAM.

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Mechanisms for Anti-wrinkle Activities from Fractions of Black Chokeberries (블랙초크베리 분획물로부터의 주름억제 효과에 대한 작용기전)

  • Choi, Eun-Young;Kim, Eun-Hee;Lee, Jae-Bong;Do, Eun-Ju;Kim, Sang-Jin;Kim, Se-Hyeon;Park, Jeong-Yeol;Lee, Jin-Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.34-41
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    • 2016
  • Black chokeberries (scientific name Aronia melanocarpa) have been reported to have major effects due to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer capabilities. In this study, we investigated the anti- wrinkle effects of A. melanocarpa, including collagenase inhibition effects and their molecular biological mechanisms, such as oxidative stress-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and activator protein (AP)-1 expression and/or phosphorylation. In collagenase inhibition activity, the ethyl acetate fraction of black chokeberry (AE) was 77.2% at a concentration of 500 μg/ml, which was a significant result compared to that of Epigallocatechin gallate (positive control, 83.9% in 500 μg/ml). In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, the AE produced 78% of ROS in 10 μg/ml and 70% of ROS in 75 μg/ml, which was a much lower percentage than the ROS production of H2O2-induced CCRF S-180II cells. In the MTT assay, cell viability was increased dose-dependently with AE in H2O2-induced cells. In protein expression by western blot assay, the AE suppressed the expression and phosphorylation of MMPs (MMP-1, -3, -9), MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38), and AP-1 (c-Fos and c-Jun), and expressed the pro-collagen type I in H2O2-induced cells. These results suggest that black chokeberries have anti-wrinkle and collagen-production effects, and they may be used in applications for material development in the functional food and cosmetic industries.

A Study on Management Present and Improvements of National Records Designation System (국가지정기록물 관리현황과 개선방안 연구)

  • Choi, Jae-Ho;Lee, Young-Hak
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.47
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    • pp.51-93
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    • 2016
  • This study is on management present and improvements on National Records Designation System. National Records Designation System is a system that supports management and preservation of changes of records designated by the government through consideration that such records are worth preserving permanently nationally among records acquired by individual or organization. This system is meaningful in a way that it established systematic foundation to hand down by informatizing historic private records which are in danger to be lost or damaged due to lack of proper care. However, compared to the number of designated records, the information that could be practically drawn from such records are limited. This triggered this study to be launched. National Archive sometimes promotes designation and management of National Designated records. Yet archival information service offering access of user to national designated records are very rare. I conducted survey and interview of managers, field research, and documentary research of 10 records holding institution that keeps national designated records currently. I considered that current management status of National Records Designation System can be figured out minutely through these research. As a result of such research, most of the records holding institutions offered display as their least archival information service. The objective of records informatization was to utilize the records. Also further plans on information service related to records and various utilization were suggested. records holding institution manager did not give positive answer on effect of designating national designated records and cooperation between National Archive. Support to National Archive only focused on preservation. For national designated records holding institution designated after 2011 were not getting proper support. In addition, National Archive's support rarely met records holding institution's need. In such circumstances, things to consider for improvements of National Records Designation System is as following. First, designation of national designated records should be based on the utilization of the record. Each records holding institution's willingness to utilize corresponding records and National Archive's ability to draw the willingness out should be considered. Also, it shouldn't be left as mere complementary policy of National Archive's selecting policy. Second, for National Records Designation System to be managed permanently, it should be changed as the system that supports enhancement of private records management. The aim should point to the direction where private can manage and preserve the records on their own. Third, There needs to be changes on the subject and process of national designated records designation. National designated record is the record that was considered valuable by the government among private records. Thus, such records should be the best one to show private field. Accordingly, records that represent contemporary society and include various states and contents should be chosen to be designated. Moreover, public discussion be formed by citizens and related professionals in order to properly select the record.

A Case Study on Improvement of Records Management Reference Table by Reorganizing BRM : The case of Reorganization of Seoul's BRM and Records Management Reference Table (BRM 정비를 통한 기록관리기준표 개선사례 서울시 BRM 및 기록관리기준표 정비사례를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Se-Jin;Kim, Hwa-Kyoung
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.50
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    • pp.273-309
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    • 2016
  • Unlike other government agencies, the city of Seoul experienced a three-year gap between the establishment of a function classification system and the introduction of a business management system. As a result, the city has been unable to manage the current status of the function classification system, and this impeded the establishment of standards for records management. In September 2012, the Seoul Metropolitan Government integrated the department in charge of the standard sheet for record management with the department of function classification system into a new department: "Information Disclosure Policy Division." This new department is mainly responsible for record management and information disclosure, and taking this as an opportunity, the city government has pushed ahead with the maintenance project on BRM and Standards for Record Management (hereby "BRM maintenance project") over the past two years, from 2013 to 2014. The study was thus conducted to introduce the case for the improvement of standards for record management through the BRM maintenance project by mainly exploring the case of Seoul. During the BRM maintenance project, Seoul established a unique methodology to minimize the gap between the operation of a business management system and the burden of the person in charge of the BRM maintenance project. Furthermore, after the introduction of the business management system, the city government developed its own processes and applied the maintenance result to the system in close cooperation with the related departments, despite the lack of precedence on the maintenance of the classification system. In addition, training for the BRM managers of the department has taken place twice -before and after the maintenance-for the successful performance of the BRM maintenance project and the stable operation of the project in the future. During the period of maintenance, newsletters were distributed to all employees in an effort to induce their active participation and increase the importance of records management. To keep the performance of the maintenance project and to systematically manage BRM in the future, the city government has mapped out several plans for improvement: to apply the "BRM classification system of each purpose" to the service of the "Seoul Open Data Plaza"; to reinforce the function for task management in the business management system; and to develop the function of a records management system for the unit tasks. As such, the researchers hope that this study would serve as a helpful reference so that the organizations-which had planned to introduce BRM or to perform the maintenance project on classification system-experience fewer trials and errors.

Assessing Relative Importance of Laver Attributes for Infants Using Conjoint Analysis (컨조인트 분석을 이용한 영유아 김 선택 속성의 상대적 중요도 분석)

  • Lee, Ho-Jin;Lee, Min-A;Park, Hye-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.894-902
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the attributes considered as important by parents in the selection of laver for infants through conjoint analysis techniques. A total of 917 questionnaires were distributed in January 2016, of which 211 were completed (23.0%). Statistical data analyses were performed using SPSS/Win 21.0 for descriptive statistics and conjoint analysis. The conjoint design was applied to evaluate the hypothetical laver for infants. According to the analysis of attributes and levels of laver for infants, the relative importance of each attribute was follows: seasoning (26.55%), flavor (19.33%), texture (18.75%), oil (15.15%), size (10.61%), and certification (9.61%). The results of the conjoint analysis indicate that parents raising infants preferred laver with the characteristics of non-seasoning, general flavor, softness, half-size, organic certification, and perilla oil. The most preferred laver for infants gained a 53.7% potential market share from choice simulation compared with laver being sold. Using utility and relative importance, the laver market for infants was classified into two segments. As a result of market segmentation, parents of cluster 1 preferred the laver model being sold (soy seasoning) while parents of cluster 2 preferred the optimized laver model (non-seasoning).

The Role of Archives and Archivists in the Period of Transformation into Supranationalism from Nationalism for the Purpose of Permanent Peace: Focused on the Establishment of European Community Archives and the Activities of the German Archivists for the Redressing the Common European Past (영구평화를 위한 초국가주의 역사로의 전환기 아카이브즈와 아키비스트의 역할: 유럽연합 아카이브즈 설립과정과 유럽차원의 과거사 청산을 위한 독일 아키비스트들의 역할을 중심으로)

  • Noh, Meung-Hoan
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.23
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    • pp.227-256
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    • 2010
  • This paper has two aims (1) to address the common European past by way of considering the development of the official archives of the European Union; and (2) to give specific attention to the activities of archivists in Germany. The EU archives contain the all the documents officially recording the common history of European integration from the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951. It was at the beginning of the 1980s, thirty years after the production of these documents, however, that the Archives of the European Community (EC) began to be systematized for public use when the European University Institute in Florence in Italy was chosen as the deposit location for the archive. After the coming into effect of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the EC Archives were renamed as the EU Archives. Through the cooperation of the national archives of the each Member State of the EU with this EC Archives common norms regarding deposit were developed. This archives is a veritable gold mine for serious research into all and any official aspect of the institutional and policy history of today's EU, so for the formation of common European identity. The denazification process using the evidence of the archives contributed to the orientation of the New Germany towards Europe. The German archives then have been contributing to the redressing the past to a significant degree since after the Second World War. More recently, the establishment of the "Memory, Responsibility, and Future" Foundation in 2000 in Germany made possible cooperations with the archives of the East European countries and especially for the purpose of the providing evidence about former enforced workers under the Nazi regime. There has thus been developed European-wide networks among archives. These developments have furthered the common redressing of the European past and this process in turn has been contributing the enhancing the European spirit and identity. The thesis of this paper then is that historical research based on the EU archives and individual Member States can not only illuminate in great detail the stages of the history of European integration to date. The dissemination of such research can itself contribute to the process of the spreading of supranational ideas beyond Europe to other regions of the world.

Composition and Development of Archival Content Service for Teaching-learning Materials (교수·학습자료용 기록정보 콘텐츠 서비스의 구성 및 개발)

  • Shim, Sungbo
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.16
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    • pp.201-256
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    • 2007
  • Nowadays Korean main archives and manuscript repositories are planning to develop archival information service for students and teachers in their web sites. This study is aimed at discovering main issues of developing archival information service for students and teachers and finding a solution. The goal of archival information service for students and teachers is the promotion of use through launching service and the gradual growth of archival management program. The customer group is segmented into the students and teachers who are learning and teaching Korean history in classroom. As a result of analyzing curriculum and educational environment, the archival information must be developed into teaching-learning materials. And the processing archival information into archival content is needed. Consequently the character of archival information service for students and teachers is conceptualized as archival content service for teaching-learning materials. At every step of developing archival content service for teaching-learning materials, the next main points are considered and achieved. First, the strategy of customer-focused service must be the same from beginning to end. Second, the growth of traditional archival management(e.g. classification, description and finding aids) must be contributed. Third, the collaboration system leading by professional education staff must be organized. Fourth, the archival information must be related with teaching-learning activities. Fifth, the quality of content is more important than the quantity of it. Sixth, the networking with another agencies for cooperation must be considered.

Status of the Constitutional Court Records Management and Improvement (헌법재판소 기록관리현황과 개선방안)

  • Lee, Cheol-Hwan;Lee, Young-Hak
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.38
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    • pp.75-124
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    • 2013
  • This study aims, by paying attention to the special values of records of Constitutional Court, to discuss the characteristics of them and figuring out their present state, and to suggest some measures for improvement in the records management. First of all, I defined the concept of the records of Constitutional Court and its scope, and made an effort to comprehend their types and distinct features, and on the basis of which I tried to grasp the characteristics of the records. Put simply, the records of Constitutional Court are essential records indispensible to the application of Constitutional Court's documentation strategy of them, and they are valuable particularly at the level of the taking-root of democracy and the guarantee of human rights in a country. Owing to their characteristics of handling nationally important events, also, the context of the records is far-reaching to the records of other constitutional institutions and administrations, etc. In the second place, I analyzed Records Management Present State. At a division stage, I grasped the present state of creation, registration, and classification system of records. At an archives repository stage, I made efforts to figure out specifically the perseveration of records and the present of state of using them. On the basis of such figuring-outs of the present situation of records of Constitutional Court, I pointed at problems in how to manage them and suggested some measures to improve it in accordance with the problems, by dividing its process into four, Infrastructure, Process, Opening to the public and Application. In the infrastructure process, after revealing problems in its system, facilities, and human power, I presented some ways to improve it. In terms of its process, by focusing on classification and appraisal, I pointed out problems in them and suggested alternatives. In classification, I suggested to change the classification structure of trial records; in appraisal, I insisted on reconsidering the method of appropriating the retention periods of administration records, for it is not correspondent with reality in which, even in an file of a event, there are several different retention periods so it is likely for the context of the event worryingly to be segmented. In opening to the public and application, I pointed at problems in information disclosure at first, and made a suggestion of the establishment of a wide information disclosure law applicable to all sort of records. In application, I contended the expansion of the possibility of application of records and the scope of them through cooperation with other related-institutions.

A Study on Process Model for Systematic Management of Archival Objects (행정박물의 체계적 관리를 위한 프로세스 구축방안)

  • Lee, Ye-Kyoung;Kim, Keum-Ei;Lee, Jin-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.17
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    • pp.157-202
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    • 2008
  • Archival Objects are defined as objects having historical, aesthetic, and artistic value as well as archival value created and used with a particular purpose in business process. Increasingly, many countries including Canada, Australia, China are recognized the importance of Archival Objects and designated them as national records. In Korea, Archival Objects are involved in national records through '2006 Plan for the Archives and Records Management Reform'. So National Archives and Records Service provided a foothold for comprehensive plan of national records management including Archival Objects. And also, by revising Records and Archives Management Act in 2007, National Archives and Records Service declared aggressive will to management Archival Objects. Until now, Objects held in public institution were easy to be damaged because definition or scope of Archival Objects was ambiguous and management system for material character wasn't exist. Even though the revised Records and Archives Management Act suggest definition and declare the responsibility of management, management system focused on various shape and material of objects need to be established. So this study has defined Archival Objects shortly and carried out a research 5 institutions on the actual management condition. By researching the result of institution survey, Records and Archives Management Act and actual Records Management System, we could find some problems. In solving these problems, We provide objects management process in the order capture ${\rightarrow}$ register ${\rightarrow}$ description ${\rightarrow}$ preservation ${\rightarrow}$ use${\rightarrow}$disposition. In addition, close cooperation between records center and museum of institution should be established for the unitive management at national level. This study has significance in introducing a base to manage Archival Objects systematically. By studying more, we hope to advance in management of valuable Archival Objects.