• Title/Summary/Keyword: cyclodextrin glucanotransferase

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Synthesis of Glucosyl-sugar Alcohols Using Glycosyltransferases and Structural Identification of Glucosyl-maltitol

  • Kim, Tae-Kwon;Park, Dong-Chan;Lee, Yong-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.310-317
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    • 1997
  • Enzymatic synthesis of glucosyl-sugar alcohols using various transglycosylating enzymes, such as cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase), ${\alpha}$-amylase, ${\alpha}$-glucosidase, and pullulanase was investigated using various sugar alcohols, such as sorbitol, xylitol, inositol, maltitol, and lactitol as glucosyl acceptors. CGTase showed the highest transglycosylating activity to sugar alcohols compared to other transglycosylating enzymes, and inositol and maltitol were the most suitable glucosyl acceptors. Soluble starch, extruded starch, cyclodextrins, and maltooligosaccharides were also identified to be adequate glucosyl donors for transglycosylation reaction of CGTase to sugar alcohols. The synthesis of glucosyl-maltitol in the reaction system using extruded starch as the glucosyl donor and maltitol as the glucosyl acceptor showed the best results showing the highest transglycosylation yield. The transglycosylation products were purified by activated carbon column chromatography with ethanol gradient elution. Chemical structures of above transglucosylated products were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and two products were identified to be maltotritol and maltotetraitol, in which one or two glucose molecules attached to the parent maltitol molecule by a ${\alpha}$-l,4-glucosidic bond, respectively.

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Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase와 Cyclodextrinase를 생산하는 Bacillus 속 세균의 분리와 그 효소들의 특성

  • Kwon, Hyun-Ju;Nam, Soo-Wan;Kim, Kwang-Hyun;Kwak, Young-Gyu;Kim, Byung-Woo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.274-281
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    • 1996
  • A bacterium producing Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase (CGTase) and Cyclodextrinase (CDase) was isolated from soil, and named as Bacillus stearothermophilus KJ16. The growth of the isolated strain occurred in two steps, and syntheses of CGTase and CDase were dependedt on the growth cycle of the cell. CGTase was constitutively synthesized during the 1st growing phase, while CDase was synthesized inducibly during the 2nd growing phase. When the midium pH was controlled at 7.0 the maximum enzyme activities of CGTase and CDase were increased by 12-fold (1300 mU/ml) and 2-fold (225 mU/ml), respectively, compared with the pH-uncontrolled batch culture. The CGTase of the isolate converted soluble starch to CDs with the ratio of $\alpha$-CD:$\beta$-CD:$\gamma$-CD=42:46:12 at $55^{\circ}C$.The optimal pH and temperature of CGTase were 6.0 and $60^{\circ}C$, respectively and the optimal pH and temperature of CDase were 6.0 and $55^{\circ}C$. The molecular weights of the purified CGTase and CDase were estimated to be 65, 000 and 68, 000 dalton, respectively. Among several substrates, $\gamma$-CD was most rapidly hydrolyzed by the purified CDase.

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Continuous Production of Cyclodextrin in Two-Stage Immobilized Enzyme Reactor Coupled with Ultrafiltration Recycle System (2단계 고정화 효소반응기를 활용한 Cyclodextrin의 연속생산)

  • Lee, Yong-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Ho;Han, Il-Keun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 1991
  • The two-stage enzyme reactor, packed with cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) immobilized on Amberite IRA 900, coupled with ultrafiltration membrane was investigated for continuous production of cyclodextrin (CD). 5% (w/v) of soluble starch was partially cyclized, in the 0.1 l first-stage immobilized enzyme reactor, up to CD conversion yield of 10% (w/w) at retention time of 0.56hr and 1.5 units of immobilized CGTase/1g of carrier. In the second stage main immobilized enzyme reactor capacity of 1.5 l, the maximum CD conversion yield of 39% (w/v) was achieved at retention time of 2.8hr and 0.47 unit of CGTase/1 g of carrier. Unreacted residual dextrin was fractionated with ultrafiltration membrane, and then, recycled into the second-stage main bioreactor to increase the CD conversion yield. The most suitable membrane size and the volume concentration ratio (concentrate: filterate) for recycling of unreacted residual dextrin were found to be 5K dalton and 4:6, respectively. CD conversion yield was increased about 3~4% upon co-immobilization of pulluanase along with CGTase. Spent Amberite IRA 900 can be reutilized consecutively more than 3 times for immobilization of CGTase after regeneration.

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Enzymatic Synthesis of Cyclodextrin in an Heterogeneous Enzyme Reaction System Containing Insoluble Extruded Starch (Extrusion 전분을 기질로 한 불균일상 효소반응계에서의 Cyclodextrin 효소합성)

  • 이용현;박동찬
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.514-520
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    • 1991
  • Direct synthesis of cyclodextrin (CD) from extruded insoluble corn starch without liquefaction procedure using cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) was carried out. Increased CD production rate and yield were achieved in heterogeneous enzyme reaction system containing extruded corn starch compared with those of conventional system employing liquefied or partially cyclized starch. At extruded starch concentration of 100 g/l the CD concentration and conversion yield were reached up to 54 g/l and 0.54, respectively. High purity of $\alpha \beta \gamma$-CDs without accumulation of undesirable malto-oligosaccharides was produced, furthermore, the residual extruded starch was easily separated by centrifugation from reaction mixture, whlch will facilitate the purification procedure. Granular structure of extruded starch was observed by SEM to investigate enzyme reaction mechanism. Supplemental addition of $\alpha$-amylase enhanced slightly the initial CD production rate, but it decomposed produced CD at the late stage. Various! extruded raw starches, such as, corn, rice, and barley were also suitable substrates for CD production.

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Organic Solvent and pH Induced Alteration of Product Specificity of CGTase

  • Park, Kyo-Sun;Oh, Hyun-Mi;Choe, Hui-Woog;Park, Chung-Ung;Lee, Kang-Min
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.78-81
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    • 1998
  • Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase [CGTase, E.C.2.4.1.19] is an extracellular enzyme, which catalyzes he formation of ${\alpha}$-, ${\beta}$-, ${\gamma}$- CDs from starch. Their proportions of formations depend on enzyme sources and reaction conditions. To understand what determines the product specificity of CGTases, we examined the alteration of product specificity of CGTase from Bacillus macerans by organic solvent sand pH. At acidic pH range less than pH 6 where the enzyme was unstable, the ratio of ${\alpha}$-/ ${\beta}$-CD production was increased 4 times more than that at neutral pH range. As we increased the concentration of 2-butanol, ${\alpha}$-/ ${\beta}$-CD ratio was proportionally increased but / ratio remained constant. The ${\alpha}$-/ ${\beta}$-CD ratio of products was increased in the reaction media which yielded low products.

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Structure of the Starch-Binding Domain of Bacillus cereus $\beta-Amylase$

  • Yoon, Hye-Jin;Akira, Hirata;Motoyasu, Adachi;Atsushi, Sekine;Shigeru, Utsumi;Bunzo, Mikami
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.619-623
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    • 1999
  • The C-terminal starch-binding domain of Bacillus cereus $\beta$-amylase expressed in Escherichia coli was purified and crystallized using the vapor diffusion method. The crystals obtained belong to a space group of $P3_2$ 21 with cell dimensions, a=b=60.20${\AA},\; c=64.92{\AA},\; and \; \gamma = 120^{\circ}$ The structure was determined by the molecular replacement method and refined at 1.95 ${\AA}$, with R-factors of 0.181. The final model of the starch-binding domain comprised 99 amino acid residues and 108 water molecules. The starch-binding domain had a secondary structure of two 4-stranded antiparallel p-sheets similar to domain E of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase and the C-terminal starch-binding domain of glucoamylase. A comparison of the structures of these starch-binding domains revealed that the separated starch-binding domain of Bacillus cereus $\beta-Amylase$had only one starch-binding site (site 1) in contrast to two sites (site 1 and site 2) reported in the domains of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase and glucoamylase.

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GroEL/ES Chaperone and Low Culture Temperature Synergistically Enhanced the Soluble Expression of CGTase in E. coli

  • Park, So-Lim;Kwon, Mi-Jung;Kim, Sung-Koo;Nam, Soo-Wan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.216-219
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    • 2004
  • The effect of culture temperature on the production of soluble form of B. macerans cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) in recombinant E. coli was investigated. E. coli cell was cotransformed with two plasmids (pTCGT1 and pGroll) in which the cgt and groEL/ES genes are under the control of T7 promoter and pzt-1 promoter, respectively. When tetracycline (10 ng/ml) and IPTG (l mM) were added as inducers at the early-exponential phase (2 h) and mid-exponential phase (3h), respectively, the solubilization of the inclusion body CGTase was greatly dependent on the temperature of the culture. At low culture temperature of $25^\circ{C}$, 2- or 3-fold higher activity and specific activity were obtained over $37^\circ{C}$. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that about 62% of CGTase in the total CGTase protein was found in the soluble fraction by applying overexpression of GroEL/ES chaperone and by cultivation of E. coli at $25^\circ{C}$, whereas 33% of CGTase was detected in the soluble fraction at $37^\circ{C}$. Therefore, the expression of GroEL/ES and cultivation at $25^\circ{C}$ greatly enhanced the soluble production of CGTase in E. coli.

Bacillus sp. KJ16에서 Cyclodextrin Gluanotransferase와 Cyclodextrinase 생산의 Catabolite Repression

  • 김병우;권현주;이경희
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 1996
  • The biosynthesis and catabolite repression of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase(CGTase) and cyclodextrinase(CDase) were studied in Bacillus sp. KJI6. In accompanying to the cell growth, CGTase was synthesized during early growth phase (20h culture) and CDase was synthesized during late growth phase (60h culture). Synthesis of CGTase was rather constitutive than that of CDase in the absence or presence of carbon source. Production of CDase was strongly stimulated by amylopectin and $\gamma$-CD medium (about 6 times), but CGTase synthesis was slightly increased (about 1.3 times). Easily metabolizable carbohydrates such as D-glucose, D- fructose and D-mannose completely repressed the expression of CDase, whereas their repressive effect to CGTase synthesis was relatively negligible. By addition of 10 mM cAMP, any significant effect on the synthesis of the two enzymes was not observed. Hardly metabolizable glucose analogues such as 2-deoxy-D-glucose and 3-0-methyl-D-glucopyranose also did not show any repression on the syntheses of CGTase and CDase. This indicates that D-glucose has to be metabolized to exert its repressive effect. With these results, it seems likely that the biosynthesis of CGTase and CDase are regulated by the catabolite repression due to unknown metabolite(s) of EM pathway.

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Purification and Properties of Cyclodextrin Glucanotrnsferase Synthesizing $2-O-{\alpha}-D-Glucopyranosyl{\;}_{L}-Ascorbic$ Acid from Paenibacillus sp. JB-13

  • Bae, Kyung-Mi;Kim, Sung-Koo;Kong, In-Soo;Jun, Hong-Ki
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.242-250
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    • 2001
  • A Gram-positive bacterium (strain JB-13) that was isolated from soil as a producer of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) [EC 2.4.1.19] was identified as Panibacillus sp. JB-13. This CGTase could catalyze the transglucosylation reaction from soluble starch to L-ascorbic acid (AA). A main product formed by this enzyme with ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ was identified as $2-O-{\alpha}-D-glucopyranosyl{\;}_{L}-ascorbic$ acid (AA-2G) by the HPLC profile and the elemental analysis. CGTase was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Seohadex A-50, and gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-200HR. The molecular weight was determined to be 66,000 by both gel chromatography and SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of the purified enzyme was 5.3. The optimum pH and temperature was PH 7.0 and $45^{\circ}C$ respectively. The enzyme was stable in the range of pH 6-9 and at temperatures of $75{\circ}C$ or less in the presence of 15 mM ${CaCl_2}.\;{Hg^2+},\;{Mn^+2},{Ag^+},\;and\;{Cu^2+}$ all strongly inhibited the enzyme's activity.

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Display of Bacillus macerans Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase on Cell Surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Kim, Kyu-Yong;Kim, Myoun-Dong;Han, Nam-Soo;Seo, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.411-416
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    • 2002
  • Bacillus macerans cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) was expressed on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by fusing with Aga2p linked to the membrane-anchored protein, Aga1p. The surface display of CGTase was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and its enzymatic ability to form ${\alpha}$-cyclodextrin from starch. The maximum surface-display of CGTase was obtained by growing recombinant S. cerevisiae at $20^{\circ}C$ and pH 6.0. S. cerevisiae cells displaying CGTase on their surface consumed glucose and maltose, inhibitory byproducts of the CGTase reaction, to enhance the purity of produced cyclodextrins. Accordingly, the experimental results described herein suggest a possibility of using the recombinant S.cerevisiae anchored with bacterial CGTase on the cell surface as a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of cyclodextrin.