• Title, Summary, Keyword: cytokine

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Protective effects of quality certified traditional Doenjang in Korea on TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (혈관내피세포에서 TNF-α 자극에 의해 유도되는 혈관염증에 대한 전통식품 품질인증 된장의 효능 평가)

  • Kim, Eun-Ju;Jang, Yeon-Jeong;Kim, So-Young;Choi, Hye-Sun;Park, Shin-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.378-386
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    • 2016
  • Anti-atherogenic effects in tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are involved in the suppression of oxidative stress, cell adhesion molecules, and pro-inflammatory factors. This study investigated the vascular inflammation inhibitory activity of traditional Doenjang plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. The protective effects of Korean Deonjang was investigated on the expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$-induced human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Deonjang extracts (20, 50, $100{\mu}g/mL$) decreased the expression of 20 ng/mL TNF-${\alpha}$-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 proteins, and their corresponding mRNA levels. Nitric oxides (NO) produced by endothlial nitric oxides synthase (eNOS) dilated blood vessels, which had protective effects against platelet and leukocyte adhesion. While TNF-${\alpha}$-induced suppressed the production of nitric oxide in HUVECs, Doenjang restored NO production in HUVECs. In addition, Deonjang reduced the TNF-${\alpha}$-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA levels. These results suggested that Doenjang can inhibited the production of cell adhesion molecules and inflammatory mediators, which could be a potential candidate for preventing atherosclerosis.

Inhibitory Effects of Asparagus cochinchinensis in LPS-Stimulated BV-2 Microglial Cells through Regulation of Neuroinflammatory Mediators, the MAP Kinase Pathway, and the Cell Cycle (Lipopolysaccharide로 자극된 BV-2 미세교세포에서 신경염증 매개체, MAP kinase경로, 세포주기의 조절에 의한 천문동(Asparagus cochinchinensis)의 저해효과)

  • Lee, Hyun Ah;Kim, Ji Eun;Choi, Jun Young;Sung, Ji Eun;Youn, Woo Bin;Son, Hong Joo;Lee, Hee Seob;Kang, Hyun-Gu;Hwang, Dae Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.331-342
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    • 2020
  • The suppression of neuroinflammatory responses in microglial cells can be considered a key target for improving the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Asparagus cochinchinensis has traditionally been used as a medicine to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory diseases, and brain diseases. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of an aqueous extract from A. cochinchinensis root (AEAC), particularly its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglial cells. BV-2 cells were treated with four different concentrations of AEAC. No significant toxicity was detected in BV-2 cells treated with AEAC. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA levels were 21% lower in the AEAC+LPS group than in the Vehicle+LPS group. Lower proinflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and IL-10) levels were also detected in the AEAC+LPS group than in the Vehicle+LPS group, albeit at varying rates. Moreover, the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members after LPS treatment was significantly recovered in the AEAC-pretreated group compared to the Vehicle+LPS group, enhancement of the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members after LPS treatment was significantly recovered in the AEAC-pretreated group, while cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase caused by LPS treatment was less severe in the AEAC+LPS group. The increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by LPS treatment was also lower in the AEAC-pretreated group than in the Vehicle+LPS group. This is the first study to show that AEAC exerts anti-neuroinflammatory activity against LPS stimulation by regulating the MAPK signaling pathway, the cell cycle, and ROS production.

Inhibitory Effects of β-caryophyllene on Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Randomized Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study (베타카리오필렌의 Helicobacter pylori 감염 억제 효능을 평가하기 위한 무작위 배정, 양측 눈가림, 위약 대조군 연구)

  • Shim, Hyun Ik;Song, Dong Jin;Shin, Cheol Min;Yoon, Hyuk;Park, Young Soo;Kim, Nayoung;Lee, Dong Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology
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    • v.74 no.4
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    • pp.199-204
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    • 2019
  • Background/Aims: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, which cause a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms, are common in South Korea. Recent reports have shown a decline in the H. pylori eradication rates. β-caryophyllene is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that occurs in a wide range of plant species, such as cloves, basil, and cinnamon. β-caryophyllene has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of β-caryophyllene on H. pylori and its potential role as an alternative gastrointestinal drug. Methods: This 8-week, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial categorized subjects into a β-caryophyllene group (33 patients who received 126 mg/day of β-caryophyllene) and a placebo group (33 patients who received a placebo preparation). The inflammation level of H. pylori infiltration and the eradication rates were evaluated endoscopically and with the urea breath test (UBT) in both groups before and after administering the medication. The serum cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6) were compared in both groups before and after administering the medication. Results: Complete eradication was not observed in either group. Moreover, there was no significant change in the UBT and updated Sydney score. On the other hand, the β-caryophyllene group showed significant improvement in nausea (p=0.025) and epigastric pain (p=0.018), as well as a decrease in the serum IL-1β levels (p=0.038). Conclusions: β-caryophyllene improves dyspepsia symptoms and can be considered a useful supplementary treatment for gastrointestinal disease.

Effects of Ojeoksangamibang on the Lipid Metabolism, Anti-oxidation and Concentration of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Rat Fed High Fat Diet (오적산가미방(五積散加味方)이 고지방식이 유도 비만쥐의 지질대사, 항산화계 및 전염증성 cytokine 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Kong, In-Pyo;Park, Won-Hyung;Cha, Yun-Yeop
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.23-40
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: This study was designed to examine the effects of extracts of Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) on the lipid lowering, anti-oxidation and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and was investigated on hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Male rats weighing $182.39{\pm}4.71g$ were fed high fat diet for 8 weeks and 36 rats(above 400 g) were divided into 4 groups. Each of 9 rats was divided a control group and experimental groups. We fed a control group of rats a basal diet and administered normal saline(100 mg/kg, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. And we fed each experimental group of rats basal diet and administered an extract of Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) extracts(100 mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed to determine their chemical composition. We measured lipid of plasma and liver, concentration of proinflmmatory cytokines, anti-oxidative activity and $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B, Apo-E and leptin gene expression. Results: 1. Concentration of plasma free fatty(FFA) showed no significant difference in all the treatment groups. Concentration of plasma triglyceride(TG) showed a significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. 2. Concentration of plasma total cholesterol showed a significant decrement in the 200 and 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. Concentration of plasma low density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol showed a Significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. Concentration of plasma high density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol showed a significant increment in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group. 3. Concentration of liver total cholesterol showed a tendence to decrease in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups. Concentration of liver TG showed a significant decrement in all Ojeoksangamibang groups than that of control group. 4. Concentration of plasma and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) showed a tendence to decrease in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups. 5. The values of glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) activity showed a significant increment in all Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. 6. The values of plasma aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) activity showed no significant different in all treatment group. 7. Concentration of plasma $interleukin(IL)-1{beta}$ showed no significant difference in all the treatment groups. Concentration of plasma IL-6 showed a significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group than that of control group. Concentration of plasma tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}(TNF-{\alpha})$ a siginifant decrement in the 200 and 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group than that of control group. However the concentration of plasma IL-10 in the 300 mg/kg Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a significant increment than that of control group. 9. In the analysis of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), gene expression of $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B and Apo-E in the Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a lower expression than that of control group. However the gene expression of leptin showed no difference in the treatment groups. 10. The ratio of $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B, and Apo-E per ${\beta}-actin$ expression in the Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a significant decrement than that of control group. However The ratio of leptin expression per ${\beta}-actin$ expression showed no significant difference among all the treatment groups. Conclusions: According to above results, in lowering lipid effect, anti-oxidation and control of pro-inflammatory cytokines production, Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) gives effect.

Expression of TIMP1, TIMP2 Genes by Ionizing Radiation (이온화 방사선에 의한 TIMP1, TIMP2 유전자 발현 측정)

  • Park Kun-Koo;Jin Jung Sun;Park Ki Yong;Lee Yun Hee;Kim Sang Yoon;Noh Young Ju;Ahn Seung Do;Kim Jong Hoon;Choi Eun Kyung;Chang Hyesook
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.171-180
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Expression of TIMP, intrinsic inhibitor of MMP, is regulated by signal transduction in response to genotoxins and is likely to be an important step in metastasis, angiogenesis and wound healing after ionizing radiation. Therefore, we studied radiation mediated TIMP expression and its mechanism in head and neck cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods : Human head and neck cancer cell lines established at Asan Medical Center were used and radiosensitivity $(D_0)$, radiation cytotoxicity and metastatic potential were measured by clonogenic assay, n assay and invasion assay, respectively. The conditioned medium was prepared at 24 hours and 48 hours after 2 Gy and 10 Gy irradiation and expression of TIMP protein was measured by Elisa assay with specific antibodies against human TIMP. hTIMP1 promoter region was cloned and TIMP1 luciferase reporter vector was constructed. The reporter vector was transfected to AMC-HN-1 and -HN-9 cells with or without expression vector Ras, then the cells were exposed to radiation or PMA, PKC activator. EMSA was peformed with oligonucleotide (-59/-53 element and SP1) of TIMP1 promoter. Results : $D_0$ of HN-1, -2, -3, -5 and -9 cell lines were 1.55 Gy, 1.8 Gy, 1.5 Gt, 1.55 Gy and 2.45 Gy respectively. n assay confirmed cell viability, over $94\%$ at 24hrs, 48hrs after 2 Gy irradiation and over 73% after 10 Gy irradiation. Elisa assay confirmed that cells secreted TIMP1, 2 proteins continuously. After 2 Gy irradiation, TIMP2 secretion was decreased at 24hrs in HN-1 and HN-9 cell lines but after 10 Gy irradiation, it was increased in all cell lines. At 48hrs after irradiation, it was increased in HN-1 but decreased in HN-9 cells. But the change in TIMP secretion by RT was mild. The transcription of TIMP1 gene in HN-1 was induced by PMA but in HN-9 cell lines, it was suppressed. Wild type Ras induced the TIMP-1 transcription by 20 fold and 4 fold in HN-1 and HN-9 respectively. The binding activity to -59/-53, AP1 motif was increased by RT, but not to SP1 motif in both cell lines. Conclusions : We observed the difference of expression and activity of TIMPs between radiosensitive and radioresistant cell line and the different signal transduction pathway between in these cell lines may contribute the different radiosensitivity. Further research to investigate the radiation response and its signal pathway of TIMPs is needed.

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Perfluorocarbon Does Not Inhibit Chemokine Expression in Airway Epithelial Cells (Perfluorocarbon이 기도 상피세포 Chemokine 발현에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Suh, Gee-Young;Kang, Kyeong-Woo;Park, Sang-Joon;Chung, Man-Pyo;Kim, Ho-Joong;Choi, Dong-Chull;Rhee, Chong-H;Kwon, O-Jung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.223-235
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    • 2000
  • Background: Liquid ventilation is associated with decreased inflammatory response in an injured lung. This study was performed to investigate if whether perfluorocarbon(PFC) can decrease chemokine expression in airway epithelial cells. Methods: A549 cells were used for airway epithelial cells and perfluorodecalin for PFC. To expose cells to PFC, lower chamber of Transwell$^{(R)}$plate was used. This study was performed in two parts. In the first part, we examined whether PFC could decrease chemokine expression in airway epithelial cells through inhibition of other inflammatory cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC's) were isolated and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide(LPS, 10 ${\mu}g/mL$) for 24 hours with or without exposure to PFC. Then A549 cells were stimulated with conditioned media(CM) containing the culture supernatants of PBMC. After 24 hours, the expressions of interleukin-8(IL-8) and RANTES were measured. In the second part of the study, we studied whether PFC could directly suppress chemokine expression in airway epithelial cells. A549 cells were stimulated for 24 hours with interleukin-l$\beta$ and/or tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ with or without exposure to PFC, and then the chemokine expression was measured. Northern analysis was used to measure the mRNA expression, and ELISA was used for immunoreactive protein measurements in culture supernatant. Results: 1. IL-8 and RANTES mRNA expression and immunoreactive protein production were increased significantly by CM from LPS-stimulated PBMC in A459 cells compared to with CM from unstimulated PBCM (p<0.05), but exposure of PFC had no significant effect on either mRNA expression or immunoreactive protein expression. 2. IL-8 and RANTES mRNA expression and immunoreactive protein production were increased significantly by IL-1$\beta$ and TNF-$\alpha$ in A549 cells(p<0.05), but exposure of PFC had no significant effect on neither either mRNA expression nor immunoreactive protein production. Conclusion : Decreased chemokine expression of airway epithelial cells may not be involved in decreased inflammatory response observed in liquid ventilation. Further studies on possible mechanisms of decreased inflammatory response are warranted.

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Clinical Implication of Serum TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ Measurement in Patients with Sepsis (패혈증환자에서 혈청 TNF-$\alpha$ 및 IL-1$\beta$)

  • Kim, Jae-Yeol;Choi, Hyung-Seok;Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Min, Kyung-Up;Kim, Yoo-Young;Shim, Young-Soo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2000
  • Background : It is well known that when macrophages are stimulated with endotoxin, they produce a wide variety of cytokine mediators, including TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$. However, there is an alteration in the macrophages' responsiveness when they are challenged with repeated bouts of endotoxin, termed "endotoxin tolerance" which is regarded as a self-protective phenomenon from continuous stimulation. In this study, endotoxin tolerance in the peripheral blood monocytes of sepsis patients was evaluated. Methods : Fourteen patients with organism-documented sepsis were included. The severity of illness was evaluated by APACHE II score. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from the patients and diluted to $1{\times}10^5$ well. After stimulation with endotoxin (LPS of E. coli O114 : B4, 100 ng/ml), they were incubated at $37^{\circ}C$ in 5% $CO_2$ incubator for 24 hours. Supernatant was collected for the measurement of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ with ELISA method. Peripheral blood monocytes of seven healthy volunteers were used as control. Results : The APACHE II score (mean$\pm$SD) of the patients at the time of blood sampling was 12.2$\pm$5.7. The primary infection foci were urinary tract infection, pneumonia, subacute bacterial endocarditis, and catheter related infection, etc. The causative organisms were gram negative rods (10 cases), gram positive cocci (6 cases) with two cases of mixed infection. Serum TNF-$\alpha$ could be measured in 4 cases with 29.9$\pm$27.7 pg/ml. Serum IL-1$\beta$was measurable in only one patient. The TNF-$\alpha$ level of supernatant of cultured peripheral blood monocytes was 2,703$\pm$2,066 pg/ml in patients and 2,102$\pm$1914 pg/ml in controls. The IL-1$\beta$level of supernatant was 884$\pm$1,050 pg/ml in patients and 575$\pm$558 pg/ml in controls. There was no difference of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ level between patients and controls. Conclusion : We cannot prove the phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance in this study. Future study needs to be focused on the more severe sepsis patients who were taken for sampling earlier. Addition of serum to the culture medium could be an another valuable option for the success of this study.

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Effect of FK506 and Cyclosporin A on $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ Degradation and $IKK{\alpha}$ Pathway in Bronchial Epithelial Cells, Monocytes, Lymphocytes and Alveolar Macrophages (FK506과 cyclosporin A가 기관지상피세포, 단핵구, 림프구 및 폐포대식세포에서 $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ 분해 및 $IKK{\alpha}$ 활성에 미치는 효과)

  • Yoon, Ho Il;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Hee-Seok;Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Young Whan;Han, Sung Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.449-458
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    • 2003
  • Background : Cyclosporin A(CsA) and tacrolimus(FK506) have been widely used as immunosuppressants. The effects of CsA, or FK506, on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway have been shown to vary according to the cell type. However, their effects on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway have not been reported in bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, the effects of CsA and FK506 on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway in bronchial epithelial cells, monocytes, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages were evaluated. The relationship between their effects on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway and $I{\kappa}B$ kinase(IKK) activity was also investigated. Methods : BEAS-2B and A549 cells, pulmonary alveolar macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes and lymphocytes were used. The cells were pre-treated with CsA, or FK506, for various time periods, followed by stimulation with TNF-${\alpha}$, LPS or IL-$1{\beta}$. The $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ expressions were assayed by Western blot analyses. The IKK activity was evaluated by an in vitro immune complex kinase assay, using GST-$I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ as the substrate. Results : Neither CsA nor FK506 affected the level of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ expression in any of the cell types used in this study. CsA pre-treatment inhibited the TNF ${\alpha}$-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation in bronchial epithelial cells. In contrast, the TNF ${\alpha}$-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation was not affected by FK506 pre-treatment. However, FK506 suppressed the cytokine-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation in the pulmonary alveolar macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes and lymphocytes. The inhibitory effect of CsA, or FK506, on $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation was not related to IKK. Conclusions : CsA and FK506 suppressed the $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation in bronchial epithelial cells, monocytes, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages, so this may not be mediated through IKK.

Soluble IL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and Neopterin as Immunologic Markers in Patients with Tuberculosis (결핵 환자에서 면역학적 지표로서의 sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$, Neopterin에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Yon-Ju;Ryu, Kum-Hei;Kim, Su-Hyun;Lee, Jong-Soo;Cheon, Seon-Hee;Seoh, Ju-Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.294-308
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    • 2002
  • Background : The cell-mediated immune response plays an important role in tuberculosis. After being activated by mycobacterial antigens, T lymphocytes express a high affinity receptor (IL-2R) for interleukin-2 (IL-2) on their own surface and release a soluble fraction of the IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) from the cell membrane into the circulation. Neopterin is a metabolite of guanosine-triphosphate, which is produced by stimulated macrophages under the influence of IFN-$\gamma$ with a T lymphocyte origin. Therefore, the utility of sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and the neopterin levels as immunologic indices of the cell-mediated immune response and severity of disease in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was assessed. Methods : The serum sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and neopterin levels were measured in 39 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 6 patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis prior to treatment and 10 healthy subjects. The serum and pleural sIL-2R, neopterin and ADA levels were measured in 22 patients with tuberculous pleurisy. The patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were divided into a mild, moderate and severe group according to the severity by ATS guidelines. To compare the results from these patients with those of the pretreatment levels, the sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and neopterin levels were measured in 36 of the 39 patients(1 patient, expired; 2 patients were referred to a sanitarium) with pulmonary tuberculosis after 2 months of treatment. Results : 1) the serum sIL-2R and IFN-$\gamma$ levels were elevated in patients with tuberculosis when compared to those of healthy subjects (p>0.05). The neopterin concentration in the serum was significantly lower in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis($2967{\pm}2132.8$ pg/ml) than in healthy controls($4949{\pm}1242.1$ pg/ml)(p<0.05). 2) In the pulmonary tuberculosis group, the serum sIL-2R and IFN-$\gamma$ levels were higher in patients with severe disease than those in patients with mild and moderate disease. However, the neopterin levels declined as the pulmonary tuberculosis became more severe (p<0.01). 3) The mean serum sIL-2R and IFN-$\gamma$ levels declined from $1071{\pm}1139.4$ U/ml to $1023{\pm}1920.9$ U/ml(p>0.05), $41{\pm}52.8$ pg/ml to $22{\pm}23.9$ gm/ml(p<0.05), respectively, after 2 month of treatment. The mean serum neopterin levels increased from $3158{\pm}2272.6$ pg/ml to $3737{\pm}2307.5$ pg/ml(p>0.05) after a 2 month of treatment. These findings were remarkable in the severe group of pulmonary tuberculosis with a clinical correlation. 4) In the patients with tuberculous pleurisy, the serum sIL-2R and ADA were significantly higher than those in the pleural fluid, However, the neopterin levels in the sera and pleural effusion were similar. Conclusion : On the basis of this study, sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and neopterin measurements may not only provide an insight into the present state of the cell-mediated immune response, but also serve as parameters monitoring of the prognosis of the disease, particularly in patients with severe pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, an assay of the pleural sIL-2R levels might signal a stimulated local immunity including T cell activation in the tuberculous pleural effusion.

The Relationship Between the NF-${\kappa}B$ Activity and Anti-inflammatory Action of Surfactant in the Acute Lung Injury of Rats (백서의 급성폐손상에서 surfactant의 항염증작용과 호중구의 NK-${\kappa}B$ 활성과의 관계)

  • An, Chang-Hyeok;Cha, Young-Joo;Lee, Kyoung-Hee;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Lee, Byoung-Jun;Jeong, Do-Young;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Shin, Jong-Wook;Kim, Jae-Yeol;Park, In-Won;Choi, Byoung-Whui
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.519-529
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    • 2002
  • Background : The therapeutic effects of surfactants on acute lung injury derive not only from their recruiting action on collapsed alveoli but also from their anti-inflammatory action in the alveolar sapce. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory action of a surfactant in an acute lung injury model of rats by neutrophils were recollected from the BAL fluid and the NF-${\kappa}B$ activity of the neutrophilic nuclear protein was evaluated. Methods : Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 300 gram were divided into 3 groups, which consisted of 6 rats respectively. In the control group, normal saline(3ml/kg) was instilled into the trachea twice with 30 minute interval. In two other groups, acute lung injury was induced by the intra-tracheal instillation of LPS(5mg/kg). Thirty minutes later, either a surfactant(ST group; 30mg/kg) or normal saline(NT group: 3ml/kg) was instilled via the trachea. Twenty-four hours after the LPS instillation, the BAL fluid was retrieved to measure the WBC count and cytokine(IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6) levels. The neutrophils were isolated from the BAL fluid and the nuclear protein was extracted to evaluate the NF-${\kappa}B$ activity using a eletrophoretic mobility shift assay(EMSA). Results : The WBC count of the BAL fluid of the ST group($3,221{\pm}1,914{\times}10^3/{\mu}l$) was higher than that of the control group($356{\pm}275{\times}10^3/{\mu}l$)(p<0.05) and lower than that of the NT group($5,561{\pm}1,757{\times}10^3/{\mu}l$)(p<0.05)). The BAL fluid level of IL-$1{\beta}$ from the NT group($2,064{\pm}1,082pg/ml$) was higher than those of the ST group($360{\pm}234pg/ml$)(p<0.05) and the control group(0pg/ml)p<0.05) and control group($49{\pm}62pg/ml$)(p<0.05). The NF-${\kappa}B$ activity of the neutrophilic nuclear protein in the ST group and NT group was similar. Conclusion : The surfactant, attenuates the alveolar inflammation in the acute lung injury of rats model. However, its anti-inflammatory action does no't appear to be mediated by the inhibition of NF-${\kappa}B$ activity.