• Title, Summary, Keyword: crude oil

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Optimiging the Delivery Quantity of Crude Oil by Dynamic Programming (동적계획법에 의한 원유도입량의 최적화)

  • 정충영;이홍우
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 1981
  • The continuous increase of crude oil consumption has struck great impact into the world economy, When we consider disadvantageous articles in contract for oil import, it would be desirable to import in batch the total quantity of crude oil contracted, but which is not available under the present situation which has many constraints This paper treats of the ways to deliver the crude oil in a given period so as to maximize the profit derived from the sales of oil products, To do this we should consider the prices of crude oil and oil products, inventory cost, transportation cost, oil refinement cost, and fluctuations of these parameters in a given period. The case of Korea Oil Corporation is treated in this paper to generalize the problem of crude oil transportation from Middle East and formulated in a mathematical programming. This programming is transformed into Dynamic Programming through specifing states, stages, payoffs, and recursive function. To clarify these procedure and methods, the case of Korea Oil Corporation is dealt with again and demonstrated in detail.

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Biological Upgrading of Heavy Crude Oil

  • Leon, Vladimir;Kumar, Manoj
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.471-481
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    • 2005
  • Heavy crudes (bitumen) are extremely viscous and contain high concentrations of asphaltene, resins, nitrogen and sulfur containing heteroaromatics and several metals, particularly nickel and vanadium. These properties of heavy crude oil present serious operational problems in heavy oil production and downstream processing. There are vast deposits of heavy crude oils in many parts of the world. In fact, these reserves are estimated at more than seven times the known remaining reserves of conventional crude oils. It has been proven that reserves of conventional crude oil are being depleted, thus there is a growing interest in the utilization of these vast resources of unconventional oils to produce refined fuels and petrochemicals by upgrading. Presently, the methods used for reducing viscosity and upgradation is cost intensive, less selective and environmentally reactive. Biological processing of heavy crudes may provide an ecofriendly alternative or complementary process with less severe process conditions and higher selectivity to specific reactions to upgrade heavy crude oil. This review describes the prospects and strengths of biological processes for upgrading of heavy crude oil.

Heat Transfer Analysis and Cooling Design for Crude Oil Pump System (원유펌프시스템의 열전달해석 및 냉각설계)

  • Kim, Wan-Gi;Lee, Joon-Yeob;Kwon, Jung-Lock;Kim, Hea-Choen
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2017-2022
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    • 2008
  • The crude oil pump system is the equipment for transporting crude oil and it consists of 3 major components, a motor and an impeller which discharge underground crude oil, a pipestack that transmits the cooling oil and power, and a cooling oil unit & junction box that provides cooling oil and electric power. When considering the system characteristics that it has to be installed at a depth of deeper than 100 m, a design technology for the efficient control of the heat occurring at a conductor and motor is necessary and it is the essential factor for ensuring system durability. In this paper, therefore, cooling oil flow has been calculated to satisfy the limit value of the system temperature by analyzing heat flow considering the related losses such as loss of conductor, contact resistor loss at the conductor connection, and operation loss of motor. And the operation temperature has been set up based on the temperature of crude oil and the heat of motor and conductor. Also, a design for cooling of crude oil pump system has been proposed by calculating the operation pressure loss and selecting the capacity of a cooling oil pump and a heat exchanger.

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Performance of a Screw Press to Extract Soybean Oil and Quality of the Oil as a Fuel (스크류 프레스의 대두유(大豆油) 착유(搾油) 성능(性能)과 착유유(搾油油)의 연료(燃料) 성질(性質))

  • Suh, S.R.;Harris, F.D.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 1985
  • Performance of a screw press was investigated experimentally with soybeans of various temperatures in order to find out a proper temperature of soybean to extract the oil by the mechanical method. Crude oil extracted by the screw press was chemically analyzed to determine a level of processing the oil for the oil to be used as a fuel for a compression ignition engine. The crude oil was degummed and dried by a plant type laboratory experimental setup to decide whether the processes are effective to improve quality of the oil as a fuel. The degummed oil and the degummed and dried oil were also chemically analyzed and were compared with the crude oil and the commercially degummed and dried soybean oil. The results are as follows: 1. In extraction of soybean oil by a screw press, heating soybeans is effective to increase oil production and to decrease energy consumption of the press. A proper temperature of soybean to extract the oil by the press was determined as about $50^{\circ}C$. 2. Soybean oil production and electric energy consumption of the press are about 83 ml and 58 Wh per 1 kg of soybeans heated to about $50^{\circ}C$, respectively. 3. The quality of crude oil produced by the press is similar to that of the commercially degummed and dried oil. The crude oil does not need to be degummed or dried for use as an engine fuel.

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Evaluation of Bioremediation Efficiency of Crude Oil Degrading Microorganisms Depending on Temperature (온도에 따른 원유분해미생물의 생물학적 정화효율 평가)

  • Kim, Jong-Sung;Lee, In;Jeong, Tae-Yang;Oh, Seung-Taek;Kim, Guk-Jin
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.72-79
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    • 2016
  • Bioremediation is one of the most effective ways to remediate TPH-contaminated sites. However, under actual field conditions that are not at the optimum temperature, degradation of microorganisms is generally reduced, which is why the efficiency of biodegradation is known to be significantly affected by the soil temperature. Therefore, in this study, the labscale experiment was conducted using indigenous crude oil degrading microorganisms isolated from crude oil contaminated site to evaluate the remediation efficiency. Crude oil degrading microorganisms were isolated from crude oil contaminated soil and temperature, which is a significant factor affecting the remediation efficiency of land farming, was adjusted to evaluate the microbial crude oil degrading ability, degradation time, and remediation efficiency. In order to assess the field applicability, the remediation efficiency was evaluated using crude oil contaminated soil (average TPH concentration of 10,000 mg/kg or more) from the OO premises. Followed by the application of microorganisms at 30℃, the bioremediation process reduced its initial TPH concentration of 10,812 mg/kg down to 1,890 mg/kg in 56 days, which was about an 83% remediation efficiency. By analyzing the correlation among the total number of cells, the number of effective cells, and TPH concentration, it was found that the number of effective microorganisms drastically increased during the period from 10 to 20 days while there was a sharp decrease in TPH concentration. Therefore, we confirmed the applicability of land farming with isolated microorganisms consortium to crude oil contaminated site, which is also expected to be applicable to bioremediation of other recalcitrant materials.

Studies on the Method of Decoction Preparation in the Prescription of Crude Drugs. -on the prevention to the loss of volatile oil- (생약처방(生藥處方)의 탕(湯)(전(煎))제(劑) 제조(製造)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -유효휘발성분(有效揮發成分)의 손실방지(損失防止)에 관(關)하여-)

  • Chung, Myung-Hyun;Lee, Choon-Heung
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.69-72
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    • 1977
  • The investigation is involved with the development of the new method of decoction preparation in order to prevent the loss of volatile oil from crude drugs. Volatile oil in crude drug containig volatile oil ranged from 1 to 2.2% in content. Volatile oil content in crude drung prescription which main component is a crude drug containing volatile oil was $0.11{\sim}0.39\;ml$. It was found that traditional method of decoction preparation has caused to lose almost all of the volatile oil. Application of method of Pharmacopoea (Kp II) for the preparation of decoction prevented the loss of volatile oil from one half to two-third of its content. The method of Pharmacopoea to which air condenser was attached could completely prevented the loss of volatile oil from the preparation.

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Developmental Abnormalities in Zebrafish Angiogenesis with Chronic Exposure to Crude Oil and Dispersant

  • Lee, Suyeon;Kim, Kyoohyun;Kim, Hyunjin;Yeo, Sang-Yeob
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.10-18
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    • 2013
  • Oil spills have occurred throughout the years of industrialization and represent a global challenge as they affect vast areas of the ocean. The toxicity of crude oil to aquatic organisms has been extensively investigated, but the potential impacts of crude oil on vertebrate development remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of dispersants used in treating a recent oil spill, as well as that of crude oil, on vertebrates by using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model species, which has been widely used in empirical studies of both early embryonic development and adult physiology. Chronic exposure to crude oil resulted in marked developmental abnormalities, including pericardial edema, abnormal trunk vessel development, retardation of axonal branching, and abnormal jaw development. Embryonic development was affected more severely by exposure to the oil-dispersant combination than to the oil alone. Thus, the zebrafish in vivo model system suggests that dispersant treatment can have detrimental developmental effects on vertebrates and its potential impact on marine life, as well as humans, should be carefully considered in clean-up efforts at the site of an oil spill.

Acinetobacter sp. A54에 의한 Arabian Light 원유의 분해

  • Lee, Chang-Ho;Kim, Hee-Sik;Suh, Hyun-Hyo;Choi, Soung-Hun;Oh, Hee-Mock;Yoon, Byung-Dae
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.520-526
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    • 1997
  • Bacterial strains which degrade Arabian Light crude oil were isolated by enrichment culture from oil-spilled soil. The strain A54 was finally selected after testing emulsifying activity and oil conversion rate. Strain A54 was identified as a Acinetobacter sp. based on the morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics. It appears to be highly specialized for growth on Arabian Light crude oil in minimal salts medium since it showed preference for oil or degradation products as substrates for growth. It was found that it could grow on at least fifteen different hydrocarbons. The optimum cultural and environmental conditions were as follows; 25$\circ$C for temperature, 7,5 for pH, 2.0% for NaCl concentration and 2.0% for crude oil concentration. Additionally, the optimal concentration of NH$_{4}$NO$_{3}$, and K$_{2}$HPO$_{4}$, were 12.5 mM and 0.057 mM, respectively. Cell growth and emulsifying activity as a function of time were also determined. Crude oil degradation and the reduction of product peaks were identified by the analysis of remnant oil by gas chromatography. Approximately 63% of crude oil were converted into a form no longer extractable by mixed organic solvents.

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Studies on the Lipid Components of Red Pepper Seed oil (고추씨 기름의 지질성분에 관한 연구)

  • 최영진
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 1990
  • This studies were conducted to find out the possibility of utilizing red pepper seed as resources of food fats, the research method was designed to make a comparison between crude and refined oil, and the results of the studies are as follows : The red pepper seed contained 28% of crude fat and 21% of crude protein. The main fatty acids of red pepper seed oil were linoleic acid(72.10~72.31%), palmitic acid(12.81~13.28%) and oleic acid(9.47~10.48%). The linolenic acid content was so small that is will not influence the autoxidation of the red pepper seed oil. The major triglyceride type of crude and refined oil of red pepper seeds were C52 and C54. The other types were found in a small quantity. The sterol composition of crude oil was $\beta$-sitosterol, campasterol, stigmasteral and brassicasterol,in the quantity order. after refining, brassicasterol was not detected, and the content was decreased by one six and one eight. The toropherol composition of crude and refined oil, tocopherol analog was composed of three kinds $\alpha$-, ${\gamma}$-, $\delta$-, but no $\beta$-form. the quantity of ${\gamma}$-, $\alpha$- and $\delta$-tocopherol were 162.91, 83.72, 43.98mg% respectively. The Quantity of and capsaicin in crude oil was 1,296 ppm, and it was reduced consicerably by refining and removed completely after the process of redeodorization.

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Emulsification of Crude Oil by Acinetobacter sp. SH-14

  • Son, Hong-Joo;Go, Sun-Hee;Lee, Geon;Lee, Sang-Joon
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.363-369
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    • 1996
  • As basic study to evaluate the treatability of oil-contaminated environment with bacteria, isolation and characterization of crude oil-degrading bacterium were carried out. A bacterial strain SH-14 capable of degrading crude oil was isolated from contaminated soils by enrichment culture technique and identified as Acinetobacter sp. by morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics, and so named Acinetobacter sp. SH-14. The optimal medium composition and cultural conditions for the growth and emulsification of crude oil by Acinetobacter sp. SH-14 used were crude oil of 2.0%, $KNO_3$ of 0.2%, $K_2HPO_4$ of 0.05%, and $MgSO_4\;{\cdot}\;7H_2O$ of 1.0%, along with initial pH 7.0 at $30^{\circ}C$. Acinetobacter sp. SH-14 showed to be resistant to chloramphenicol and utilized various hydrocarbons such as dodecane, hexadecane, isooctane, cyclo-hexane etc., as a sole carbon source. Acinetobacter sp. SH-14 harbored a single plasmid. By agarose gel electrophoresis and curing experiment it was found that the genes for crude oil components degradation were encoded on the plasmid.

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