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Effects of Ammoniation or Supplementation of BHT, CTC, and Probiotics to Moldy Corn on the Performance of Broiler Chickens (곰팡이 쓴 옥수수를 사용할때 Ammonia 처리와 BHT, CTC, Probiotics의 첨가가 육계에 미치는 영향)

  • 남궁환;백인기
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.221-226
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    • 1986
  • In order to study the effect of feeding moldy corn in the feed and to compare the efficacy of several antidotical treatments, a feeding trial was conducted using broiler chickens. Ground yet low corn was adjusted to contain 20% moisture and then incubated at 35$^{\circ}C$ for 20 days. The number of fungi increased from 11${\times}$10$^4$/g to 42 10$\^$7/g on incubation but aflatoxins (B$_1$, B$_2$, G$_1$, G$_2$) were not detected by TLC test. Moldy corn was included in the experimental diets at the level of 7% with various treatments. Thirty six hatched male broiler chickens were divided into 6 groups and each group was placed for 4 weeks on one of the following treatments: Fresh corn, Moldy corn, Ammoniated (1.5%) moldy corn, Moldy corn+BHT (0.1%), Moldy corn CTC (100ppm) and Moldy corn+Probiotics. Weight gains of the birds fed Ammoniated moldy corn diet, Moldy corn+Probiotics dist and Moldy corn+CTC diet were greater by 6.1%. 7.6% and 3.9% respectively than those fed Moldy corn diet. The feed efficiencies of Moldy corn+Probiotics diet and Moldy corn+CTC diet were better than those of Moldy corn diet. Dry matter contents of the livers of the birds fed Ammoniated moldy corn diet, Moldy corn+BHT diet and Moldy corn diet were lower than those of other treatments. Proteion contents of the livers of the birds fed Moldy corn diet, Moldy corn +CTC diet and Moldy corn+BHT diet were lower than those of other treatments. Moldy corn tended to increase fat content of the livers.

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Yield and Nitrogen Uptake of Corn in Corn after Soybean Cropping

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Lee, Ho-Jin;Lee, Jin-Wook
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.266-271
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    • 2001
  • Soybean can produce high-N residue due to N-fixation, so soybean rotation may increase yield of subsequent corn and reduce N fertilizer on the corn fairly. To find out the contribution of nitrogen to subsequent corn following soybean cultivation, soil nitrate, corn yield, and nitrogen uptake were measured for three continuous corn cropping years after soybean rotation. Three N rates of 0, 80, and 160 kg/ha were applied to three continuous corn following soybean cropping. At 6-leaf stage, soil nitrate amount at the soil depth of 0-30cm ranged from 60 to 80 kgN/ha higher in the first corn cropping year than that in the second and third corn cropping years. Judging from corn N status such as SPAD value, N concentration of ear-leaf and stover at silking stage, N contribution of previous soybean to corn in the first corn year was N fertilizer of approximately 80 kg N/ha. Stover N uptake at silking stage increased from 47 to 52 kg N/ha at the 0, and 80 kg N/ha of N rates in the first corn cropping year compared with those in the second and third corn cropping years. Corn grain yield at the 0 kg N/ha of N rate was 6-7 ton/ha higher in the first corn cropping year than that in the second and third corn cropping years, respectively. When compared the first corn year following soybean cropping with the second and third corn cropping years, N uptake of grain and stover at harvest with low N rates such as 0 and 80 kg N/ha increased from 45 to 67kg N/ha, from 35 to 60 kg N/ha, respectively. N uptake of whole plant by soybean rotation increased from 93 to 118 kg N/ha in the first year compared with that in the second and third corn cropping years. However, the N contribution by soybean cropping was small in the second and third continuous corn cropping years. Therefore, it was concluded that the nitrogen fertilizer of 80-100 kg N/ha in the first corn cropping year could be saved by soybean rotation and annual alternative corn-soybean rotation could be the best rotation system.

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Studies on Corn-Legume intercropping System V. Effect of corn-legume intercropping system ondry matter yield and chemical composition in silage (Silage용 옥수수와 두과작물의 간작에 관한 연구 V. Silage용 옥수수 ( Zea mays L. ) 와 두과작물의 간작이 건물수량과 silage의 영양성분함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이성규
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.110-114
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    • 1990
  • Although corn is regarded as the most feasible forage corp, its relatively low content of protein is the critical we a kness for animal feeding. Many researches have been carried out to improve protein level in corn forage, however, there are no indicatable results but corn-legume intercropping. Plot test and proximate analysis were fullfill to compare dry matter yield and available nutrients of silage corn mono-culture system with those of corn-legume intercropping system of forage plant and silage. The MO culture system were observed by two stage of maturity, milk stage (Aug. 3), yellow stage (Aug. 24), and obtained following results. 1. Dry matter yields per 10 a at milk stage in corn mono-culture system was 596.2kg and corn-legume intercropping systems were 609.0 kg (corn-cowpea), 591.0 kg (corn-soybean) and 563.1 kg (corn-frenchbean), respectively. And comparable to them, 1508.9 kg (corn mono.), 1482.8 kg (corn-cowpea), 1482.6 kg (cornsoybean), 1379.1 kg (corn-frenchbean) were harvested at yellow stage. 2. The general trends of chemical composition by stages of maturity in corn mono-culture systems were higher than that of corn-legume intercropping system. 3. Crude protein content in corn-legume silages were significantly higher than corn mono-culture at yellow stage, except corn-frenchbean intercropping system. 4. Crude fiber content in corn-legume silage was higher than corn mono-culture silage harvested at yellow stage. 5. Consequently, corn-legume intercropping improved nutritional quality of silage than that of corn-monocultivated silage.

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Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

  • Qu, Yongli;Jiang, Wei;Yin, Guoan;Wei, Chunbo;Bao, Jun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.509-516
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    • 2013
  • This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05). Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05). The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

Effects of Unprocessed or Steam-flaked Corn Based Diets with or without Enzyme Additive on In Vivo Nutrient Digestibility and Distribution of Corn Particles in the Feces of Holstein Steers

  • Lee, S.Y.;Kim, W.Y.;Ko, J.Y.;Ha, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.708-712
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    • 2002
  • Effects of unprocessed (whole) or steam-flaked corn with or without enzyme additives on in vivo nutrient digestibilities and distribution of corn particles in the feces of Holstein steers were determined in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square experiment using four Holstein steers fed the diets containing 1) whole corn without enzyme additive, 2) whole corn with enzyme additive, 3) flaked corn without enzyme additive, or 4) flaked corn with enzyme additive. With regard to nutrient digestibilities such as DM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF, and ADF, no significant differences were detected among treatments, and also the nutrient digestibilities were not affected by the addition of enzyme additive. When distribution of corn particles in the feces was examined, there were no significant differences in the amount of 2, 8 mm and total corn particles. However, feeding flaked corn resulted in less corn particles (4 mm) in the feces than feeding whole corn (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in amounts of corn particles in the feces due to the addition of enzyme additive.

Variation of Growth and Yield of Silage Corn According to Maturity (숙기별 사일리지용 옥수수의 생육 및 수량변화)

  • 서종허;이호진
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out at Crop Experiment Station in 1993 and 1994. The objective of this study was finding out variation of growth and yield of corn according to maturity. Hybrids of corn used in this study were early maturing corn Comet80, Elite90, Royaldent IOOT, Royaldent T$\times$llO, P3525, P3394, medium maturing corn Royaldent 120T. and late maturing corn Jungbuok, P3144W. G4743. Stalk height, leaf number, ear weight, stover weight, and TDN yield of early maturing corn were linearly increased with prolonged maturity in 1993 growing season. Leaf number, and stover weight of early and late maturing corn were linearly increased with prolonged maturity in 1994 growing season. But ear weight of late manuring corn was not increased as much as that of early manuring corn with prolonged maturity. Increase of total DM and TDN yield of late maturing corn was due to stover weight increase compared with ear weight increase of early maturing corn. Leaf number and stover weight were highly correlated with silk (Growing Degree Days) GDD.

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Formation and Properties of Corn Zein Coated ${\kappa}-Carrageenan$ Films (Corn Zein을 코팅한 카라기난 필름의 제조 및 특성)

  • Rhim, Jong-Whan;Park, Jeong-Wook;Jung, Soon-Teck;Park, Hyun-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1184-1190
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    • 1997
  • Corn zein coated carrageenan films were manufactured by immersing preformed ${\kappa}-carrageenan$ films into solution of different concentrations of corn zein (CZ) solids (10, 20, and 30% in 95% ethyl alcohol) with polyethylene glycol (20% w/w of CZ), glycerol (24% w/w of CZ). For all types of films, water vapor permeability (WVP), water solubility (WS), swelling ratio (SR), tensile strength (TS), percent elongation at break (E), heat sealing strength (HS), and Hunter color values (L, a, and b) were determined. WVP of corn zein coated ${\kappa}-carrageenan$ films decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the concentration of com zein increase. Coating with corn zein also decreased film WS and SR linearly with the concentration of corn zein. TS of corn zein coated carrageenan films decreased linearly with corn zein concentration. All the com rein coated carrageenan films showed heat sealing properties even though their sealing strength was less than half of corn zein film. Obviously corn zein coating affected color of ${\kappa}-carrageenan$ films, which was mainly caused by increase in yellowness (Hunter b-value).

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Effect of Winter Annual Forage Crops on Growth , Yield and Quality of Silage Corn (추파사료작물이 사일리지용 옥수수의 생장 , 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • 김동암;김원호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.122-131
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted in 1991 and 1992 to determine the effects of winter annual forage corps such as winter rye (Secale cereale L.), rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera L.), oats (Auena satiua L.), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), vetch (Vicia satiua L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolim multiflorum Lam.) on subsequent growth, yield and quality of silage corn (Zea mays L.). The winter annual forage crops were seeded at the end of August and harvested in the fall and spring before corn planting. Corn-leaf numbers, plant heights and LA1 were generally reduced during early development when corn followed Italian ryegrass(P<0.05) and winter rye, but the silking date of corn was not affected by the winter annual forage crops. Corn dry matter and TDN yields were significantly reduced when corn followed Italian ryegrass and late maturing Kodiak winter rye. The yield reductions for corn following Italian ryegrass and Kodiak winter rye, relative to corn which did not follow the winter annual forage crops, were 49 and 19% respectively. but the corn yield was slightly improved by 2 and 3%, respectively. when corn followed crimson clover and vetch. No quality differences in corn stover were observed among the treatments except for the lowest ADF and NDF contents and the highest IVDMD where corn followed ltaliabn ryegrass.

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The Quality Characteristics of Rice-Corn Cakes (옥수수 가루를 첨가한 Rice-Corn Cakes의 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김영인
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.426-430
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of adding corn flour on the quality of rice cakes. Rice-corn cakes were prepared by adding corn flour at 25%, 50% and 75%, and the quality characteristics were measured. In the expansion ratio, springiness and cohesiveness of rice-corn cakes, the 25% group(C-25) was the highest and the 75% group(C-75) was the lowest. The higher the ratio of adding corn flour was, the lower the expansion ratio, springiness and cohesiveness were. In the hardness and chewiness of rice-corn cakes, the 75 % group(C-75) was the highest and the 25% group(C-25) was the lowest. But in the taste, texture and overall acceptance of rice-corn cakes, the 50% group(C-50) was the best.

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Effects of Processing Methods of Corn and their Thickness on in situ Dry Matter Degradability and in vitro Methane Production (옥수수 가공방법 및 두께가 in situ 건물 분해율과 in vitro 메탄 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Do Hyung;Lee, Chang Hyun;Woo, Yang Won;Rajaraman, Bharanidharan;Kim, Jong Nam;Cho, Kwang Hyeon;Jang, Sun Sik;Kim, Kyoung Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.308-314
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted with two ruminally cannulated Holstein steers to examine the effect of micronized and steam flaked corn on ruminal fermentation characteristics. The in situ dry matter degradability after 48 h incubation was the highest (P<0.05) at micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness) compared with steam flaked corn treatments. The steam flacked corn (3.3 mm thickness) was degraded lower (P<0.05) than the 2.9 and 3.1 mm thickness of steam flacked corn. Effective dry matter degradability and the rate of constant were the highest (P<0.05) at micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness) compared with steam flaked corns as well. The in vitro dry matter degradability after 48 h incubation was tended to higher (P=0.088) at micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness) than steam flaked corns, whereas there is no significantly difference between steam flaked corn treatments. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was higher at steam flaked corn (2.9 mm thickness) than micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness) and steam flaked corn (3.1 and 3.3 mm thickness). The acetate : propionate ratio was the highest (P=0.008) at steam flaked corn (2.9 mm thickness) and the lowest (P=0.008) at micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness). Total gas and methane production after 48h ruminal incubation was the highest (P=0.001) at micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness) compared with steam flaked corns. According to these results, the thickness of steam flaked corn as resulted corn processing is believed to do not affect methane production. However, further study is needed to better understand the present results to verify the correlation between corn processing method and their thickness on methane production using the same thickness corns by difference processing methods.