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The Effect of Samul-tanggahyangbuja on Depression and Learning on Repeated Stress in Ovariectomized Rats (사물탕가향부자(四物湯加香附子)가 난소적출 흰쥐의 우울 및 학습에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Soon-Yee;Kim, Song-Baek;Seo, Yun-Jung;Choi, Chang-Min;Cho, Han-Baek
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: In this research, the effect of samul-tanggahyangbuja on depression and learning in ovariectomized rats subjected to repetitive stress were assessed. Samul-tanggahyangbuja is the prescription consisting of Samul-tang and Cyperi Rhizoma. Methods: Ovariectomized rats were repeatedly stressed over a 2-week period. After being orally medicated with samul-tanggahyangbuja (100 or 400 mg/kg), rats performed the Morris water maze test and forced swimming test, and social exploration was assessed in a behavior test. As well, sucrose intake was measured and measurements of blood serum corticosterone and the change of interleukin-$1{\beta}$ (IL-$1{\beta}$) and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) in blood samples were made. Results: 1. In the Morris water maze test, rats medicated with 100 mg samul-tanggahyangbuja mastered the maze in a shorter time on the 4th day in comparison with the control group, while rats medicated with 400 mg samul-tanggahyangbuja mastered the maze more quickly (p<0.05 on the 3rd day ; p<0.01 on the 4th day, as compared to control). 2. Immobility time in the forced swimming test was significantly decreased in rats receiving 400 mg samul-tanggahyangbuja compared with the control group (p<0.05). 3. Sucrose intake and active social behavior of rats receiving 400 mg samul-tanggahyangbuja were markedly increased in comparison with the control group (p<0.01). 4. Blood serum corticosterone measurements revealed decreased blood serum corticosterone level after medicating with samul-tanggahyangbuja. But it was not statistically significant. 5. Treatment with either dose of samul-tanggahyangbuja significantly reduced IL-$1{\beta}$ and TNF-${\alpha}$ (p<0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that samul-tanggahyangbuja possesses the anti-depressant and cognitive-enhancing activities related to menopause.

The Effect of Gyogam-dan on Depression and Immunity on Repeated Stress in Ovariectomized Rats (교감단이 우울행동과 면역기능에 미치는 효과)

  • Cheong, Hyun-Cheol;Kim, Song-Baek;Seo, Yun-Jung;Cho, Han-Baek;Choi, Chang-Min
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.18-32
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: In this research, the effect of Gyogam-dan (GGD) on depression and immunity were assessed in ovariectomized rats subjected to repetitive stress. GGD is the prescription consisting of Poria cocos and Cyperi Rhizoma. Methods: Ovariectomized rats were repeatedly stressed over a 2-week period. After GGD (100 or 400 mg/kg) were orally administered, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) were performed to evaluate depressive and anxiety response. As well, the change of corticosterone (CORT) and the change of interleukin-$1{\beta}$ (IL-$1{\beta}$) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in blood serum and in brain were mesured. Results: 1. In the EPM, there were no statistically significant differences among the groups. 2. In the FST, immobility time significantly decreased in rats of each experiment group compared with the control group (p<0.01). 3. Serum CORT level were decreased in 400 mg GGD group (p<0.05). 4. On IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-4 measurement in the serum and brain, there were not significant increase or decrease compared with the control group. Conclusions: These results suggest that GGD is effective to reduce depression-behavior in ovariectomized rats. However, GGD do not has significant efficacy to reduce anxiety-behavior in EPM test. Measurement of serum CORT level reveals significant decrease and it shows anti-depressant like effect. Results on immunity are not significant.

Effects Unripe and Ripe Rubus coreanus Miquel on Peritoneal Macrophage Gene Expression Using cDNA Microarray Analysis (미숙과와 성숙과 복분자의 섭취가 복강 Macrophages의 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung Eun;Cho, Soo-Muk;Kim, Jin;Kim, Jung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.10
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    • pp.1552-1559
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    • 2013
  • Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) has been used as one of the Korean traditional medicines for prostate health. In addition, recent studies have reported that RCM reduced chronic inflammatory diseases such as cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of unripe and ripe RCM on inflammationrelated gene expressions in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Mice were fed with 2% unripe RCM (U2), 10% unripe RCM (U10), 2% ripe RCM (R2), and 10% ripe RCM (R10) for 8 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated and stimulated with LPS then proinflammatory mediators (TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, and IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 ($PGE_2$) productions were assessed. Moreover, gene expression profiles were analyzed by cDNA microarray method. Unripe and ripe RCM significantly reduced TNF-${\alpha}$ production but only unripe RCM decreased IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 production. RCM intake significantly reduced inflammatory-related gene expressions such as arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, interleukin 11, and nitric oxide synthase 2. Furthermore, unripe and ripe RCM significantly decreased ceruloplasmin, tissue plasminogen activator, thrombospondin 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A expression which modulates symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases. RCM intake also significantly increased hypoxia inducible factor 3, alpha which is the negative regulators of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Furthermore, only unripe RCM reduced chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14, and phospholipase A2 expression. In this study, we showed that RCM had anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of pro-inflammatory mediator expressions and may reduce chronic inflammatory disease progress through regulation of gene expressions. These findings suggest that RCM might be used as a potential functional material to reduce chronic inflammatory responses.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Oxya chinensis sinuosa Ethanol Extract in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 Cells (LPS로 유도된 RAW 264.7세포에 대한 벼메뚜기(Oxya chinensis sinuosa) 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Yoon, Young-Il;Chung, Mi Yeon;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Goo, Tae-Won;Ahn, Mi-Young;Lee, Young-Bo;Han, Myung-Sea;Yun, Eun-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.370-376
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    • 2014
  • Although the grasshopper Oxya chinensis sinuosa has long been used as food in Korea, there is little data on its functional effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of O. c. sinuosa ethanol extract (OCE) in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for induction of inflammation. First, we determined that there is no cytotoxicity at $2,000{\mu}g/ml$ or less of OCE in RAW 264.7 cells. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of OCE, we investigated expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$ and interleukin (IL)-6, and pro-inflammatory enzymes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, we examined whether OCE could inhibit translocation of NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 into the nucleus in LPS induced RAW 264.7 cells. As a result, we found that the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 decreased in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells after treatment with OCE in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we confirmed a $2,000{\mu}g/ml$ concentration of OCE inhibited translocation of NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 by immunnostaining and Western blot analysis, and a decrease in the protein expression levels of iNOS and COX-2. Accordingly, we suppose that OCE has an anti-inflammatory effect through down-regulation of TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 related to ${\kappa}B$ p65 inflammatory signaling pathways.

Association of SNPs from iNOS and TLR-4 Genes with Economic Trait in Chicken (닭의 iNOS와 TLR-4 유전자 내 변이와 경제 형질 간의 연관성 분석)

  • Lim, Hee Kyong;Han, Jung-Min;Oh, Jae Don;Lee, Hak Kyo;Jeon, Gwang Joo;Lee, Jun Heon;Seo, Dong Won;Cahyadi, Muhammad;Song, Ki Duk;Choi, Kang Duk;Kong, Hong Sik
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2013
  • iNOS (Inducible nitric oxide synthase) and TLR-4 (Toll-like Receptor-4) play crucial roles in innate immunity of poultry. iNOS has been mapped to chicken chromosome 14 and implicated in a variety of chicken diseases. iNOS possesses potent antimicrobial activity, including the inhibition of microbes replication in vitro. TLR-4 is a pathogen associated molecular-pattern receptor for bacterial product, such as LPS (lipopolysaccharides) found in Gram negative bacteria, that triggers pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after engagement with ligands. In the previous studies, genetic analysis of iNOS and TLR-4 revealed the possible association of mutation in these genes with the intestinal microflora of cecum when infected with Salmonella spp. This study was aimed to augment previous findings, which show the association of iNOS (C14513T) and TLR-4 (G4409T) polymorphisms with economic traits in Korean Native Black (KNB), Rhode Island Red (RIR) and Cornish chickens. Investigation in the effect of SNPs on economic traits (layday, layw, layno, bw150, bw270, layw270) was conducted. iNOS (C14513T) had a significant effect on the average body weight at 270 days of age (p<0.05) in both KNB and RIR, whereas TLR-4 (G4409T) showed no significant correlation with all traits (p>0.05). The results obtained from using the candidate genes can be useful for the genetic improvement of body weight in both KNB and RIR breeds.

In Vitro Anti-bacterial and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Six Types of Herb Aqueous Extracts (일부 살충해독유(殺蟲解毒類) 한약의 Staphylococcus aureus에 대한 시험관 내 항균 및 항염 효과)

  • Jang, Se-Ran;Kim, Dong-Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.81-100
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: The object of this study was to observe the in vitro anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of six single aqueous herbal extracts-Quisqualis Fructus (QuF), Meliae Cortex (MeC), Arecae Semen (ArS), Crassirhizomae Rhizoma (CrR), Ulmi Pasta Semen(UlS), Torreyae Semen(ToS)- against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-activated Raw 264.7 cells. Methods: Anti-bacterial activities against S. aureus of aqueous extracts of QuF, MeC, ArS, CrR, UlS and ToS were detected using standard agar microdilution methods. In addition, the effects on the cell viability, prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 productions of LPS activated Raw 264.7 cells were detected. The anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects were respectively compared with lincomycin and piroxicam. Results: Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of aqueous extracts of QuF, MeC, ArS, CrR, UlS and ToS against S. aureus was respectively detected $5.625{\pm}4.075$ (3.125~12.500), $0.332{\pm}0.273$ (0.098~0.782), $1.094{\pm}0.428$ (0.782~1.563), $2.969{\pm}2.096$ (0.782~6.250), $9.375{\pm}4.419$ (3.125~12.500)>25 mg/ml. MIC of lincomycin was detected as $0.469{\pm}0.297$ (0.195~0.782) ${\mu}g/ml$ at same conditions. In addition, $ED_{50}$ against LPS-induced cell viabilities and cytokine releases of QuF, MeC, ArS, CrR, UlS and ToS was as follows - Cell viability: 66.370, 2.908, 1.747, 259.553, 18.150 and 34.160 mg/ml; NO production: 389.486, 0.294, 0.138, 523.060, 45.363 and 49.327 mg/ml; $PGE_2$ production: 114.271, 0.223, 0.046, 243.078, 8.829 and 28.947 mg/ml; TNF-${\alpha}$ production: 406.288, 0.343, 0.123, 9404.227, 125.406 and 140.775 mg/ml; IL-$1{\beta}$ production: 117.178, 0.135, 0.019, 237.451, 7.923 and 19.418 mg/ml; IL-6 production: 31.261, 0.105, 0.055, 128.434, 2.290 and 3.745 mg/ml. ED50 of piroxicam against LPS-induced cell viabilities, NO, $PGE_2$, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 were detected as 35.179, 6.552, 1.162, 7.273, 7.101 and $5.044{\mu}g/ml$, respectively at same conditions. Conclusions: All six single aqueous herbal extracts showed anti-bacterial effects against S. aureus, in the order of MeC, ArS, CrR, QuF and UlS aqueous extracts except for ToS; they did not showed any anti-bacterial effects (MIC>25 mg/ml). They also showed anti-inflammatory effects against LPS-activated Raw 264.7 cells in the order of ArS, MeC, UlS, ToS, QuF and CrR aqueous extracts. It means that the ArS and MeC will be showed favorable potent anti-bacterial and related anti-inflammatory effects.

The Anti-inflammatory Effect of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Oil in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 Cells and Mouse Models (LPS 유도 RAW 264.7 세포와 마우스 모델에서 참치(Katsuwonus pelamis) 유의 항염증 효과)

  • Kang, Bo-Kyeong;Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Ahn, Na-Kyung;Choi, Yeon-Uk;Bark, Si-Woo;Pak, Won-Min;Kim, Bo-Ram;Park, Ji-Hye;Bae, Nan-Young;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of tuna oil (TO) using LPS-induced inflammation responses and mouse models. First, nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were suppressed up to 50% with increasing concentrations of TO without causing any cytotoxicity. Also, the expression of a variety of proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), was suppressed in a dosedependent manner by treatment with TO. Furthermore, TO also inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 protein kinase (p38). Moreover, in in vivo testing the formation of ear edema was reduced at the highest dose tested compared to that in the control, and a reduction of ear thickness and the number of mast cells was observed in histological analysis. In acute toxicity test, no mortalities occurred in mice administrated 5,000 mg/kg body weight of TO over a two-week observation period. Our results suggest that TO has a considerable anti-inflammatory property through the suppression of inflammatory mediator productions and that it could prove to be useful as a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic material.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sargassum coreanum Ethanolic Extract through Suppression of NF-κB Pathway in LPS Induced RAW264.7 Cells in Mice (LPS로 유도된 RAW 264.7 cell로부터 NF-κB 조절 억제와 마우스 모델을 통한 큰잎모자반 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Kang, Bo-Kyeong;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Kim, Min-Ji;Bark, Si-Woo;Pak, Won-Min;Ahn, Na-Kyung;Choi, Yeon-Uk;Bae, Nan-Young;Park, Ji-Hye;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.112-119
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    • 2015
  • The anti-inflammatory effect of Sargassum coreanum ethanolic extract (SCEE) was investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in this study. It was shown that there was no cytotoxicity in the viability of macrophages treated with SCEE when compared to the control. The production of NO was considerably suppressed by SCEE, approximately up to 50% at 100 μg/ml. This significantly decreased levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. In addition, the expression of iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB was suppressed by SCEE treatment. In in vivo testing, the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema was attenuated by SCEE and there were no mortalities in mice administered with 5000 mg/kg body weight of SCEE over a 2 week observation period. From these results, SCEE inhibits the release of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, suggesting that SCEE could be a potential agent for anti-inflammatory therapies.

The Effect of Stocking Density and Strain on the Performance and Physiological Adaptive Responses in Broiler Chickens (육계에서 품종 및 사육 밀도가 생산성 및 생리적 적응성 지표에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, In-Surk;Yun, Seo-Hyun;Ko, Young-Hyun;Kim, Se-Yun;Song, Min-Hye;Kim, Jong-Sun;Sohn, Sea-Hwan;Moon, Yang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.205-215
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effects of stocking density and strain on the performance and physiological adaptive responses including the plasma corticosterone content and the level of mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant enzymes in broiler chicks. A total of 300 birds of two strains (150 Ross strain vs. 150 Cobb strain) aged 3-d old were allotted into two stocking densities (standard stocking density,$0.046m^2/bird$ vs. high stocking density, $0.023m^2/bird$) in battery cages by $2{\times}2$ factorial designs with ten replicates until 35 d of age. There was no significant strain effect on body weight, feed intakes and feed to gain ratio and the relative organ weights. However body weight, feed intakes and relative organ weight were found to be significantly (P<0.05) affected by the effect of stocking density. Plasma corticosterone level was not affected by both stocking density and strain effects. Hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-$1{\beta}$ (IL-$1{\beta}$), IL-6, IL-18 and interferon-gamma (IFN-${\gamma}$) was not significantly changed by the effects of strain and stocking density. However, the mRNA expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was affected by strain, showing that Ross strain decreased (P<0.05) the GPX expression. With respect to the effect of stocking density, there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and GPX mRNA expression in the liver from high stocking density group. Splenic pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was not also affected by stocking density and strain, except that IL-18 mRNA significantly (P<0.05) decreased in Cobb strain under high stocking density. The mRNA expression of SOD and CAT was significantly (P<0.05) affected by the effects of stocking density and strain. In conclusion, growth performance was not affected by strain but stocking density. Although mRNA expression of major pro-inflammatory cytokines was not changed by stocking density and strain, antioxidant enzyme was significantly affected by stocking density, strain or even organ in birds under summer conditions. More detailed studies still needed to be explored to elucidate the effects of environmental conditions and genetic background on physiological responses in birds.

Antioxidant activity of Bamboo powder and its immunoreactivity in the pig (대나무 분말의 항산화력과 돼지의 면역 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Yuno;Chu, Gyo-Moon;Jang, Sun-Hee;Goo, Ae-Jin;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Ha, Ji Hee;Lee, Jae-Young;Kang, Suk-Nam;Song, Young-Min;Cho, Jae-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.111-122
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    • 2014
  • The present study was designed to explore the antioxidant effect of Bamboo powder and its immunoreactivity in pigs. We investigated the functional properties of Bamboo extracts by means of measuring the contents of total polyphenols and flavonoid as well as determining ABST, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and anticancer activity. The total phenolic compound and flavonoids contents of Bamboo extracts were 171.25 mg/g and 127.5 mg/g, respectively. The DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, ABST radical scavenging activity of Bamboo extracts were 17.3%, 12.5% and 21.5%, respectively. Evidenced by MTT and cell cycle assay, Bamboo dose-dependently inhibited the cell proliferation and induced G0/G1-phase arrest in CHO cells at concentrations of 100, 250, and 500 ${\mu}g/ml$ Bamboo extracts. More than 80% of apoptotic cells were observed by staining with annexin V in 500 ${\mu}g/ml$ Bamboo-treated CHO cells, indicating that Bamboo had potent anticancer activities. Next, to investigate the effect of Bamboo on cytokine, immunoglobulin concentration, and blood compositions, flatting pigs were fed with Bamboo powder for 38 days. Flatting pigs were divided into 4 groups; basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with 1% Bamboo powder (T1), 2% Bamboo powder (T2), and 3% Bamboo powder (T3). The level of hemoglobin increased in the all Bamboo-fed groups compared with the normal control group. In particular, platelet levels in the all Bamboo-treated groups increased by approximately 90% compared with the levels from pig on a normal control. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA) in the pigs fed Bamboo powder were modestly increased, and the interferon-${\gamma}$ level also was strongly increased in 2% or 3% Bamboo-fed groups compared with the levels in control groups. Together, these results demonstrated that Bamboo extracts had an effective capacity of scavenging for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals and showed correlation with potent phenol and flavonoid contents, thus suggesting its antioxidant potential. Moreover, administration of Bamboo in 2~3% improved blood parameters and platelets, and especially immunity-related ones such as IgG, IgA, and interferon-${\gamma}$, leading to be potential feed additives in flatting pigs.