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Anti-inflammatory Effect of Flavonoids Kaempferol and Biochanin A-enriched Extract of Barnyard Millet (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea) Grains in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 Cells (마우스 대식 세포주 RAW264.7에 있어서 LPS처리에 의해 유도되는 염증반응에 대한 식용피(Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea)의 저해효과)

  • Lee, Ji Young;Jun, Do Youn;Yoon, Young Ho;Ko, Jee Youn;Woo, Koan Sik;Woo, Mi Hee;Kim, Young Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.1157-1167
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    • 2014
  • In order to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of five selected cereal grains-proso millet, hwanggeumchal sorghum, foxtail millet, barnyard millet, and adlay-the inhibitory activities of 80% ethanol (EtOH) extracts obtained from the individual grains on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) generation were investigated in RAW264.7 cells. The EtOH extract of barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea) grains exhibited more potent anti-inflammatory activity than that of the other grains. When the EtOH extract of barnyard millet grains was sequentially fractionated with n-hexane, methylene chloride (MC), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol, the majority of the anti-inflammatory activity was detected in the MC fraction, followed by the EtOAc fraction. Pretreatment with the MC fraction caused downregulation of the expression levels of iNOS- and COX-2-specific transcripts and proteins, as well as proinflammatory cytokine gene transcripts (IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and TNF-${\alpha}$) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Additionally, the MC fraction could suppress not only the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of cytosolic NF-kB, but also the LPS-induced activation of MAPKs, such as ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK. Further analysis of the MC fraction by HPLC identified kaempferol, biochanin A, and formononetin as the major phenolic components. Both kaempferol and biochanin A, but not formononetin, could exert anti-inflammatory effect at the same concentrations as those of the MC fraction. Consequently, these results indicate that kaempferol and biochanin A are among the most effective anti-inflammatory phenolic components in barnyard millet grains. This finding suggests that barnyard millet grains and the MC extract enriched in kaempferol and biochanin A could be beneficial functional food sources that have an anti-inflammatory effect.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Lactuca sativa L. Extract in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Improvement of Lipid Levels in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet (상추 추출물(Lactuca sativa L.)의 혈관내피세포에서 항염증 작용과 고지방 식이 생쥐에서 혈중 지질농도 개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang-Bo, Jeon;Jang, Kyung Ok;Chung, Hayoung;Park, Jong-Hwa;Lee, Tae Hoon;Kim, Jiyoung;Chung, In Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.998-1007
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) extract on the inflammation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and blood lipid improvement in hypercholesterolemic mice fed a high cholesterol diet. The lettuce extract (100% ethanol extract) inhibited the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HUVEC treated with tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$). The lettuce extract suppressed the adhesion of THP-1 to TNF-${\alpha}$-treated HUVEC. The lettuce extract decreased the TNF-${\alpha}$-stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1. In hypercholesterolemic mice, the lettuce extract reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, while the lettuce extract elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, resulting in the decrease of atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor level. These results suggested that lettuce extract can be an useful resource to show an anti-inflammatory effect and improve lipid metabolism.

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethanol Extract from Grateloupia crispata on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW 264.7 Cells and Mice Ears (LPS로 유도된 RAW 264.7 세포와 마우스 귀 조직에 대한 주름까막살 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Bae, Nan-Young;Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, Koth-Bong Woo-Ri;Park, Sun-Hee;Jang, Mi-Ran;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.8
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    • pp.1090-1098
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    • 2016
  • The anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract from Grateloupia crispata (GCEE) were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages. Anti-inflammatory effects were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. There was no cytotoxic effect on proliferation of macrophages treated with GCEE compared to the control. GCEE significantly inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$, and $IL-1{\beta}$] as well as nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, GCEE suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear $factor-{\kappa}B$ in a dose-dependent manner. GCEE significantly reduced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. In the in vivo test, evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of GCEE was performed using croton oil-induced ear edema in ICR mice. Oral administration of 10 mg/kg to 250 mg/kg of GCEE significantly reduced ear edema in a dose-dependent manner compared to croton oil-induced mice. Moreover, GCEE reduced ear thickness and the number of mast cells compared to croton oil-induced mice in the histological analysis. These data suggest that GCEE could be used as a potential source for anti-inflammatory agents.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Myricetin from Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. Flowers in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw 264.7 Cells (Lipopolysaccharide로 유도된 Raw264.7 cell에서 Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. Flower으로부터 분리한 myricetin에 의한 염증 억제효과)

  • Choi, Moo-Young;Hong, Shin-Hyup;Cho, Jun-Hyo;Park, Hye-Jin;Jo, Jae-Bum;Lee, Jae-Eun;Kim, Dong-Hee;Kim, Byung-Oh;Cho, Young-Je
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1245-1252
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    • 2016
  • As a research of inflammation inhibitory activity using natural resource, the inflammation inhibitory activity by purified active compound from Rhododendron mucronulatum flower was experimented. Rhododendron mucronulatum flower components were purified and separated with Sephadex LH-20 and MCI gel CHP-20 column chromatography, Purified compound was confirmed as myricetin by $^1H-NMR$, $^{13}C-NMR$ and Fast atom bombardment (FAB)-Mass spectrum to have inhibition activity on inflammatory factors secreted by Raw 264.7 cells in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Myricetin inhibited nitric oxide (NO) expression in a concentration dependent manner, approximately 40% inhibition was observed at a concentration of $50{\mu}M$. The inhibition effect of myricetin on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein expression was 20% and 80%, respectively, at a concentration of $25{\mu}M$. Myricetin also inhibited expression of the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$, interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, IL-6 and prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2)$ in a concentration dependent manner; a concentration of $50{\mu}M$, 70%, 80%, 80% and 95% inhibition was observed, respectively. Therefore myricetin isolated from Rhododendron mucronulatum flowers is expected to have an anti-inflammatory effect in Raw 264.7 cell induced by lipopolysaccharides. The results can be expected myricetin from Rhododendron mucronulatum flower to use as functional resource for anti-inflammatory activity.

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extracts from Hizikia fusiformis Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages (유산균 종류에 따른 발효톳 추출물의 항염증 활성)

  • Kwon, Myeong Sook;Mun, Ok-Ju;Bae, Min Joo;Lee, Seul-Gi;Kim, Mihyang;Lee, Sang-Hyeon;Yu, Ki Hwan;Kim, Yuck Yong;Kong, Chang-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.1450-1457
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    • 2015
  • The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extracts from Hizikia fusiformis fermented with and without lactic acid bacteria was compared in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. The fermentation was done using Weissella sp. SH-1 and Lactobacillus casei in a mixture of glucose and lactate source at $30^{\circ}C$ for 30 days. As a result, we confirmed that the fermentation of H. fusiformis with lactic acid bacteria inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor ${\alpha}$, and IL-$1{\beta}$ as important inflammatory factors. During a comparison analysis, we found that L. casei fermented groups significantly suppressed NO production by regulating iNOS and COX-2 expression. Also, the effective suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and LPS-induced activation of mitogen- activated protein kinase indicated that the fermentation using Weissella sp. SH-1 and L. casei may provide an increment towards the extraction of active components, which are effective anti-inflammatory agents.

DEU-7 Derived from Ulmus macrocarpa Improved Immune Functions in Cyclophosphamide-treated Mice (면역억제 마우스 모델에서 왕느릅나무 유래 DEU-7의 면역기능 증강)

  • Kang, Kyung-Hwa;Go, Ji Su;Lee, Inhwan;Lee, Sang Ho;Lee, Sung Do;Kim, Deok Won;Lee, Jong-Hwan;Hwang, HyeJin;Hyun, Sook Kyung;KIM, Byoung Woo;Kim, Chul Min;Chung, Kyung Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1156-1163
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    • 2015
  • The present study investigated the immunomodulatory properties of four different medicinal plants in a cyclophosphamide-treated Balb/c mouse model. One of the four plants, Ulmus macrocarpa, showed partial resistance against immune suppression induced by cyclophosphamide. The bark of U. macrocarpa, commonly known as the Chinese elm, has been used as a pharmaceutical material in Korean traditional medicine to treat bacterial inflammation and induce wound healing. In this study, water extract of U. macrocarpa, named DEU-7, was used for its immunomodulating functional activity. DEU-7 increased the weight of the spleen and the number of splenocytes but did not significantly affect the liver, kidney, and thymus in vivo. A splenocyte viability assay confirmed that DEU-7 influenced ex vivo splenocyte survival. DEU-7 also increased the levels of cytokines, such as IL-2 and IL-4, and immunoglobulins, such as IgM, IgG, and IgA. These results indicated that DEU-7 is involved in the activation of T and B lymphocytes. In addition, DEU-7 was able to maintain the production of cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-12, and IFN-γ, in the condition of cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression, suggesting that DEU-7 activated innate immune cells, even under immune suppression. We concluded that DEU-7 aids immunological homeostasis, thereby preventing immune suppression, and aids both innate and adaptive immune response by maintaining the levels of various cytokines and immunoglobulins. Consequently, it is worth investigating the potential of DEU-7 as a supplemental source for immune-enhancing agents.

Immunomodulatory Activity of Water Extract of Ulmus macrocarpa in Macrophages (유근피 추출물이 대식세포 면역조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Da Hye;Kang, Hye-Joo;Choi, Yung Hyun;Chung, Kyung Tae;Lee, Jong Hwan;Kang, Kyung Hwa;Hyun, Sook Kyung;Kim, Byung Woo;Hwang, Hye Jin
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.50-58
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    • 2016
  • The root bark of Ulmus macrocarpa has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as edema, infection and inflammation. Nevertheless, the biological activities and underlying mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effects remain unclear. In this study, as part of our ongoing screening program to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of new compounds from traditional medicinal resources, we investigated the effects of U. macrocarpa water extract (UME) on immune modulation in a murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model. As immune response parameters, the productions of as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines such tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 were evaluated. Although the release of IL-1β remained unchanged in UME-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, the productions of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased, along with the increased expression of inducible NO synthase, TNF-α and IL-10 expression at concentrations with no cytotoxicity. UME treatment also induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) indicating that UME activated macrophages through the activation of NF-κB, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and MAPKs signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, pre-treatment with UME significantly attenuated the production of NO, but not TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells suggesting that UME may be useful in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO. These findings suggest that the beneficial therapeutic effects of UME may be attributed partly to its ability to modulate immune functions in macrophages.

Analysis of Stromal Cells Developed from Cord Blood CD34+ Cells (제대혈 CD34+ 세포에서 유래된 지지세포의 분석)

  • Ryu, Kyung-Ha;Park, Se-Jin;Kim, Kyung Hyo;Seoh, Ju-Young;Khan, Mohammad;Shin, Hee-Young;Ahn, Hyo-Seop
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2001
  • Background: Cytokine-mediated ex vivo expansion has been proposed as a means of increasing the number of cord blood (CB) hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. As well as stem cell number, stromal cells are necessary for functional maturation of hematopoiesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development of stromal cells during ex vivo expansion of CB $CD34^+$ cells. Methods : $CD34^+$ cells were purified from CB by magnetic bead selection. The levels of of interleukin-3, interleukin-$1{\beta}$, interleukin-6, granulocyte macrophagecolony stimulating factor and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ were measured in culture supernatants on 0, 1, 2, and 3 weeks, using ELISA techniques. CB $CD34^+$ cells were expanded in Iscoves modified Dulbeccos medium in the presence of several cytokines. The expression of E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, von Willebrand factor, vimentin, and CD14 in newly developed stromal cells was examined by immunocytochemical method. Relevant extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and proper cytokines were also assayed for the most suitable condition for expansion of stromal cells. Results: Several cytokines were found to have been produced by CB $CD34^+$ cells as well as bone marrow-derived $CD34^+$ cells. During ex vivo expansion of CB $CD34^+$ cells, stromal cells appeared in the culture by day 4 and expanded over the following 7-10 days before being confluent by day 2 1. These cells expressed surface markers characteristic of cells of endothelial lineage. Furthermore, these stroaml cells also expanded effectively when treated with thrombopoietin+flt-3 ligand+stem cell factor+leukemia inhibitory factor or 0.1% poly-L-lysine-coated wells. Conclusion: Stromal cells were developed during ex vivo expansion of CB $CD34^+$ cells and that this development could be enhanced further by treating the stromal cells with cytokines or ECM.

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Expressions of transforming growth factor β in patients with rheumatioid arthritis and osteoarthritis (류머티스 관절염과 골관절염 환자에서 Transforming growth factor β의 발현 양상)

  • Kim, Chae-Gi;Yoon, Wern Chan;Song, Yong-Ho;Kim, Sang-Gyung;Choe, Jung-Yoon
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.244-249
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    • 2001
  • The transforming growth $factor-{\beta}$ ($TGF-{\beta}$) is a multifunctional cytokine modulating the onset and course of autoimmune disease as shown in experimental models. In synovial inflammation, there is a potential role for $TGF-{\beta}$ in repairment, the inhibition of cartilage and bone destruction, and the down-regulation of immune response. The biologic effects of $TGF-{\beta}$ depend on the cell type, the isoform and the availability of active $TGF-{\beta}$. We investigated $TGF-{\beta}$ expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compared to those of osteoarthritis (OA). And we determined a correlation between $TGF-{\beta}1$ and $TGF-{\beta}2$, and also the relationships between each $TGF-{\beta}$ isoform and the parameters for disease activity of RA. Methods: The study population consisted of 20 patients with RA and 20 patients with OA. The commercial ELISA kit was used to study $TGF-{\beta}1$ and $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels in peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluids (SF). Results: 1) While PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ level was of no difference between RA and OA patient groups, SF $TGF-{\beta}1$ level was higher in RA group than OA group. Similarly, PB $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels of RA and OA groups was not different, but SF $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels was higher in RA group than OA group. 2) In patients with RA, the $TGF-{\beta}1$ levels were higher than $TGF-{\beta}2$ in both the PB and SF, while in patients with OA, there showed higher readings for $TGF-{\beta}1$ than $TGF-{\beta}2$ in SF but no difference between $TGF-{\beta}1$ and $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels in PB. 3) In patients with RA, there were no correlations between PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ and PB $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels, nor between SF $TGF-{\beta}1$ and SF $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels. At the same way, there was no correlation between PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ and SF $TGF-{\beta}1$ levels, nor between each levels of $TGF-{\beta}2$ in patients with RA. 4) There was also no correlation between each $TGF-{\beta}$ isoform and the parameters for disease activity such as ESR, CRP, tender joint count, swollen joint count, rheumatoid factor, and the duration of morning stiffness except between in PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ and disease duration of RA (r=0.637, p<0.01). Conclusion: Each $TGF-{\beta}$ isoforms were higher in synovial fluid of patients with RA than that of patients with OA. The data from the RA patients demonstrated different patterns of expressions of the isoforms depending on which compartment (PB or SF) was investigated. The quantification of different $TGF-{\beta}$ isoform is thought to be important when $TGF-{\beta}$ is measured under disease conditions of RA.

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Attenuation of Experimental Autoimmune Hepatitis in Mice with Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Carrying MicroRNA-223-3p

  • Lu, Feng-Bin;Chen, Da-Zhi;Chen, Lu;Hu, En-De;Wu, Jin-Lu;Li, Hui;Gong, Yue-Wen;Lin, Zhuo;Wang, Xiao-Dong;Li, Ji;Jin, Xiao-Ya;Xu, Lan-Man;Chen, Yong-Ping
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.906-918
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    • 2019
  • MicroRNA-223-3p (miR-223-3p) is one of the potential microRNAs that have been shown to alleviate inflammatory responses in pre-clinical investigations and is highly encased in exosomes derived from bone mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-exosomes). MSC-exosomes are able to function as carriers to deliver microRNAs into cells. Autoimmune hepatitis is one of the challenging liver diseases with no effective treatment other than steroid hormones. Here, we examined whether MSC-exosomes can transfer miR-223-3p to treat autoimmune hepatitis in an experimental model. We found that MSC-exosomes were successfully incorporated with miR-223-3p and delivered miR-223-3p into macrophages. Moreover, there was no toxic effect of exosomes on the macrophages. Furthermore, treatments of either exosomes or exosomes with miR-223-3p successfully attenuated inflammatory responses in the liver of autoimmune hepatitis and inflammatory cytokine release in both the liver and macrophages. The mechanism may be related to the regulation of miR-223-3p level and STAT3 expression in the liver and macrophages. These results suggest that MSC-exosomes can be used to deliver miR-223-3p for the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis.