• Title, Summary, Keyword: coral communities

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Coral Reefs in Indonesia: A Review on Anthropogenic and Natural Disturbances

  • Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2007
  • Coral reefs are among the most dynamic and various ecosystems on tropical ecosystem. They provide a large number of important ecosystem services. Despite their importance, they appear to be one of the most susceptible marine ecosystems. Dramatic decreasing of coral reefs has been reported from every part of the world. Indonesia contains 18% of coral reefs of world's total. Unfortunately the status of coral reefs in Indonesia is already in critical and poor condition. Coral reefs communities in Indonesia are subjected to a variety of environmental disturbance. Threats to Indonesia's coral reefs resources can be divided into two main types: anthropogenic and natural disturbances. The major anthropogenic disturbances on coral reefs in Indonesia are destructive fishing, pollution, coastal development, mining and harvesting live fish and coral, tourism. The natural disturbances such as cyclones, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami and predator also contribute to coral reefs destruction in Indonesia. In my paper I tried to compare between natural and anthropogenic disturbances on coral reefs in Indonesia and raised these questions: (i) how the natural disturbances differ from anthropogenic area (ii) which type of disturbances has caused the greatest impact on coral reef ecosystem. My finding is that both of anthropogenic and natural disturbances give major impact on coral reefs in Indonesia. The important issue here is coral reef resilience could be disturbed by synergistic effects between various anthropogenic and natural disturbances. This phenomenon has significant conservation and management implication. The appropriate management should be conducted to protect coral reefs ecosystem in Indonesia. Mangrove management will succeed only when local people are involved and get sustainable benefits from mangrove ecosystem. Community based management and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are type of management that can be applied on coral reef ecosystems in Indonesia.

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The Conservation Value of Coral Communities in Moonseom Ecosystem Protected Area (문섬 등 주변해역 생태계보호구역 내 산호군락지의 보전가치)

  • Park, So-Yeon;Lee, Chang-Su;Kim, Min-Seop;Jo, In-Young;Yoo, Seung-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.101-111
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    • 2018
  • The Korean government has been trying to conserve a marine ecosystem that has been shifting due to climate change. As part of this effort, the government designated seventy-seven marine species that have been disappearing and deserve to be protected as endangered managing them specially. To generate basic data to guide policy for these endangered species, their value must be measured. OOf the species declared endangered, coral is particularly threatened by climate change, and its management is important. Accordingly, understanding the potential value of reefs, can be an effective way of proving the benefits of continuous management to decision makers and the general public alike. To this end, we have applied the contingent valuation method (CVM), an economic technique of for valuing a environmental and non-market goods such as a coral reef. A national face-to-face survey of 1,000 randomly selected households was conducted in order to determine the public's willingness to pay (WTP) for conserving coral reefs. A one-and-one-half-bound (OOHB) model was adopted to interpret WTP responses, and a spike model was employed to deal with zero WTP responses. The results show that the conservation value of a coral reef can be estimated at 3,016 won per household per year, statistically significant at the 1 % level. Expanding values to the national population gives an annual value of 58.9 billion won. We can conclude that the public is willing to pay a significant amount to conserve coral reefs.

Community Development and Community Leadership (지역사회 개발과 지역사회 리더십)

  • Lee, Sung
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 1998
  • Rural communities have been isolated from social and economic changes underway in the broader society. Trends towed an urbanized society have depopulated many rural areas (Flora, et al, 1992). The South Korean government has targeted efforts toward an urban centered economic development policy, which has neglected the rural areas. The South Korean government also has indoctrinated rural community development with a quick-fix approach. Self-directed economic organizations based in rural South Korea began to emerge in the late 1980s. Since the 1980s, South Korean agricultural sectors have been overshadowed by globalism. McMichael (1996) stated that rural communities have two options. A immunity should either End its niche (i.e. the commodities or products that can have advantages in the international trade market) or protest against globalism to survive if rural communities fail to find a niche under globalism. South Korean neat communities did not have enough natural resources nor enough money to invest for their rural community economic development programs. These limitations made it difficult for South Korean coral communities to compete in a global economic environment. Israel, Coleman, and Ilvento (1993) stated that local leadership is a critical component in the ability of communities to respond to lang-standing problems and emerging needs. Swinth and Alexander (1990) asserted that rural leaders are critical actors in rural community development. Whether rural communities succeed in finding their niche or not, the role of rural community leaders is important for rural communities to find ways to cope in the international agriculture market.

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Biogeographical Distribution and Diversity of Bacterial Communities in Surface Sediments of the South China Sea

  • Li, Tao;Wang, Peng
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.602-613
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    • 2013
  • This paper aims at an investigation of the features of bacterial communities in surface sediments of the South China Sea (SCS). In particular, biogeographical distribution patterns and the phylogenetic diversity of bacteria found in sediments collected from a coral reef platform, a continental slope, and a deep-sea basin were determined. Bacterial diversity was measured by an observation of 16S rRNA genes, and 18 phylogenetic groups were identified in the bacterial clone library. Planctomycetes, Deltaproteobacteria, candidate division OP11, and Alphaproteobacteria made up the majority of the bacteria in the samples, with their mean bacterial clones being 16%, 15%, 12%, and 9%, respectively. By comparison, the bacterial communities found in the SCS surface sediments were significantly different from other previously observed deep-sea bacterial communities. This research also emphasizes the fact that geographical factors have an impact on the biogeographical distribution patterns of bacterial communities. For instance, canonical correspondence analyses illustrated that the percentage of sand weight and water depth are important factors affecting the bacterial community composition. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of adequately determining the relationship between geographical factors and the distribution of bacteria in the world's seas and oceans.

Ectomycorrhizal Roots Collected from the Bases of the four Edible Basidiocarps Around Mt. Wol Ak

  • Lee, Sang-Sun;Kim, Dong-Hun;Chung, Hung-Chae
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2000
  • The ectomycorrhizal roots were collected from the soils around the bases of basidiocarps of the four edible mushrooms in the stands of Pinus densiflora or Querus acutissima communities (Mt. Wol-Ak in Eastern Chung-Puk): The basidiocarps of Tricholoma matsutake (TM), Sarcodon asparatus (SA), S. imbricatum (SI), and Polyozellus multiplex (PM) are usually collected. The ectomycorrhizal roots of TM, PM and SI were related to the roots of P. densiflora, but the other to the roots of Q. acutissima in Korea. Particularly, the basidiocarps of PM were collected in the mixed stand of both P. densiflora and Q. acutissima. The morphologies of the ectomycorrhizal roots were observed to be the yellowish brown coral (dichromatous) or pyramid types in the roots of the pine, but dark brown un-branched sticks (roots) in the ends of ectomycorrhizal roots of Querus plants. The un-branched roots were covered with the dark mycelia (rhizomorph) around them. Therefore, the ectomyorrhizal roots of PM were observed to have two kinds of types; The single blackish un-branched roots were observed to be attached to the yellowish coral type roots. The bundles of TM mycelia were filled with cortical cells (in the roots of P. densiflora), but the mycelia of the other fungi (Aphylloporales) were massed between the cortical cells of P. densiflora or Q. acutissima. Their anatomical and gross features were considered to be simailar but very important in the ectomycorrhizal roots for these edible mushrooms.

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Directions for Professional Development of Agricultural Extension Educators in Korea (농촌지도공무원(農村指導公務員)의 전문성(專門性) 향상(向上) 방안(方案))

  • Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.147-163
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    • 1994
  • Agricultural extension programs in Korea had focused mainly on increased production, and the biggest pride of extension was the achievement of rice self-sufficency in 1970s and abundant vegetable and animal production in 1980s. Farming in Korea has changed rapidly in recent years and extension system on commercialized crops have not been satisfactorily developed to mete farmers` demands. Facing the emerging challenges of international competition and trade liberalization for agricultural commodities, the goals of extension should be focused on increased income and the welfare of coral communities. The transfering of agricultural extension educator from central government jobs to local ones has emerged recently under the trends of localization which resulted unstable job environment of extension educator. Intensive pre-service and in-service training of extension workers on current and advanced techologies are essential to upgrade the quality of extension services, and the future directions for professional development of agricultural extension educators in Korea were suggested as follows: 1. Establishing a national network on agricultural extension system to promote exchanges of information among counties and provinces, to conduct meetings and to publish information on agricultural extension. 2. Determining the implications of recent national and global trends on agricultural extension, and strenthening communication at local, national and international levels for an effective extension system in the era of localization, internationalization and globalization; 3. Recognizing the effect of number and quality of extension staff on the impact of extension and providing opportunities development and advancement of extension personnel through education, training, incentives and rewards; 4. Giving a higher priority to agricultural extension in national policies in order to ensure the adequacy of budgetary support and recognition of importance of extension by the ministries concerned and mass communications.

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Diversity and Chemical Defense Role of Culturable Non-Actinobacterial Bacteria Isolated from the South China Sea Gorgonians

  • Jiang, Peng;Zhang, Xiaoyong;Xu, Xinya;He, Fei;Qi, Shuhua
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.437-443
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    • 2013
  • The diversity of culturable non-actinobacterial (NA) bacteria associated with four species of South China Sea gorgonians was investigated using culture-dependent methods followed by analysis of the bacterial 16S rDNA sequence. A total of 76 bacterial isolates were recovered and identified, which belonged to 21 species of 7 genera, and Bacillus was the most diverse genus. Fifty-one percent of the 76 isolates displayed antibacterial activities, and most of them belonged to the Bacillus genus. From the culture broth of gorgonian-associated Bacillus methylotrophicus SCSGAB0092 isolated from gorgonian Melitodes squamata, 11 antimicrobial lipopeptides including seven surfactins and four iturins were obtained. These results imply that Bacillus strains associated with gorgonians play roles in coral defense mechanisms through producing antimicrobial substances. This study, for the first time, compares the diversity of culturable NA bacterial communities among four species of South China Sea gorgonians and investigates the secondary metabolites of gorgonian-associated B. methylotrophicus SCSGAB0092.

Species Identification and Molecular Phylogenetic Position of Korean Damselfishes (Pomacentridae: Chrominae) Based on DNA Bioinformation (DNA 생물정보를 이용한 한국산 자리돔과 어류의 분류 및 분자계통학적 위치)

  • Koh, Jeong Rack;Park, Yung Chul
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.274-285
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    • 2007
  • The subfamily Chrominae of damselfishes (Teleostei: Pomacentridae) includes the genus Chromis and Dascyllus. They are found throughout the tropical oceans and form a major component of coral reef communities. There are 5 species of the Chrominae currently recognized in Korea. This study was conducted to infer phylogenetic position of two Korean Chromis species and one Dascyllus species within general category of their each genus in worldwide level. This study also includes one species of Japanese Dascyllus. In the phylogenetic analysis, the Japanese D. aruanus grouped with D. aruanus previously reported from French Polynesia. Korean Chromis fumea grouped with Australian C. nitida and the p-distance value between the two species is relatively very low (0.047). Korean C. notatus grouped together with C. flavomaculata (New Caledonia). In the sequence analysis of some Korean and Japanese damselfishes, there was no sequence variation between D. melanurus (Jeju, Korea) and D. melanurus (Indo-Pacific), but the sequences of the two populations were different in only one nucleotide sites from that of D. melanurus in Indonesian Archipelago. The sequences of Dascyllus aruanus (Japan) were different in two nucleotide sites from it in French Polynesia. There were high difference between the sequences of two Korean species, Chromis fumea and Korean C. notatus. The variations among mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences indicate that the gene sequence could be used as DNA barcode for identification of local populations of D. aruaus and D. melanurus as well as species level.