• Title, Summary, Keyword: crocus sativus

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Antioxidant Activities from Crocus sativus in China (중국(中國) 장홍화(藏紅花)(Crocus sativus)추출액(抽出液)의 항산화(抗酸化) 활성효과(活性效果))

  • Yang, Chao;Song, Won-Seob
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.131-131
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    • 2018
  • 중국(中國) 장홍화(藏紅花)는 해발 1500m~3000m에 자생하는 고원식물이다. 장홍화는 여성질환예방과 두뇌의 신경안정, 호르몬분비 촉진, 학습증진과 기억력향상에 의한 알츠하이머 치료의 효과가 있는 것으로 알려져 있으며, 함유되어 있는 크로신은 암세포를 파괴시키어 종양세포를 줄이는 작용을 하며, 카로티노이드 성분이 항산화 활성과 면역을 증진시키어 항암효과를 가져다 준다. 또한 다량의 칼륨을 함유하고 있어서 나트륨배출에 효과적이어서 혈압을 떨어뜨리는 작용을 한다. 또한 신경전달물질의 활동을 증진시키어서 스트레스 해소와 치매 및 인지력을 높여준다고도 알려져 있다. 본 실험에서는 장홍화(藏紅花)추출액의 총 폴리페놀 함량과 항산화 물질 활성을 조사했던 바, 장홍화(藏紅花) 메탄올과 에탄올추출액에서 항산화 반응이 매우 양호하였다. 또한 총 폴리페놀 함량도 에탄올 추출물과 메탄올 추출물 처리구에서도 비슷한 결과를 나타내었다. 이러한 결과들로 미루어 볼 때 장홍화(藏紅花)의 추출액은 건강음료와 화장품의 기능성원료로도 이용이 가능할 것으로 추측되었다.

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Beneficial Cardiovascular Effects Of Hydroalcoholic Extract From Crocus Sativus In Hypertension Induced By Angiotensin II

  • Plangar, Abdolali Faramarzi;Anaeigoudari, Akbar;KhajaviRad, Abolfazl;Shafei, Mohammad Naser
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Angiotensin II (AngII), a major product of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has important role in induction of hypertension and antihypertensive effect of several medicinal plant was mediated by effect on this agent. Therefore, this study examined the possible effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus (C. sativus) on hypertension induced by AngII. Methods: Six groups (n = 6) of rats were used as follow: 1) Control, 2) AngII (300 ng/kg), 3) Losartan (Los, 10 mg/kg) + AngII and 4-6) C. sativus extract (10, 20 & 40 mg/kg,) + AngII. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for recording cardiovascular parameters and drugs administration, respectively. All drugs were injected intravenously (i.v). Los and all doses of C. sativus injected 10 min before AngII. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded throughout the experiment and those peak changes (${\Delta}$) were calculated and compared to control and AngII. Results: AngII significantly increased ${\Delta}MAP$, ${\Delta}SBP$ and ${\Delta}HR$ than control (P < 0. 01 to P < 0.001) and these increments were significantly attenuated by Los. All doses of C. sativus significantly reduced peak ${\Delta}MAP$, ${\Delta}SBP$, and ${\Delta}HR$ than AngII group (P < 0. 05 to P < 0.001). In addition, peak ${\Delta}MAP$, ${\Delta}SBP$ in doses 10 and 20 were significant than Los + AngII group (P<0.05 to P< 0.01) but in dose 40 only MAP was significant (P<0.05). Peak ${\Delta}HR$ in all doses of C sativus was not significant than Los+ AngII. Conclusion: Regarding the improving effect of the C. sativus extract on AngII induced hypertension, it seems that this ameliorating effect partly mediated through inhibition of RAS.

Antioxidant Activities from Crocus sativus and Rhodiola saccharinensis in China (중국(中國) 장홍화(藏紅花)과 홍경천(紅景天) 혼합추출액(混合抽出液)의 항산화물질(抗酸化物質) 활성(活性))

  • Yang, Chao;Chen, Yuan-Tao;Song, Won-Seob
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.130-130
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    • 2018
  • 중국 장홍화는 해발 1500m~3000m에 자생하는 고원식물이다. 장홍화에 함유되어 있는 크로신은 암세포를 파괴시키어 종양세포를 줄이는 작용을 하며, 카로티노이드 성분이 항산화 활성과 면역을 증진시키어 항암효과를 가져다 준다. 또한 다량의 칼륨을 함유하고 있어서 나트륨배출에 효과적이어서 혈압을 떨어뜨리는 작용을 한다. 중국 홍경천은 극한의 생육환경으로 고산병 예방, 피로회복, 작업능력향상, 운동능력향상과 세균의 저항력향상, 진정작용과 강심작용, 조혈작용, 항산화작용등이 신경전달물질의 활동을 증진시키어서 스트레스 해소와 치매 및 인지력을 높여준다고 알려져 있다. 본 실험에서는 홍경천과 장홍화 혼합추출액의 총 폴리페놀 함량과 항산화 물질 활성을 조사했던 바, 홍경천과 장홍화 혼합추출액에서 양호한 반응을 보였다. 또한 에탄올 추출물과 메탄올 추출물 처리구에서도 매우 양호한 항산화 반응을 나타내었다.

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PCR-based Identification of Aflatoxigenic Fungi Associated with Iranian Saffron

  • Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh;Bahrami, Ahmad Reza;Mortazavi, Seyed Ali;Forghani, Bita;Bahreini, Maesoomeh
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1038-1041
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    • 2009
  • Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by the aflatoxigenic fungi in suitable conditions. Saffron, Crocus sativus, is the most expensive spice in the world. Saffron is normally contaminated with soil and hand microflora during harvest and post-harvest operations. In this study, rapid assessment of aflatoxigenic fungi in saffron was accomplished using polymerase chain reaction. In total, 37 market samples were assayed in order to isolate aflatoxin-producing fungi. The 18.9% of the total samples were contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi. Our results also show that most of the isolated fungi were saprophytes which are normally originated from soil during harvest and postharvest process.

Antioxidant Activities from Crocus sativus and Citrus spp. in China (중국(中國) 장홍화(藏紅花)와 유품종(柚品種)(Citrus spp.)의 혼합출액의 항산화활성(抗酸化活性))

  • Yang, Chao;Song, Won-Seob
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.129-129
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    • 2018
  • 중국(中國) 장홍화(藏紅花)는 크로신과 카르티노이드,안토시아닌등의 성분함량으로 혈관질환 예방과 항암작용, 두뇌의 신경안정, 호르몬분비 및 학습증진에 효과가 있는 것으로 알려져 있다. 이러한 장홍화는 중국의 고원지대에서 자생하는 것으로 생산량이 적어서 고가에 판매되고 있다. 비타민 C가 레몬보다 10배나 많이 함유되어 있는 중국유(中國柚)는 과피가 일반 감귤류 보다 10배 이상 두꺼워 비타민P가 다량으로 함유되어 있다. 즉, 유기산, 비타민P와 비타민C가 매우 많이 함유되어 있어서 예로부터 중국에서는 감기와, 피부노화, 피로를 방지하는데 사용되어져 왔다. 그밖에 비타민B군과 당질, 단백질등이 다른 감귤류 품종보다 많고, 모세혈관을 보호하는 헤스페리딘(비타민P)이 다량으로 함유되어 있어서 심혈관 질환 장애와 뇌졸증, 뇌출혈 등을 억제하는 효과를 가지고 있다. 또한 몸 안에 쌓여 있는 노폐물 등을 밖으로 배출시켜주는 효과가 양호하여 피부미용에 효과가 있는 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 실험에서는 중국장홍화(中國藏紅花)와 유(柚)의 혼합추출액 의 항산화활성과 총폴리페놀 함량을 조사하였던 바, 중국(中國) 장홍화(藏紅花)의 경우 폴리페놀 함량이 높게 나타났으며, 매우 양호한 항산화 효능을 나타내었다. 중국유(中國柚)의 경우도 과피에서 폴리페놀 함량이 높게 나타났으며 항산화 활성도 과피에서 매우 양호한 결과를 나타내었다. 중국(中國) 장홍화(藏紅花)와 중국유(中國柚)의 혼함추출액에서의 항산화 효과가 더 양호한 반응을 나타내었다. 이러한 결과들로 미루어볼 때 중국장홍화(中國藏紅花)와 유(柚)의 항산화 활성은 천연화장품의 신소재로서의 가치를 가지고 있다고 판단된다.

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Effect of Crocus sativus L. stigma (saffron) against subacute effect of diazinon: histopathological, hematological, biochemical and genotoxicity evaluations in rats

  • Hariri, Alireza Timcheh;Moallem, Seyed Adel;Mahmoudi, Mahmoud;Memar, Bahram;Razavi, Bibi Marjan;Hosseinzadeh, Hossein
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2018
  • Objective: In this study, the effects of saffron stigma against subacute diazinon (DZN) toxicity on enzymes levels, biochemical, hematological, histopathological and genotoxicity indices were studied in rats. Methods: Vitamin E (200 IU/kg) and the aqueous extract of saffron (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally three times per week alone or with DZN (20 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. The hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated at the end of 4 weeks. Results: Reticulocytes counts, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase, CPK-MB, gama glutamyl transferase (GGT), uric acid and micronucleus indices were increased significantly but total protein and RBC cholinesterase activity were decreased in the DZN-treated group. Saffron prevented the effect of DZN on GGT (50 mg/kg), LDH, CPK and CPK-MB (100 and 200 mg/kg) levels. An increased uric acid and reduced protein levels by DZN were prevented by vitamin E and some doses of saffron. A significant reduction was observed in platelets, RBC, hemoglobin and hematocrit indices in the DZN group. Saffron and vitamin E prevented this reduction. Vitamin E and saffron did not reduce the effect of DZN on RBC cholinesterase activity. The extract and vitamin E could not prevent DZN genotoxicity in the micronucleus assay. Other biochemical parameters and pathological evaluation did not show any abnormality in tissues of all groups. Conclusion: This study shows that vitamin E and saffron reduce DZN induced hematological and biochemical toxicity. However, they do not prevent the genotoxicity induced by DZN.

The Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effects of Saffron Extract and Crocin on Ethanol Withdrawal Syndrome in Mice

  • Shoja, Maryam;Mehri, Soghra;Amin, Bahareh;Askari, Vahid Reza;Hosseinzadeh, Hossein
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.277-283
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: Ethanol withdrawal following its chronic use is a serious outcome and challenging to treatment. The chronic use of ethanol induces a progressive neuroplasticity in different reigns of brain. In this study we evaluated the effects of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and its active compound, crocin, on the withdrawal behavior induced after repeated administration of ethanol, in two regimens of prophylactic (administration of drugs concomitant with the induction of dependence) and treatment (administration of drugs during the period of ethanol withdrawal) in mice which received ethanol. Methods: Ethanol dependence was induced by oral administration of 10% v/v ethanol (2 g/kg) for 7 days. The aqueous extracts of saffron (40, 80 and 160) and crocin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) were administered to mice in two regimens of prophylactic (along with ethanol) and treatment (during withdrawal period). Diazepam (1 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Six hours after discontinuation of the ethanol, seizure was evaluated by the sub-convulsive dose of pentyleneltetrazole (PTZ) (30 mg/kg). The open field test and Rota rod test were used for evaluation of locomotor activity and motor incoordination, respectively. Results: Both extracts and crocin increased the number of crossed lined in the open field test. PTZ kindling seizure was inhibited in animals received extract (80 and 160 mg/kg) in both regimens. Motor incoordination was only improved following administration of crocin. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of saffron and crocin can be considered as safe agents and reliable alternative to diazepam in management of ethanol withdrawal syndrome.

Molecular Mechanism of Crocin Induced Caspase Mediated MCF-7 Cell Death: In Vivo Toxicity Profiling and Ex Vivo Macrophage Activation

  • Bakshi, Hamid A;Hakkim, Faruck Lukmanul;Sam, Smitha
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1499-1506
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    • 2016
  • Background: Crocus sativus and its major constituent crocin are well established to have anti-cancer properties in breast cancer cells (MCF-7). However the role of C. sativus extract (CSE) and crocin on caspase signaling mediated MCF-7 cell death at molecular level is remains unclear. In this study, we tried to unravel role of CSE and crocin on caspase mediated MCF-7 cells death and their in vivo preclinical toxicity profiling and immune stimulatory effect. Materials and Methods: CSE extract was fractionated by HPLC and crocin was isolated and characterized by NMR, IR, and MS. MCF-7 cells were treated with both CSE and crocin and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was assessed after 24 and 36 hours. Furthermore, caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9 expression was determined by Western blotting after 24 hours of treatment. DNA fragmentation analysis was performed for genotoxicity of CSE and crocin in MCF-7 cells. The in vivo toxicity profile of CSE (300 mg/kg of b.wt) was investigated in normal Swiss albino mice. In addition, peritoneal macrophages were collected from crocin (1, 1.5 and 2 mg/kg body weight) treated mice and analyzed for ex vivo yeast phagocytosis. Results: Immunoblot analysis revealed that there was time dependent decline in anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 with simultaneous upregulation of Bax in CSE and crocin treated MCF-7 cells. Further CSE and crocin treatment downregulated caspase 8 and 9 and cleaved the caspase 3 after 24 hours. Both CSE and crocin elicited considerable DNA damage in MCF-7 cells at each concentration tested. In vivo toxicity profile by histological studies revealed no observable histopathologic differences in the liver, kidney, spleen, lungs and heart in CSE treated and untreated groups. Crocin treatment elicited significant dose and time dependent ex vivo yeast phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages. Conclusions: Our study delineated involvement of pro-apoptotic and caspase mediated MCF-7 cell death by CSE and crocin at the molecular level accompanied with extensive DNA damage. Further we found that normal swiss albino mice can tolerate the maximum dose of CSE. Crocin enhanced ex vivo macrophage yeast phagocytic ability.

Antidepressant effects of aqueous extract of saffron and its effects on CREB, P-CREB, BDNF, and VGF proteins in rat cerebellum

  • Asrari, Najmeh;Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan;Abnous, Khalil;Razavi, BiBi Marjan;Rashednia, Mrazieh;Hasani, Faezeh Vahdati;Hosseinzadeh, Hossein
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The role of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), CREB (cAMP response element binding) and VGF neuropeptide has been proved in antidepressant activity of long term saffron administration in the rat hippocampus. In this study we evaluated the role of these proteins in antidepressant activity of saffron in long term administration in the rat cerebellum. Methods: Saffron aqueous extract (40 and 80 mg/kg/day) and imipramine (10 mg/kg/day) were administered intraperitoneally for 21 days to rats. At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed and cerebellums were separated. The protein levels of BDNF, VGF, CREB and P- CREB in the rat cerebellum were evaluated using western blot analysis. Results: Saffron aqueous extract (80mg/kg/day) caused significant increase in protein level of P-CREB in long term treatment in the rat cerebellum. The increases in the protein levels of VGF, CREB and BDNF were not significant. Conclusion: In summary, our results showed that antidepressant effect of saffron in rat cerebellum might be due to the enhanced phosphorylation of CREB.

Antiproliferative Effects of Crocin in HepG2 Cells by Telomerase Inhibition and hTERT Down-Regulation

  • Noureini, Sakineh Kazemi;Wink, Michael
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2305-2309
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    • 2012
  • Crocin, the main pigment of Crocus sativus L., has been shown to have antiproliferative effects on cancer cells, but the involved mechanisms are only poor understood. This study focused on probable effect of crocin on the immortality of hepatic cancer cells. Cytotoxicity of crocin ($IC_{50}$ 3 mg/ml) in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells was determined after 48 h by neutral red uptake assay and MTT test. Immortality was investigated through quantification of relative telomerase activity with a quantitative real-time PCR-based telomerase repeat amplification protocol (qTRAP). Telomerase activity in 0.5 ${\mu}g$ protein extract of HepG2 cells treated with 3 mg/ml crocin was reduced to about 51% as compared to untreated control cells. Two mechanisms of inhibition, i.e. interaction of crocin with telomeric quadruplex sequences and down regulation of hTERT expression, were examined using FRET analysis to measure melting temperature of a synthetic telomeric oligonucleotide in the presence of crocin and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, respectively. No significant changes were observed in the $T_m$ telomeric oligonucleotides, while the relative expression level of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) gene showed a 60% decrease as compared to untreated control cells. In conclusion, telomerase activity of HepG2 cells decreases after treatment with crocin, which is probably caused by down-regulation of the expression of the catalytic subunit of the enzyme.