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Studies on Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. isolated from Magnolia kobus DC. in Korea (목련(Magnolia kobus DC.)에서 분리한 흰비단병균(Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.)에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Kichung
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.105-133
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    • 1974
  • The present study is an attempt to solve the basic problems involved in the control of the Sclerotium disease. The biologic stranis of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., pathogen of Sclerotium disease of Magnolia kobus, were differentiated, and the effects of vitamins, various nitrogen and carbon sources on its mycelial growth and sclerotial production have been investigated. In addition the relationship between the cultural filtrate of Penicillium sp. and the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, the tolerance of its mycelia or sclerotia to moist heat or drought and to Benlate (methyl-(butylcarbamoy 1)-2-benzimidazole carbamate), Tachigaren (3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole) and other chemicals were also clarified. The results are summarizee as follows: 1. There were two biologic strains, Type-l and Type-2 among isolates. They differed from each other in the mode of growth and colonial appearance on the media, aversion phenomenon and in their pathogenicity. These two types had similar pathogenicity to the Magnolia kobus and Robinia pseudoacasia, but behaved somewhat differently to the soybaen and cucumber, the Type-l being more virulent. 2. Except potassium nitrite, sodium nitrite and glycine, all of the 12 nitrogen sources tested were utilized for the mycelial growth and sclerotial production of this fungus when 10r/l of thiamine hydrochloride was added in the culture solution. Considering the forms of nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen was more available than nitrate nitrogen for the growth of mycelia, but nitrate nitrogen was better for sclerotia formation. Organic nitrogen showed different availabilities according to compounds used. While nitrite nitrogen was unavailable for both mycelial growth and sclerotial formation whether thiamine hydrochlioride was added or not. 3. Seven kinds of carbon sources examined were not effective in general, as long as thiamine hydrochloride was not added. When thiamine hydrochloride was added, glucose and saccharose exhibited mycelial growth, while rnaltose and soluble starch gave lesser, and xylose, lactose, and glycine showed no effect at all,. In the sclerotial production, all the tested carbon sources, except lactose, were effective, and glucose, maltose, saccharose, and soluble starch gave better results. 4. At the same level of nitrogen, the amount of mycelial growth increased as more carbon Sources were applied but decreased with the increase of nitrogen above 0.5g/1. The amount of sclerotial production decreased wi th the increase of carbon sources. 5. Sclerotium rolfsii was thiamine-defficient and required thiamine 20r/l for maximun growth of mycelia. At a higher concentration of more than 20r/l, however, mycelial growth decreased as the concentration increased, and was inhibited at l50r/l to such a degree of thiamine-free. 6. The effect of the nitrogen sources on the mycelial growth under the presence of thiamine were recognized in the decreasing order of $NH_4NO_3,\;(NH_4)_2SO_4,\;asparagine,\;KNO_3$, and their effects on the sclerotial production in the order of $KNO_3,\;NH_4NO_3,\;asparagine,\;(NH_4)_2SO_4$. The optimum concentration of thiamine was about 12r/l in $KNO_3$ and about 16r/l in asparagine for the growth of mycelia; about 8r/l in $KNO_3$ and $NH_4NO_3$, and 16r/l in asparagine for the production of sclerotia. 7. After the fungus started to grow, the pH value of cultural filtrate rapidly dropped to about 3.5. Hereafter, its rate slowed down as the growth amount increased and did not depreciated below pH2.2. 8. The role of thiamine in the growth of the organism was vital. If thiamine was not added, the combination of biotin, pyridoxine, and inositol did not show any effects on the growth of the organism at all. Equivalent or better mycelial growth was recognized in the combination of thiamine+pyridoxine, thiamine+inositol, thiamine+biotin+pyridoxine, and thiamine+biotin+pyridoxine+inositol, as compared with thiamine alone. In the combinations of thiamine+biotin and thiamine+biotin+inositol, mycelial growth was inhibited. Sclerotial production in dry weight increased more in these combinations than in the medium of thiamine alone. 9. The stimulating effects of the Penicillium cultural filtrate on the mycelial growth was noticed. It increased linearly with the increase of filtrate concentration up to 6-15 ml/50ml basal medium solution. 10. $NH_4NO_3$. as a nitrogen source for mycelial growth was more effective than asparasine regardless of the concentration of cultural filtrate. 11. In the series of fractionations of the cultural filtrate, mycelial growth occured in unvolatile, ether insoluble cation-adsorbed or anion-unadsorbed substance fractions among the fractions of volatile, unvolatile acids, ether soluble organic acids, ether insoluble, cation-adsorbed, cation-unadsorbed, anion-adsorbed and anion-unadsorbed. and anion-un-adsorbed substance tested. Sclerotia were produced only in cation-adsorbed fraction. 12. According to the above results, it was assumed that substances for the mycelial growth and sclerotial formation and inhibitor of sclerotial formation were include::! in cultural filtrate and they were quite different from each other. I was further assumed that the former two substances are un volatile, ether insotuble, and adsorbed to cation-exchange resin, but not adsorbed to anion, whereas the latter is unvolatile, ether insoluble, and not adsorbed to cation or anion-exchange resin. 13. Seven amino acids-aspartic acid, cystine, glysine, histidine, Iycine, tyrosine and dinitroaniline-were detected in the fractions adsorbed to cation-exchange resin by applying the paper chromatography improved with DNP-amino acids. 14. Mycelial growth or sclerotial production was not stimulated significantly by separate or combined application of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, cystine, histidine, and glysine. Tyrosine gave the stimulating effect when applied .alone and when combined with other amino acids in some cases. 15. The tolerance of sclerotia to moist heat varied according to their water content, that was, the dried sclerotia are more tolerant than wet ones. The sclerotia harvested directly from the media, both Type-1 and Type-2, lost viability within 5 minutes at $52^{\circ}C$. Sclerotia dried for 155 days at$26^{\circ}C$ had more tolerance: sclerotia of Type-l were killed in 15 mins. at $52^{\circ}C$ and in 5 mins. at $57^{\circ}C$, and sclerotia of Type-2 were killed in 10 mins. both at $52^{\circ}C$ or $57^{\circ}C$. 16. Cultural sclerotia of both strains maintained good germinability for 132 days at$26^{\circ}C$. Natural sclerotia of them stored for 283 days under air dry condition still had good germinability, even for 443 days: type-l and type-2 maintained $20\%$ and $26.9\%$ germinability, respectively. 17. The tolerance to low temperature increased in the order of mycelia, felts and sclerotia. Mycelia completely lost the ability to grow within 1 week at $7-8^{\circ}C$> below zero, while mycelial felts still maintained the viability after .3 weeks at $7-20^{\circ}C$ below zero, and sclerotia were even more tolerant. 18. Sclerotia of type-l and type-2 were killed when dipped into the $0.05\%$ solution of mercury chloride for 180 mins. and 240 mins. respectively: and in the $0.1\%$ solution, Type-l for 60 mins. and Type-2 for 30 mins. In the $0.125\%$ uspulun solution, Type-l sclerotia were killed in 180 mins., and those of Type-2 were killed for 90 mins. in the$0.125\%$solution. Dipping into the $5\%$ copper sulphate solution or $0.2\%$ solution of Ceresan lime or Mercron for 240 mins. failed to kill sclerotia of either Type-l or Type-2. 19. Inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of Benlate or Tachi-garen in the liquid culture increased as the concentration increased. 6 days after application, obvious inhibitory effects were found in all treatments except Benlate 0.5ppm; but after 12 days, distingushed diflerences were shown among the different concentrations. As compared with the control, mycelial growth was inhibited by $66\%$ at 0.5ppm and by $92\%$ at 2.0ppm of Benlate, and by$54\%$ at 1ppm and about $77\%$ at 1.5ppm or 2.0ppm of Tachigaren. The mycelial growth was inhibited completely at 500ppm of both fungicides, and the formation of sclerotia was checked at 1,000ppm of Benlate ant at 500ppm or 1,000ppm of Tachigaren. 20. Consumptions of glucose or ammonium nitrogen in the culture solution usually increased with the increment of mycelial growth, but when Benlate or Tachigaren were applied, consumptions of glucose or ammonium nitrogen were inhibited with the increment of concentration of the fungicides. At the low concentrations of Benlate (0.5ppm or 1ppm), however, ammonium nitrogen consumption was higher than that of the ontrol. 21. The amount of mycelia produced by consuming 1mg of glucose or ammonium nitrogen in the culture solution was lowered markedly by Benlate or Tachigaren. Such effects were the severest on the third day after their treatment in all concentrations, and then gradually recovered with the progress of time. 22. In the sand culture, mycelial growth was not inhibited. It was indirectly estimated by the amount of $CO_2$ evolved at any concentrations, except in the Tachigaren 100mg/g sand in which mycelial growth was inhibited significantly. Sclerotial production was completely depressed in the 10mg/g sand of Benlate or Tachigaren. 23. There was no visible inhibitory effect on the germination of sclerotia when the sclerotia were dipped in the solution 0.1, 1.0, 100, 1.000ppm of Benlate or Tachigaren for 10 minutes or even 20 minutes.

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The Effects of Proinflammatory Cytokines and TGF-beta, on The Fibroblast Proliferation (Proinflammatory Cytokines과 TGF-beta가 섬유모세포의 증식에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Chul;Park, Choon-Sik;Kim, Mi-Ho;Chang, Hun-Soo;Chung, Il-Yup;Ki, Shin-Young;Uh, Soo-Taek;Moon, Seung-Hyuk;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Lee, Hi-Bal
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.861-869
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    • 1998
  • Backgrounds: The injury of a tissue results in the infalmmation, and the imflammed tissue is replaced by the normal parenchymal cells during the process of repair. But, constitutional or repetitive damage of a tissue causes the deposition of collagen resulting in the loss of its function. These lesions are found in the lung of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, complicated fibrosis after diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and inorganic dust-induced lung fibrosis. The tissue from lungs of patients undergoing episodes of active and/or end-stage pulmonary fibrosis shows the accumulation of inflammatory cells, such as mononuclear cells, neutrophils, mast cells and eosinophils, and fibroblast hyperplasia. In this regard, it appears that the inflammation triggers fibroblast activation and proliferation with enhanced matrix synthesis, stimulated by inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF). It has been well known that TGF-$\beta$ enhance the proliferation of fibroblasts and the production of collagen and fibronectin, and inhibit the degradation of collagen. In this regard, It is likely that TGF-$\beta$ undergoes important roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Nevertheless, this single cytokine is not the sole regulator of the pulmonary fibrotic response. It is likely that the balance of many cytokines including TGF-$\beta$, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ regulates the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigate the interaction of TGF-$\beta$, IL-1$\beta$, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ and their effect on the proliferation of fibroblasts. Methods: We used a human fibroblast cell line, MRC-5 (ATCC). The culture of MRC-5 was confirmed by immunofluorecent staining. First, we determined the concentration of serum in cuture medium, in which the proliferation of MRC-5 is supressed but the survival of MRC-5 is retained. Second, we measured optical density after staining the cytokine-stimulated cells with 0.5% naphthol blue black in order to detect the effect of cytokines on the proliferation of MRC-5. Result: In the medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum, the proliferation of MRC-5 increased by 50%, and it was maintained for 6 days. IL-1$\beta$, TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-6 induced the proliferation of MRC-5 by 45%, 160% and 120%, respectively. IL-1$\beta$ and TNF-$\alpha$ enhanced TGF-$\beta$-induced proliferation of MRC-5 by 64% and 159%, but IL-6 did not affect the TGF-$\beta$-induced proliferation. And lNF-$\alpha$-induced proliferation of MRC-5 was reduced by IL-1$\beta$ in 50%. TGF-$\beta$, TNF-$\alpha$ and both induced the proliferation of MRC-5 to 89%, 135% and 222%, respectively. Conclusions: TNF-$\alpha$, TGF-$\beta$ and IL-1$\beta$, in the order of the effectiveness, showed the induction of MRC-5 proliferation of MRC-5. TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ enhance the TGF-$\beta$-induced proliferation of MRC-5, but IL-6 did not have any effect TNF-$\alpha$-induced proliferation of MRC-5 is diminished by IL-1, and TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$ showed a additive effect.

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Clinical Implication of Serum TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ Measurement in Patients with Sepsis (패혈증환자에서 혈청 TNF-$\alpha$ 및 IL-1$\beta$)

  • Kim, Jae-Yeol;Choi, Hyung-Seok;Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Min, Kyung-Up;Kim, Yoo-Young;Shim, Young-Soo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2000
  • Background : It is well known that when macrophages are stimulated with endotoxin, they produce a wide variety of cytokine mediators, including TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$. However, there is an alteration in the macrophages' responsiveness when they are challenged with repeated bouts of endotoxin, termed "endotoxin tolerance" which is regarded as a self-protective phenomenon from continuous stimulation. In this study, endotoxin tolerance in the peripheral blood monocytes of sepsis patients was evaluated. Methods : Fourteen patients with organism-documented sepsis were included. The severity of illness was evaluated by APACHE II score. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from the patients and diluted to $1{\times}10^5$ well. After stimulation with endotoxin (LPS of E. coli O114 : B4, 100 ng/ml), they were incubated at $37^{\circ}C$ in 5% $CO_2$ incubator for 24 hours. Supernatant was collected for the measurement of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ with ELISA method. Peripheral blood monocytes of seven healthy volunteers were used as control. Results : The APACHE II score (mean$\pm$SD) of the patients at the time of blood sampling was 12.2$\pm$5.7. The primary infection foci were urinary tract infection, pneumonia, subacute bacterial endocarditis, and catheter related infection, etc. The causative organisms were gram negative rods (10 cases), gram positive cocci (6 cases) with two cases of mixed infection. Serum TNF-$\alpha$ could be measured in 4 cases with 29.9$\pm$27.7 pg/ml. Serum IL-1$\beta$was measurable in only one patient. The TNF-$\alpha$ level of supernatant of cultured peripheral blood monocytes was 2,703$\pm$2,066 pg/ml in patients and 2,102$\pm$1914 pg/ml in controls. The IL-1$\beta$level of supernatant was 884$\pm$1,050 pg/ml in patients and 575$\pm$558 pg/ml in controls. There was no difference of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ level between patients and controls. Conclusion : We cannot prove the phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance in this study. Future study needs to be focused on the more severe sepsis patients who were taken for sampling earlier. Addition of serum to the culture medium could be an another valuable option for the success of this study.

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Studies on absorption of ammonium, nitrate-and urea-N by Jinheung and Tongil rice using labelled nitrogen (중질소(重窒素)를 이용(利用)한 진흥(振興)과 통일(統一)벼의 암모니움, 질산(窒酸) 및 요소태(尿素態) 질소(窒素)의 흡수특성(吸收特性) 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Hoon;Seok, Sun Jong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 1978
  • Uptake and distribution of labelled urea, $NH{_4}^+$, and $NO{_3}^-$ by Tongil and Jinheung rice grown with each nitrogen source until ear formation stage under water culture system were as follows. 1. When the previous nitrogen source was same as one tested the uptake rate ($mg^{15}N/g$ d.w. root 2hrs, at $28^{\circ}C$ light) was great in the order of $NH_4$ >urea> $NO_3$ and higher (especially $NH_4$) in Tongil than in Jinheung. Rate limiting step (slowest) seems to be exist at R (root)${\rightarrow}$LS(leaf sheath) for urea, LS${\rightarrow}$LB(leaf blade) for $NH_4$ and M(medium)${\rightarrow}$R for $NO_3$. The fast step of translocation appeare to be at M${\rightarrow}$R for urea R${\rightarrow}$LS for $NH_4$ and LS${\rightarrow}$LB for $NO_3$. 2. The uptake rate of $NH_4$ by the urea-fed plant increased almost linearly from $18^{\circ}C$ via $28^{\circ}C$ to $38^{\circ}C$ in Tongil ($Q_{10}$=1.21 and 1.32 respectively) while no change in Jinheung ($Q_{10}$=0.99 and 1.00 respectively). It decreased by 12% in Jinheung under dark but uo change in Tongil. 3. The uptake rate of nitrogen source by different source-fed plant was great in the order of $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$ $NO_3{\rightarrow}^{15}NH_4$, $urea{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$ and higher (especially $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$) in Tongil. In the case of $urea{\rightarrow}^{15}NH_4$ it was same in $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$ for Tongil and slightly lower than that in $NO_3{\rightarrow}^{15}NH_4$ for Jinheung. It was lower (especially Tongil) in $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$ than in $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NH_4 $ 4. The uptake rate (in $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$) was higher during 15 minutes than during 2 hours and always higher in Tongil. 5. $^{15}N$ excess % and content in each part, and uptake rate of root seems to have their own significance relatling with metabolism and translocation respectively. The change of nitrogen nutritional environment and source preference of varieties were discussed in relation to field condition and efficient use of nitrogen fertilizer.

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A study on The U.S.-Korean Trade Friction Prevention and Settlement in the Fields of Information and Telecommunication Industries (한미간(韓美間) 정보통신분야(情報通信分野) 통상마찰예방(通商摩擦豫防)과 해소방안(解消方案)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Jung, Jay-Young
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.13
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    • pp.869-895
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    • 2000
  • The US supports the Information and Communication (IC) industry as a strategic one to wield a complete power over the World Market. However, several other countries are also eager to have the support for the IC industry because the industry produces a high added value and has a significant effect on other industries. Korea is not an exception. Korea recently succeeded in the commercialization of CDMA for the first time in the world, after the successful development of TDX. Hence, it is highly likely to get tracked by the US. Although the IC industry is a specific sector of IT, there is a concern that there might be a trade friction between the US and Korea due to a possible competition. It will be very important to prepare a solution in advance so that Korea could prevent the friction and at the same time increase its share domestically and globally. It will be our important task to solve the problem with the minimum cost if the conflict arises unfortunately in the IT area. The parties that have a strong influence on the US trade policy are the think tank group and the IT-related interest group. Therefore, it would be important to have a close relationship with them. We found some implications by analyzing the case of Japan, which has experienced trade frictions with the US over the long period of time in the high tech industry. In order to get rid of those conflicts with the US, the Japanese did the following things : (1) The Japanese government developed supporting theories and also resorted to international support so that the world could support the Japanese theories. (2) Through continual dialogue with the US business people, the Japanese business people sought after solutions to share profits among the Japanese and the US both in the domestic and in the worldwide markets. They focused on lobbying activities to influence the US public opinion to support the Japanese. The specific implementation plan was first to open culture lobby toward opinion leaders who were leaders about the US opinion. The institution, Japan Society, were formed to deliver a high quality lobbying activities. The second plan is economic lobby. They have established Japanese Economic Institute at Washington. They provide information about Japan regularly or irregularly to the US government, research institution, universities, etc., that are interested in Japan. The main objective behind these activities though is to advertise the validity of Japanese policy. Japanese top executives, practical interest groups on international trade, are trying to justify their position by direct contact with the US policy makers. The third one is political lobby. Japan is very careful about this political lobby. It is doing its best not to give impression that Japan is trying to shape the US policy making. It is collecting a vast amount of information to make a correct judgment on situation. It is not tilted toward one political party or the other, and is rather developing a long-term network of people who understand and support the Japanese policy. The following implications were drawn from the experience of Japan. First, the Korean government should develop a long-term plan and execute it to improve the Korean image perceived by American people. Second, the Korean government should begin public relation activities toward the US elite group. It is inevitable to make an effort to advertise Korea to this elite group because this group leads public opinion in the USA. Third, the Korean government needs the development of a relevant policy to elevate the positive atmosphere for advertising toward the US. For example, we need information about to whom and how to about lobbying activities, personnel network who immediately respond to wrong articles about Korea in the US press, and lastly the most recent data bank of Korean support group inside the USA. Fourth, the Korean government should create an atmosphere to facilitate the advertising toward the US. Examples include provision of incentives in tax on the expenses for the advertising toward the US and provision of rewards to those who significantly contribute to the advertising activities. Fifth, the Korean government should perform the role of a bridge between Korean and the US business people. Sixth, the government should promptly analyze the policy of IT industry, a strategic area, and timely distribute information to industries in Korea. Since the Korean government is the only institution that has formal contact with the US government, it is highly likely to provide information of a high quality. The followings are some implications for business institutions. First, Korean business organization should carefully analyze and observe the business policy and managerial conditions of US companies. It is very important to do so because all the trade frictions arise at the business level. Second, it is also very important that the top management of Korean firms contact the opinion leaders of the US. Third, it is critically needed that Korean business people sent to the USA do their part for PR activities. Fourth, it is very important to advertise to American employees in Korean companies. If we cannot convince our American employees, it would be a lot harder to convince regular American. Therefore, it is very important to make the American employees the support group for Korean ways. Fifth, it should try to get much information as early as possible about the US firms policy in the IT area. It should give an enormous effort on early collection of information because by doing so it has more time to respond. Sixth, it should research on the PR cases of foreign enterprise or non-American companies inside the USA. The research needs to identify the success factors and the failure factors. Finally, the business firm will get more valuable information if it analyzes and responds to, according to each medium.

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Structural Adjustment of Domestic Firms in the Era of Market Liberalization (시장개방(市場開放)과 국내기업(國內企業)의 구조조정(構造調整))

  • Seong, So-mi
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.91-116
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    • 1991
  • Market liberalization progressing simultaneously with high and rapidly rising domestic wages has created an adverse business environment for domestic firms. Korean firms are losing their international competitiveness in comparison to firms from LDC(Less Developed Countries) in low-tech industries. In high-tech industries, domestic firms without government protection (which is impossible due to the liberalization policy and the current international status of the Korean economy) are in a disadvantaged position relative to firms from advanced countries. This paper examines the division of roles between the private sector and the government in order to achieve a successful structural adjustment, which has become the impending industrial policy issue caused by high domestic wages, on the one hand, and the opening of domestic markets, on the other. The micro foundation of the economy-wide structural adjustment is actually the restructuring of business portfolios at the firm level. The firm-level business restructuring means that firms in low-value-added businesses or with declining market niches establish new major businesses in higher value-added segments or growing market niches. The adjustment of the business structure at the firm level can only be accomplished by accumulating firm-specific managerial assets necessary to establish a new business structure. This can be done through learning-by-doing in the whole system of management, including research and development, manufacturing, and marketing. Therefore, the voluntary cooperation among the people in the company is essential for making the cost of the learning process lower than that at the competing companies. Hence, firms that attempt to restructure their major businesses need to induce corporate-wide participation through innovations in organization and management, encourage innovative corporate culture, and maintain cooperative labor unions. Policy discussions on structural adjustments usually regard firms as a black box behind a few macro variables. But in reality, firm activities are not flows of materials but relationships among human resources. The growth potential of companies are embodied in the human resources of the firm; the balance of interest among stockholders, managers, and workers of the company' brings the accumulation of the company's core competencies. Therefore, policymakers and economists shoud change their old concept of the firm as a technological black box which produces a marketable commodities. Firms should be regarded as coalitions of interest groups such as stockholders, managers, and workers. Consequently the discussion on the structural adjustment both at the macroeconomic level and the firm level should be based on this new paradigm of understanding firms. The government's role in reducing the cost of structural adjustment and supporting should the creation of new industries emphasize the following: First, government must promote the competition in domestic markets by revising laws related to antitrust policy, bankruptcy, and the promotion of small and medium-sized companies. General consensus on the limitations of government intervention and the merit of deregulation should be sought among policymakers and people in the business world. In the age of internationalization, nation-specific competitive advantages cannot be exclusively in favor of domestic firms. The international competitiveness of a domestic firm derives from the firm-specific core competencies which can be accumulated by internal investment and organization of the firm. Second, government must build up a solid infrastructure of production factors including capital, technology, manpower, and information. Structural adjustment often entails bankruptcies and partial waste of resources. However, it is desirable for the government not to try to sustain marginal businesses, but to support the diversification or restructuring of businesses by assisting in factor creation. Institutional support for venture businesses needs to be improved, especially in the financing system since many investment projects in venture businesses are highly risky, even though they are very promising. The proportion of low-value added production processes and declining industries should be reduced by promoting foreign direct investment and factory automation. Moreover, one cannot over-emphasize the importance of future-oriented labor policies to be based on the new paradigm of understanding firm activities. The old laws and instititutions related to labor unions need to be reformed. Third, government must improve the regimes related to money, banking, and the tax system to change business practices dependent on government protection or undesirable in view of the evolution of the Korean economy as a whole. To prevent rational business decisions from contradicting to the interest of the economy as a whole, government should influence the business environment, not the business itself.

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THE EFFECT OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH $FACTOR-B_1$ ON THE PROLIFERATION RATE OF HUMAN PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT CELLS AND HUMAN GINGIVAL FIBROBLASTS. (변형성장인자-${\beta}_1$이 치주인대세포와 치은섬유아세포의 증식에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Eun-Kyeung;Lee, Jae-Mok;Suh, Jo-Young
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.720-732
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    • 1995
  • The use of transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$ which functions as a potent biologic mediator regulating numerous activities of wound healing has been suggested for the promotion of periodontal regeneration. The mitogenic effects of transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$ on human periodontal ligament cells and human gingival fibroblasts were evaluated by determining the incorporation of $[^3H]-thymidine$ into DNA of the cells dose-dependently. Cells were prepared with primary cultured fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells from humans, and used in experiments were the fourth or sixth subpassage. Cells were seeded with serum free Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing 0.1% bovine serum albumine. The added concentrations of transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$ were 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5ng/ml and transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$ were added to the quiescent cells for 24hours, 48hours, 72hours. They were labeled with lnCi/ml $[^3H]$ thymidine for the last 24hour of the each culture. The results were presented as the mean counts per minute (CPM) per well and S.D. of four determinations. The results were as follows. : The DNA synthetic activity of human gingival fibroblasts was increased dose-dependently by transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$ at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. The maximum mitogenic effects were at the 48 hour application of transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$. The DNA synthetic activity was generally more decreased at the 72 hour application than at the 48 hour the application of transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$. The DNA synthetic activity of human periodontal ligament cells was increased dose-dependently by transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$ at 24 hours and 48 hours. But the DNA synthetic activity was decreased at 5ng/ml of the 72 hour application. The maximum mitogenic effects were also at the 48 hour application of transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$. The DNA synthetic activity of human periodontal ligament cells was generally more decreased at the 72 hour application than at the 48 hour application of transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$. In the comparision of DNA synthetic activity between the human gingival fibroblasts and human periodontal ligament cells, the human gingival fibroblasts had more activity than the human periodontal ligament cells at all time application with the concentration of transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$. In conclusion, transforming growth $factor-{\beta}1$ has an important roles in the stimulation of DNA synthesis in human periodontal ligament cells and human gingival fibroblasts, which means an increase in collagen synthesizing cells and thus, may be useful for clinical application in periodontal regenerative procedures.

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The Effect of Platelets on Endothelin Production in Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (혈소판이 소 폐동백 내피세포의 Endothelin 생산에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Do;Shim, Tae-Sun;Kwon, Seog-Woon;Ryu, Jin-Sook;Lee, Jae-Dam;Lim, Chae-Man;Koh, Youn-Suck;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.1114-1124
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    • 1997
  • Background : Endothelin(ET) is a very potent vasoconstrictive peptide produced by endothelial cells of pulmonary artery. The endothelin level was increased in plasma of primary pulmonary hypertension and acute pulmonary thromboembolism and it was suggested that the endothelin might do a critical role in the cardiopulmonary dysfunction in these two conditions. But the exact mechanism of increase of ET has not been known. In these two conditions, platelet activation and thrombosis are the main pathophysiologic findings. So there is a possibility that the platelet might stimulate endothelin secretion from endothelial cells. Therefore, we performed this study to evaluate the role of platelet and its mediators on endothelin production in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial(BPAE) cells. Method : Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells, ATCC certified cell line 209, were cultured and treated with human platelets($10^6{\sim}10^8/ml$), thrombin (0.1~10u/ml), TGF-${\beta}1$(1~100uM), serotonin(1~100uM), and endotoxin(1ug/ml) in a final volume of 500ul for 18 hours. Levels of ir(immunoreactive)-ET in each conditioned medium were measured by a radioimmunoassay specific for ET. Result : The increase of ir-ET levels was platelet number and time dependent over 18 hours. When washed human platelets were added($10^8/ml$), the ir-ET levels were significantly higher than that of control(p<0.05) at 8 and 18 hours after culture. Subthreshold concentration of platelets($10^7/ml$) coincubated with endotoxin(1ug/ml) or subthreshold dose of thrombin(0.1u/ml) stimulated ir-ET secretion from BPAE cells significantly(p<0.05) compared with control. Thrombin(1ug/ml, 10ug/ml) and TGF-${\beta}1$(100pM, 1000pM) significantly increased ir-ET secretion from BP AE cells(p<0.05) compared with control, but serotoin(1~100uM) and endotoxin(1ug/ml) did not stimulate the ir-ET secretion. Conclusions : Platelets stimulate endothelin secretion from bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. The mechanism of increase of endothelin secretion seems to be a stimulation by platelet itself or by mediators, such as TGF-${\beta}1$, secreted from activated platelets. And, in this study, the priming effect of platelets on endothelin secretion from BPAE cells could be another possibility.

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Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Food Consumption and Growth of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio L. (잉어 Cyprinus carpio의 먹이 섭취량과 성장에 미치는 용존산소량의 영향)

  • SAIFABADI Jafar;KIM In-Bae
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.53-90
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    • 1989
  • Feeding proper level of ration matchable with the appetite of fish will enhance production and also prevent waste of food and its consequence, side effects such as pollution of culture medium. To pursue this goal, elaborate studies on dissolved oxygen concentrations- as the major force in inducing appetite and the growth outcome are necessary. The growth of common carp of 67, 200, 400, 600, and 800 gram size groups was studied at oxygen concentrations ranging from 2.0 to 6 mg/$\iota$ in relation to rations from 1 to as many percent of the initial body weight as could be consumed under constant temperature of $25^{\circ}C$. The results from the experiments are summarized as followings; 1. Appetite: The smaller fish exhibited higher degree of appetite than the bigger ones at the same oxygen concentrations. The bigger the fish the less tolerant it was to the lower oxygen thersholds, and the degree of tolerence decreased as ration level increased. 2. Growth : Growth rate (percent per day) increased - unless consumption was suppressed by low oxygen levels- as the ration was increased to maximum. In case of 67 g fish, it reached the highest point of $5.05\%$ / day at $7\%$ ration under 5.0 mg/$\iota$ of oxygen. In case of 200 g fish, the maximum growth rate of $3.75\%$/day appeared at the maximum ration of $6\%$ under 5.5 mg/$\iota$ of oxygen. In 400 g fish, the highest growth of $3.37\%$/day occurred at the maximum ration of $5\%$ and 6.0 mg/$\iota$ of oxygen. In 600 g fish, the highest growth rate of $2.82\%$ /day was at the maximum ration of $4\%$ under 5.5 mg/$\iota$ oxygen. In case of 800g fish, the highest growth rate of $1.95\%$/day was at maximum tested ration of $3\%$ under 5.0 mg/$\iota$ oxygen. 3. Food Conversion Efficiency: Food conversion efficiency ($\%$ dry feed converted into the fish tissue) first increased as the ration was increased, reached maximum at certain food level, then started decreasing with further increase in the ration. The maximum conversion efficiency stood at higher feeding rate for the smaller fish than the larger ones. In case of 67 g fish, the maximum food conversion efficiency was at $4\%$ ration within 3.0-4.0 mg/$\iota$ oxygen. In 200g fish, the maximum efficiency was at $3\%$ ration within 4.0-4.5 mg/$\iota$ oxygen. In 400g fish, the maximum efficiency was at $2\%$ ration within 4.0 - 4.5 mg/$\iota$ oxygen. In 600 and 800g fish, the maximum conversion efficiency shifted to the lowest ration ($1\%$) and lower oxygen ranges. 4. Behaviour: The fish within uncomfortably low oxygen levels exhibited suppressed appetite and movements and were observed to pass feces quicker and in larger quantity than the ones in normal condition; in untolerably low oxygen the fish were lethargic, vomited, and had their normal skin color changed into pale yellow or grey patches. All these processes contributed to reducing food conversion efficiency. On the other hand, the fish within relatively higher oxygen concentrations exhibited higher degree of movement and their food conversion tended to be depressed when compared with sister groups under corresponding size and ration within relatively low oxyen level. 5. Suitability of Oxygen Ranges to Rations: The oxygen level of 2.0- 2.5 mg/$\iota$ was adequate to sustain appetite at $1\%$ ration in all size groups. As the ration was increased higher oxygen was required to sustain the fish appetite and metabolic activity, particularly in larger fish. In 67g fish, the $2\%$ ration was well supported by 2.0-2.5 mg/$\iota$ range; as the ration increased to $5\%$, higher range of 3.0-4.0 mg/$\iota$ brought better appetite and growth; from 5 till $7\%$ (the last tested ration for 67 g fish) oxygen levels over 4.0 mg/$\iota$ could sustain appetite. In 200 g fish, the 2 and $3\%$ rations brought the best growth and conversion rates at 3.5-4.5 mg/$\iota$ oxygen level; from 3 till $6\%$ (the last tested ration at 200 g fish) oxyge groups over 4.5 mg/$\iota$ were matchable with animal's appetite. In 400, 600, and 800 g fish, all the rations above $2\%$ had to be generally supported with oxygen levels above 4.5 mg/$\iota$.

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A Study on the Meaning and Cultural Properties Value of Rock-Go-Board from the Viewpoint of Site and Location Characteristics (입지와 장소 특성으로 본 암각바둑판의 의미와 문화재적 가치)

  • Park, Joo Sung;Rho, Jae Hyun;Sim, Woo Kyung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.172-205
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    • 2011
  • Go bears significant meanings in terms of cultural and entertaining functions in Asia Eastern such as China and Japan. Beyond the mere entertaining level, it produces philosophical and mythic discourse as well. As a part of effort to seek an identity of Korean traditional garden culture, this study traced back to find meanings of rock-go-board and taste for the arts which ancestors pursued in playing Go game, through analysis and interpretation of correlation among origin of place name, nearby scenery, carved letters and vicinal handed-down place name. At the same time, their position, shape and location types were interpreted through comprehensive research and analysis of stone-go-boards including rock-go-board. Particularly, it focused on the rock names related to Sundoism(仙道) Ideal world, fixed due to a connection between traces of Sundoism and places in a folk etymology. Series of this work is to highlight features of the immortal sceneries, one of traditional landscaping ideals, by understanding place identity and scenic features of where the rock-go-boards are carved. These works are expected to become foundation for promotion and preservation of the traditional landscaping remains. The contents of this study could be summarized as follows; First, round stone and square board for round sky and angled land, black and white color for harmony of yin and yang and 361paths for rotating sky are symbols projecting order of universe. Sayings of Gyuljungjirak(橘中之樂), Sangsansaho(商山四皓), Nangagosa(爛柯故事) formed based on the idea of eternity stand for union of sky and sun. It indicates Go game which matches life and nature spatiotemporally and elegant taste for arts pursuing beauty and leisure. Second, the stone-go-boards found through this research, are 18 in total. 3 of those(16.1%), Gangjin Weolnamsaji, Yangsan Sohanjeong and Banryongdae ones were classified into movable Seokguk and 15(83.9%) including Banghakdong were turned out to be non-movable rock-go-boards carved on natural rocks. Third, upon the result of materializing location types of rock-go-boards, 15 are mountain stream type(83.9%) and 3 are rock peak type(16.1%). Among those, the one at Sobaeksam Sinseonbong is located at the highest place(1,389m). Considering the fact that all of 15 rock-go-boards were found at mountainous areas lower than 500m, it is recognizable that where the Go-boards are the parts of the living space, not far from secular world. Fourth, there are 7 Sunjang(巡將) Go with 17 Hwajeoms(花點), which is a traditional Go board type, but their existences, numbers and shapes of Hwajeom appear variously. Based on the fact, it is recognizable that culture of making go-board had been handed down for an extended period of time. Among the studied rock-goboards, the biggest one was Muju Sasunam[$80(82)cm{\times}80(82)cm$] while the smallest one was Yangsan Sohandjeong Seokguk ($40cm{\times}40cm$). The dimension of length and breadth are both $49cm{\times}48cm$ on average, which is realistic size for actual Go play. Fifth, the biggest bed rock, an under-masonry with carved Go-board on it, was one in Muju Sasunam[$8.7m{\times}7.5m(65.25m^2)$], followed by ones in Hoengseong Chuiseok[$7.8m{\times}6.3m(49.14m^2$] and Goisan Sungukam[$6.7m{\times}5.7m(37.14m^2)$]. Meanwhile, the smallest rock-go-board was turned out to be one in Seoul Banghak-dong. There was no consistency in directions of the Go-boards, which gives a hint that geographical features and sceneries of locations were considered first and then these were carved toward an optimal direction corresponding to the conditions. Sixth, rock-go-boards were all located in valleys and peaks of mountains with breathtaking scenery. It seems closely related to ancestors' taste for arts. Particularly, rock-go-boards are apprehended as facilities related to taste for arts for having leisure in many mountains and big streams under the idea of union of sky and human as a primitive communal line. Go became a medium of hermits, which is a traditional image of Go-game, and symbol of amusement and entertainment with the idea that Go is an essence of scholar culture enabling to reach the Tao of turning back to nature. Seventh, the further ancient time going back to, the more dreamlike the Go-boards are. It is an evident for that Sundoism, which used to be unacceptable once, became more visible and realistic. Considering the high relation between rock-go-boards and Sundoism relevant names such as Sundoism peak in Danyang Sobaeksan, 4 hermits rock in Muju and Sundoism hermit rock in Jangsu, Sundoism hermit rocks and rock-go-boards are sceneries and observation spots to express a communication of worship and longing for Sundoism. Eighth, 3 elements-physical environment such as location type of the rock-go-boards, human activities concentrated on 8 sceneries and Dongcheongugok(洞天九曲) setup and relevancy to Confucian scholars, as well as 'Sangsansaho' motif and 'Nangagosa' symbolic meaning were used as interpretation tools in order to judge the place identity. Upon the result, spatial investigation is required with respect to Sunyoodongcheon(仙遊洞天) concept based on enjoyment to unify with the nature rather than Dongcheongugok concept of neo-Confucian, for Dongcheon and Dongmoon(洞門) motives carved around the rock-go-boards. Generally, places where mountain stream type rock-go-boards were formed were hermit spaces of Confucianism or Sundoism. They are considered to have compromised one other with the change of times. Particularly, in the rock-go-board at the mountain peak, sublimity-oriented advent of Sundoism is considered as a significant factor to control place identity. Ninth, including where the rock-go-boards were established, the vicinal areas are well-known as parts of Dongcheongugok and Palkyung(八景) mostly. In addition, many of Sundoism relevant expressions were discovered even in the neighboring carvings written by scholars and nobility, which means sophisticated taste based on longing for Sundoism world played a significant role in making go-board. The rock-go-board is an integration of cultural phenomena naturally managed by seclusion of scholars in the Joseon Dynasty as well as remains and essence of Korean traditional landscaping. Some rock-go-boards out of 17 discovered in South Korea, including ones in Sobaeksan Sinsunbong, Banghak-dong, Chungju Gongili, Muju Sasunam, Yangsan Eogokdong Banryongdae Seokguk, are damaged such as cracks in rocks or fainted lines by hardships of time and hand stains. Worse yet, in case of Eunyang Bangudae Jipcheongjeong board, it is very difficult to identify the shape due to being buried. Rock-go-boards are valuable sculptures in terms of cultural asset and artwork since they reflect ancestors' love for nature and longing for Sundoism world. Therefore, they should be maintained properly with right preservation method. Not only rock-boards itself but also peripheral places are excellent cultural heritages and crucial cultural assets. In addition, vicinal sceneries of where rock-goboards and pavilion spots are the representative remains of embracing prototype of Korean traditional landscaping and major parts of cultural properties.