• Title, Summary, Keyword: cytokine

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Glycoproteins Contained within Soamsan, a Traditional Oriental Medicine, are the Main Class of Active Ingredients Responsible for the Medicine-induced Immune Stimulation

  • Lee, Jeong-Chae;Lee, Kyung-Yeol;Jung, Ha-Na;Kim, Jae-Gon;Jang, Yong-Suk
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.253-257
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    • 2005
  • In our previous study, Soamsan, a traditional Oriental medicine, was shown to enhance the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, and it was speculated that the enhancing activity might be closely associated with glycoproteins contained within the medicine. To elucidate this speculation, protein samples from each component, used in the preparation of Soamsan, were obtained and their immune stimulating activities were tested with mouse splenocytes. All the samples markedly enhanced the lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion by the mouse splenocytes. In particular, the enhancement was significantly higher with the protein sample treatments than with those of the original crude sample. Furthermore, the pronase E- and $NaIO_4$-mediated inhibition of splenocyte-stimulation activity of the protein samples clearly supported that glycoproteins are the main class of active ingredients responsible for the lymphocyte stimulating activity of the samples. Consequently, our findings suggest that glycoproteins might have a pivotal role in Soamsan-mediated immune modulation, although the in vivo effect of the glycoproteins should be further elucidated.

Comparative study of Various Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture - By measuring the increase of life span of mice and Expression of cytokine mRNA -

  • Kwon, Ki-Rok;Kim, Byung-Woo
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.203-210
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate anti-cancer effects of various ginseng herbal acupuncture in mice and expression of cytokine mRNA. Methods: Anti-cancer effects of various ginseng herbal acupuncture were tested by measuring the increase of life span of mice suffering from peritoneal cancer induced by Sarcoma-180, and expression of mRNA manifestation using RT-PCR. The results are as follows: Results: 1. Increase of life span of mice suffering from peritoneal cancer induced by Sarcoma-180 was measured for anti-cancer effects. As a result, 115% increase was shown in the cultivated wild ginseng group, 11.1% increase in the red ginseng group, and no increase was detected in either white ginseng and fresh ginseng groups. 2. Measuring the expression of cytokine mRNA manifestation, expression of $interferon-{\gamma}$ was slightly increased in the cultivated wild ginseng group compared to the control group, but manifestation of interleukin-10 was slightly decreased. 3. For the red ginseng, white ginseng, and fresh ginseng experiment groups II, IL-2, IL-4, $INF-{\gamma}$, and IL -10 all showed increase suggesting possible error occurring during the test process. Conclusion: From the results obtained in this study, we can reason that the ginseng we use may not match the ginseng cited in the texts of the past. Anti-cancer effects of cultivated wild ginseng can be more potent than those of white and fresh ginseng.

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Th1 and Th2 cytokine Modulation by Baicalin, Baicalein and Wogonin from Scutellaria Radex on the $CD4^+$ Jurkat T Cells ($CD4^+$ Jurkat T 세포주에서 Th1과 Th2 사이토가인 조절에 미치는 황금 유래 Baicalin, Baicalein 및 Wogonin의 효과)

  • Kim Young Jun;Lee Jeong Chi;Kim Hong Yong;Xie Guanghua;Yun Yong Gab;Jang Seon Il
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.922-927
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    • 2005
  • In the present study, baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin, a major flavone isolated from Scutellaria Radix were examined for their effects on PMA-induced Interlukin-6 (IL-6), $interferon-\gamma(IFN-\gamma)$, tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-\alpha$, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 productions in the PMA-stimulated $CD4^+$ Jurkat T cells. These three compounds inhibited PMA-induced Th1 cytokine $(IL-6,\;IFN-\gamma,\;TNF-\alpha)$ and Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) productions in a concentration-dependent manner. But wogonin, but not baicalin baicalein, increased PMA-induced IL-10 production. These results suggest that baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin, a major flavone modulate Th1 and Th2 cytokine productions in $CD4^+$ Jurkat T cells and these properties may contribute to the anti-atopic dermatitis activity of Scutellaria Radix.

Factors Influencing the Production of Water-soluble Endopolysaccharides and Exopolysaccharides from Lentinus lepideus and their Effects on Immune Cytokine Production

  • Lee, Wi-Young;Ahn, Jin-Kwon;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Ka, Kang-Hyeon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.560-567
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    • 2008
  • An efficient method to produce water-soluble polysaccharides from Lentinus lepideus is described. The productivity of both endopolysaccharides (PPS) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) was compared under various culture conditions. The effect of treating their own PPS and EPS on immune cytokine production was also studied in relation to culture factors. High yield production of EPS required a moderate culture temperature $(25^{\circ}C)$ as well as long culture period (16-20 days). In contrast, PPS production required a high culture temperature $(30^{\circ}C)$ and short culture period (8 days). Most of the carbon sources did not affect polysaccharides and mycelial production except for sucrose. Immune cytokine levels in the EPS treatment varied among carbon sources or culture periods. PPS did not appear to affect much on the production of cytokines, regardless of the culturing factors, except for the culture period. These results suggest that the optimal culture conditions for L. lepideus vary according to culture purposes, and different culture conditions should be used for different targets including mycelial biomass, EPS, and PPS. Whereas the immunomodulating activitiy of EPS appeared to be affected by culture conditions in L. lepideus, that of PPS did not.

Effect of Job's Tear(Yul-Moo) Extracts on Mouse Oral Administration $IL-l{\beta}$, IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$, IL-10 Cytokine Production by Peritoneal Macrophage for Two Weeks (2주 동안의 율무 추출물 경구 투여가 복강대식세포의 사이토카인 $IL-1{\beta}$, IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$, IL-10 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Hye-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.204-209
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    • 2008
  • The present study examined the ex vivo effect of Job's tear on immune function. Seven to eight week old mice(Balb/c) were fed a chow diet ad libitum two different concentrations (50 and 500 mg/kg BW) of water extract of Job's tear were orally administ every other day for two weeks. The results indicated that macrophage activation had occurred in the mice receiving 50 mg/kg B. W. of Job's tear water extract. Overall, using a mouse model, this study demonstrated that Job's tear extract may enhance immune function by regulating the $IL-1{\beta}$, IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$ and IL-10 cytokine production capacity of activated macrophages in mice. This study may suggest that supplementation of Job's tear water extracts may enhance the immune function by regulating the enhancing the cytokine production by activated macrophage ex vivo.

Inhibition of Human Pancreatic Tumor Growth by Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells in Nude Mouse Xenograft Model

  • Kim, Ji Sung;Park, Yun Soo;Kim, Ju Young;Kim, Yong Guk;Kim, Yeon Jin;Lee, Hong Kyung;Kim, Hyung Sook;Hong, Jin Tae;Kim, Youngsoo;Han, Sang-Bae
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.247-252
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    • 2012
  • Pancreatic cancer is the fourth commonest cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. However, no adequate therapy for pancreatic cancer has yet been found. In this study, the antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against the human pancreatic cancer was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with IL-2-containing medium in anti-CD3 for 14 days. The resulting populations of CIK cells comprised 94% $CD3^+$, 4% $CD3^-CD56^+$, 41% $CD3^+CD56^+$, 11% $CD4^+$, and 73% $CD8^+$. This heterogeneous cell population was called cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells. At an effector-target cell ratio of 100 : 1, CIK cells destroyed 51% of AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, as measured by the $^{51}Cr$-release assay. In addition, CIK cells at doses of 3 and 10 million cells per mouse inhibited 42% and 70% of AsPC-1 tumor growth in nude mouse xenograft assays, respectively. This study suggests that CIK cells may be used as an adoptive immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer patients.

Role of Cytokines in Genesis, Progression and Prognosis of Cervical Cancer

  • Paradkar, Prajakta Hemant;Joshi, Jayashree Vinay;Mertia, Priyanka Nirmalsingh;Agashe, Shubhada Vidyadhar;Vaidya, Rama Ashok
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.3851-3864
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    • 2014
  • Cytokine research is currently at the forefront in cancer research. Deciphering the functions of these multiple small molecules, discovered within the cell and in intercellular spaces, with their abundance and pleotrophism, was initially a great challenge. Advances in analytical chemistry and molecular biology have made it possible to unravel the pathophysiological functions of these polypeptides/proteins which are called interleukins, chemokines, monokines, lymphokines and growth factors. With more than 5 million women contracting cervical cancer every year this cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity the world over, particularly in the developing countries. In more than 95% of cases it is associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection which is persistent, particularly in those with a defective immune system. Although preventable, the mere magnitude of prevalence of HPV in the world population makes it a dominating current health hazard. The discovery of cytokine dysregulation in cervical cancer has spurted investigation into the possibility of using them as biomarkers in the early diagnosis of cases at high risk of developing cancer. Their critical role in carcinogenesis and progression of cervical cancer is now being revealed to a great extent. From diagnostics to prognosis, and now with a possible role in therapeutics and prevention of cervical cancer, the cytokines are being evaluated in all anticancer approaches. This review endeavours to capture the essence of the astonishing journey of cytokine research in cervical neoplasia.

DOSE AND DOSE RATE EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION ON BLOOD COUNT AND CYTOKINE LEVEL IN BALB/c MICE

  • Son, Yeonghoon;Jung, Dong Hyuk;Kim, Sung Dae;Lee, Chang Geun;Yang, Kwangmo;Kim, Joong Sun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.179-184
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    • 2013
  • The biological effects of radiation are dependent on the dose rate and dose of radiation. In this study, effects of dose and dose rate using whole body radiation on plasma cytokines and blood count from male BALB/c mice were evaluated. We examined the blood and cytokine changes in mice exposed to a low (3.49m Gy $h^{-1}$) and high (2.6 Gy $min^{-1}$) dose rate of radiation at a total dose of 0.5 and 2 Gy, respectively. Blood from mice exposed to radiation were evaluated using cytokine assays and complete blood count. Peripheral lymphocytes and neutrophils decreased in a dose dependent manner following high dose rate radiation. The peripheral lymphocytes population remained unchanged following low dose rate radiation; however, the neutrophils population increased after radiation. The sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of flt3 ligand and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), after high/low dose rate radiation. These results suggest that low-dose-rate radiation does not induce blood damage, which was unlike high-dose-rate radiation treatment; low-dose-rate radiation exposure activated the hematopoiesis through the increase of flt3 ligand and G-CSF.

Circulating Cytokine Levels and Changes During the Treatment in Patients with Active Tuberculosis in Korea (결핵 환자의 치료경과 중 혈청 내 Cytokine 분비와 변화)

  • Ryu, Yon-Ju;Kim, Yun-Jung;Kwon, Jung-Mi;Na, Youn-Ju;Jung, Yu-Jin;Seoh, Ju Young;Cheon, Seon Hee
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.140-153
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    • 2003
  • Background : The cell-mediated immune reaction to tuberculosis infection involves a complex network of cytokines. The extent of inflammation, tissue damage and severity of the disease suggested to be determined by the balance between extent and duration of the proinflammatory cytokine response versus those of the suppressive cytokines. The systemic cytokine response in pathogenesis of tuberculosis can be assessed by measuring serum cytokine levels. Method : Serum interleukin-1 beta(IL-$1{\beta}$), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p40), tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-${\alpha}$), interferon-gamma(IFN-${\gamma}$) and transforming growth factor-beta(TGF-${\beta}$) levels were measured in 83 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 10 patients with endobronchial tuberculosis before treatment and 20 healthy subjects by using a sandwich ELISA. In patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, they were divided into mild, moderate and far advanced group according to the severity by ATS guidelines. To compare with those of pretreatment levels, we measured serum IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p40), TNF-${\alpha}$, IFN-${\gamma}$ and TGF-${\beta}$ levels in 45 of 83 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis after 2 and 6 months of treatment. Results : 1) In sera of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis(n=83), IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6(p<0.05), TNF-${\alpha}$, and IFN-${\gamma}$ were elevated and TGF-${\beta}$ was decreased comparing to control. IL-2, Il-12(p40), IL-4 and IL-10 were similar between the patients with tuberculosis and control. 2) In endobronchial tuberculosis, IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ were elevated and TGF-${\beta}$ was decreased comparing to control. IL-12(p40) seemed to be elevated comparing to pulmonary tuberculosis. 3) Far advanced tuberculosis showed markedly elevated IL-6 and IFN-${\gamma}$ level(p<0.05). 4) The significant correlations were noted between IL-1, IL-6 AND TNF-${\alpha}$ and between IL-12, Il-2 and IL-4(p<0.01). 5) After 2 and 6 months of standard treatment, the level of IL-6 and IFN-${\gamma}$ was significantly decreased(p<0.05). Conclusion : These results showed that an altered balance between cytokines is likely to be involved in the extent of inflammation, tissue damage and severity of the disease tuberculosis. But, it should be considered diversities of cytokine response according to type of tuberculosis and immunity in clinical application and interpreting future studies.

Nonsaponin fraction of Korean Red Ginseng attenuates cytokine production via inhibition of TLR4 expression

  • Ahn, Huijeong;Han, Byung-Cheol;Kim, Jeongeun;Kang, Seung Goo;Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun;Jang, Kyoung Hwa;So, Seung Ho;Lee, Seung-Ho;Lee, Geun-Shik
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.291-299
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    • 2019
  • Background: Ginsenosides of Korean Red Ginseng extracts (RGE) and its saponin components suppress secretion of inflammasome-mediating cytokines, whereas the nonsaponin fraction (NS) of RGE oppositely stimulates cytokine secretion. Although direct exposure of NS to macrophages in mice induces cytokine production, oral administration of NS has not been studied in inflammasome-related disease in animal models. Methods: Mice were fed RGE or NS for 7 days and then developed peritonitis. Peritoneal cytokines were measured, and peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) were collected to assay expression levels of a set of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines in response to NS ingestion. In addition, the role of intestinal bacteria in NS-fed mice was assessed. The effect of preexposure to NS in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) on cytokine production was further confirmed. Results: NS ingestion attenuated secretion of peritoneal cytokines resulting from peritonitis. In addition, the isolated PECs from NS-fed mice presented lower TLR transcription levels than PECs from control diet-fed mice. BMDMs treated with NS showed downregulation of TLR4 mRNA and protein expression, which was mediated by the $TLR4-MyD88-NF{\kappa}B$ signal pathway. BMDMs pretreated with NS produced less cytokines in response to TLR4 ligands. Conclusion: NS administration directly inhibits TLR4 expression in inflammatory cells such as macrophages, thereby reducing secretion of cytokines during peritonitis.