• Title, Summary, Keyword: cytokine

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Perfluorocarbon Does Not Inhibit Chemokine Expression in Airway Epithelial Cells (Perfluorocarbon이 기도 상피세포 Chemokine 발현에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Suh, Gee-Young;Kang, Kyeong-Woo;Park, Sang-Joon;Chung, Man-Pyo;Kim, Ho-Joong;Choi, Dong-Chull;Rhee, Chong-H;Kwon, O-Jung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.223-235
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    • 2000
  • Background: Liquid ventilation is associated with decreased inflammatory response in an injured lung. This study was performed to investigate if whether perfluorocarbon(PFC) can decrease chemokine expression in airway epithelial cells. Methods: A549 cells were used for airway epithelial cells and perfluorodecalin for PFC. To expose cells to PFC, lower chamber of Transwell$^{(R)}$plate was used. This study was performed in two parts. In the first part, we examined whether PFC could decrease chemokine expression in airway epithelial cells through inhibition of other inflammatory cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC's) were isolated and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide(LPS, 10 ${\mu}g/mL$) for 24 hours with or without exposure to PFC. Then A549 cells were stimulated with conditioned media(CM) containing the culture supernatants of PBMC. After 24 hours, the expressions of interleukin-8(IL-8) and RANTES were measured. In the second part of the study, we studied whether PFC could directly suppress chemokine expression in airway epithelial cells. A549 cells were stimulated for 24 hours with interleukin-l$\beta$ and/or tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ with or without exposure to PFC, and then the chemokine expression was measured. Northern analysis was used to measure the mRNA expression, and ELISA was used for immunoreactive protein measurements in culture supernatant. Results: 1. IL-8 and RANTES mRNA expression and immunoreactive protein production were increased significantly by CM from LPS-stimulated PBMC in A459 cells compared to with CM from unstimulated PBCM (p<0.05), but exposure of PFC had no significant effect on either mRNA expression or immunoreactive protein expression. 2. IL-8 and RANTES mRNA expression and immunoreactive protein production were increased significantly by IL-1$\beta$ and TNF-$\alpha$ in A549 cells(p<0.05), but exposure of PFC had no significant effect on neither either mRNA expression nor immunoreactive protein production. Conclusion : Decreased chemokine expression of airway epithelial cells may not be involved in decreased inflammatory response observed in liquid ventilation. Further studies on possible mechanisms of decreased inflammatory response are warranted.

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Clinical Implication of Serum TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ Measurement in Patients with Sepsis (패혈증환자에서 혈청 TNF-$\alpha$ 및 IL-1$\beta$)

  • Kim, Jae-Yeol;Choi, Hyung-Seok;Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Min, Kyung-Up;Kim, Yoo-Young;Shim, Young-Soo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2000
  • Background : It is well known that when macrophages are stimulated with endotoxin, they produce a wide variety of cytokine mediators, including TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$. However, there is an alteration in the macrophages' responsiveness when they are challenged with repeated bouts of endotoxin, termed "endotoxin tolerance" which is regarded as a self-protective phenomenon from continuous stimulation. In this study, endotoxin tolerance in the peripheral blood monocytes of sepsis patients was evaluated. Methods : Fourteen patients with organism-documented sepsis were included. The severity of illness was evaluated by APACHE II score. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from the patients and diluted to $1{\times}10^5$ well. After stimulation with endotoxin (LPS of E. coli O114 : B4, 100 ng/ml), they were incubated at $37^{\circ}C$ in 5% $CO_2$ incubator for 24 hours. Supernatant was collected for the measurement of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ with ELISA method. Peripheral blood monocytes of seven healthy volunteers were used as control. Results : The APACHE II score (mean$\pm$SD) of the patients at the time of blood sampling was 12.2$\pm$5.7. The primary infection foci were urinary tract infection, pneumonia, subacute bacterial endocarditis, and catheter related infection, etc. The causative organisms were gram negative rods (10 cases), gram positive cocci (6 cases) with two cases of mixed infection. Serum TNF-$\alpha$ could be measured in 4 cases with 29.9$\pm$27.7 pg/ml. Serum IL-1$\beta$was measurable in only one patient. The TNF-$\alpha$ level of supernatant of cultured peripheral blood monocytes was 2,703$\pm$2,066 pg/ml in patients and 2,102$\pm$1914 pg/ml in controls. The IL-1$\beta$level of supernatant was 884$\pm$1,050 pg/ml in patients and 575$\pm$558 pg/ml in controls. There was no difference of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ level between patients and controls. Conclusion : We cannot prove the phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance in this study. Future study needs to be focused on the more severe sepsis patients who were taken for sampling earlier. Addition of serum to the culture medium could be an another valuable option for the success of this study.

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Effect of FK506 and Cyclosporin A on $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ Degradation and $IKK{\alpha}$ Pathway in Bronchial Epithelial Cells, Monocytes, Lymphocytes and Alveolar Macrophages (FK506과 cyclosporin A가 기관지상피세포, 단핵구, 림프구 및 폐포대식세포에서 $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ 분해 및 $IKK{\alpha}$ 활성에 미치는 효과)

  • Yoon, Ho Il;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Hee-Seok;Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Young Whan;Han, Sung Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.449-458
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    • 2003
  • Background : Cyclosporin A(CsA) and tacrolimus(FK506) have been widely used as immunosuppressants. The effects of CsA, or FK506, on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway have been shown to vary according to the cell type. However, their effects on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway have not been reported in bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, the effects of CsA and FK506 on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway in bronchial epithelial cells, monocytes, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages were evaluated. The relationship between their effects on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway and $I{\kappa}B$ kinase(IKK) activity was also investigated. Methods : BEAS-2B and A549 cells, pulmonary alveolar macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes and lymphocytes were used. The cells were pre-treated with CsA, or FK506, for various time periods, followed by stimulation with TNF-${\alpha}$, LPS or IL-$1{\beta}$. The $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ expressions were assayed by Western blot analyses. The IKK activity was evaluated by an in vitro immune complex kinase assay, using GST-$I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ as the substrate. Results : Neither CsA nor FK506 affected the level of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ expression in any of the cell types used in this study. CsA pre-treatment inhibited the TNF ${\alpha}$-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation in bronchial epithelial cells. In contrast, the TNF ${\alpha}$-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation was not affected by FK506 pre-treatment. However, FK506 suppressed the cytokine-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation in the pulmonary alveolar macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes and lymphocytes. The inhibitory effect of CsA, or FK506, on $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation was not related to IKK. Conclusions : CsA and FK506 suppressed the $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation in bronchial epithelial cells, monocytes, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages, so this may not be mediated through IKK.

Soluble IL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and Neopterin as Immunologic Markers in Patients with Tuberculosis (결핵 환자에서 면역학적 지표로서의 sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$, Neopterin에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Yon-Ju;Ryu, Kum-Hei;Kim, Su-Hyun;Lee, Jong-Soo;Cheon, Seon-Hee;Seoh, Ju-Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.294-308
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    • 2002
  • Background : The cell-mediated immune response plays an important role in tuberculosis. After being activated by mycobacterial antigens, T lymphocytes express a high affinity receptor (IL-2R) for interleukin-2 (IL-2) on their own surface and release a soluble fraction of the IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) from the cell membrane into the circulation. Neopterin is a metabolite of guanosine-triphosphate, which is produced by stimulated macrophages under the influence of IFN-$\gamma$ with a T lymphocyte origin. Therefore, the utility of sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and the neopterin levels as immunologic indices of the cell-mediated immune response and severity of disease in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was assessed. Methods : The serum sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and neopterin levels were measured in 39 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 6 patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis prior to treatment and 10 healthy subjects. The serum and pleural sIL-2R, neopterin and ADA levels were measured in 22 patients with tuberculous pleurisy. The patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were divided into a mild, moderate and severe group according to the severity by ATS guidelines. To compare the results from these patients with those of the pretreatment levels, the sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and neopterin levels were measured in 36 of the 39 patients(1 patient, expired; 2 patients were referred to a sanitarium) with pulmonary tuberculosis after 2 months of treatment. Results : 1) the serum sIL-2R and IFN-$\gamma$ levels were elevated in patients with tuberculosis when compared to those of healthy subjects (p>0.05). The neopterin concentration in the serum was significantly lower in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis($2967{\pm}2132.8$ pg/ml) than in healthy controls($4949{\pm}1242.1$ pg/ml)(p<0.05). 2) In the pulmonary tuberculosis group, the serum sIL-2R and IFN-$\gamma$ levels were higher in patients with severe disease than those in patients with mild and moderate disease. However, the neopterin levels declined as the pulmonary tuberculosis became more severe (p<0.01). 3) The mean serum sIL-2R and IFN-$\gamma$ levels declined from $1071{\pm}1139.4$ U/ml to $1023{\pm}1920.9$ U/ml(p>0.05), $41{\pm}52.8$ pg/ml to $22{\pm}23.9$ gm/ml(p<0.05), respectively, after 2 month of treatment. The mean serum neopterin levels increased from $3158{\pm}2272.6$ pg/ml to $3737{\pm}2307.5$ pg/ml(p>0.05) after a 2 month of treatment. These findings were remarkable in the severe group of pulmonary tuberculosis with a clinical correlation. 4) In the patients with tuberculous pleurisy, the serum sIL-2R and ADA were significantly higher than those in the pleural fluid, However, the neopterin levels in the sera and pleural effusion were similar. Conclusion : On the basis of this study, sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and neopterin measurements may not only provide an insight into the present state of the cell-mediated immune response, but also serve as parameters monitoring of the prognosis of the disease, particularly in patients with severe pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, an assay of the pleural sIL-2R levels might signal a stimulated local immunity including T cell activation in the tuberculous pleural effusion.

The Relationship Between the NF-${\kappa}B$ Activity and Anti-inflammatory Action of Surfactant in the Acute Lung Injury of Rats (백서의 급성폐손상에서 surfactant의 항염증작용과 호중구의 NK-${\kappa}B$ 활성과의 관계)

  • An, Chang-Hyeok;Cha, Young-Joo;Lee, Kyoung-Hee;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Lee, Byoung-Jun;Jeong, Do-Young;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Shin, Jong-Wook;Kim, Jae-Yeol;Park, In-Won;Choi, Byoung-Whui
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.519-529
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    • 2002
  • Background : The therapeutic effects of surfactants on acute lung injury derive not only from their recruiting action on collapsed alveoli but also from their anti-inflammatory action in the alveolar sapce. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory action of a surfactant in an acute lung injury model of rats by neutrophils were recollected from the BAL fluid and the NF-${\kappa}B$ activity of the neutrophilic nuclear protein was evaluated. Methods : Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 300 gram were divided into 3 groups, which consisted of 6 rats respectively. In the control group, normal saline(3ml/kg) was instilled into the trachea twice with 30 minute interval. In two other groups, acute lung injury was induced by the intra-tracheal instillation of LPS(5mg/kg). Thirty minutes later, either a surfactant(ST group; 30mg/kg) or normal saline(NT group: 3ml/kg) was instilled via the trachea. Twenty-four hours after the LPS instillation, the BAL fluid was retrieved to measure the WBC count and cytokine(IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6) levels. The neutrophils were isolated from the BAL fluid and the nuclear protein was extracted to evaluate the NF-${\kappa}B$ activity using a eletrophoretic mobility shift assay(EMSA). Results : The WBC count of the BAL fluid of the ST group($3,221{\pm}1,914{\times}10^3/{\mu}l$) was higher than that of the control group($356{\pm}275{\times}10^3/{\mu}l$)(p<0.05) and lower than that of the NT group($5,561{\pm}1,757{\times}10^3/{\mu}l$)(p<0.05)). The BAL fluid level of IL-$1{\beta}$ from the NT group($2,064{\pm}1,082pg/ml$) was higher than those of the ST group($360{\pm}234pg/ml$)(p<0.05) and the control group(0pg/ml)p<0.05) and control group($49{\pm}62pg/ml$)(p<0.05). The NF-${\kappa}B$ activity of the neutrophilic nuclear protein in the ST group and NT group was similar. Conclusion : The surfactant, attenuates the alveolar inflammation in the acute lung injury of rats model. However, its anti-inflammatory action does no't appear to be mediated by the inhibition of NF-${\kappa}B$ activity.

Development of a Traffic Accident Prediction Model and Determination of the Risk Level at Signalized Intersection (신호교차로에서의 사고예측모형개발 및 위험수준결정 연구)

  • 홍정열;도철웅
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.155-166
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    • 2002
  • Since 1990s. there has been an increasing number of traffic accidents at intersection. which requires more urgent measures to insure safety on intersection. This study set out to analyze the road conditions, traffic conditions and traffic operation conditions on signalized intersection. to identify the elements that would impose obstructions in safety, and to develop a traffic accident prediction model to evaluate the safety of an intersection using the cop relation between the elements and an accident. In addition, the focus was made on suggesting appropriate traffic safety policies by dealing with the danger elements in advance and on enhancing the safety on the intersection in developing a traffic accident prediction model fir a signalized intersection. The data for the study was collected at an intersection located in Wonju city from January to December 2001. It consisted of the number of accidents, the road conditions, the traffic conditions, and the traffic operation conditions at the intersection. The collected data was first statistically analyzed and then the results identified the elements that had close correlations with accidents. They included the area pattern, the use of land, the bus stopping activities, the parking and stopping activities on the road, the total volume, the turning volume, the number of lanes, the width of the road, the intersection area, the cycle, the sight distance, and the turning radius. These elements were used in the second correlation analysis. The significant level was 95% or higher in all of them. There were few correlations between independent variables. The variables that affected the accident rate were the number of lanes, the turning radius, the sight distance and the cycle, which were used to develop a traffic accident prediction model formula considering their distribution. The model formula was compared with a general linear regression model in accuracy. In addition, the statistics of domestic accidents were investigated to analyze the distribution of the accidents and to classify intersections according to the risk level. Finally, the results were applied to the Spearman-rank correlation coefficient to see if the model was appropriate. As a result, the coefficient of determination was highly significant with the value of 0.985 and the ranks among the intersections according to the risk level were appropriate too. The actual number of accidents and the predicted ones were compared in terms of the risk level and they were about the same in the risk level for 80% of the intersections.

Role of Oxygen Free Radical in the Expression of Interleukin-8 and Interleukin-$1{\beta}$ Gene in Mononuclear Phagocytic Cells (내독소에 의한 말초혈액 단핵구의 IL-8 및 IL-$1{\beta}$ 유전자 발현에서 산소기 역할에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Min-Jong;Kim, Jae-Yeol;Park, Jae-Seok;Lee, Seung-Joon;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.862-870
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    • 1995
  • Background: Oxygen free radicals have generally been considered as cytotoxic agents. On the other hand, recent results suggest that small nontoxic amounts of these radicals may act a role in intracellular signal transduction pathway and many efforts to reveal the role of these radicals as secondary messengers have been made. It is evident that the oxygen radicals are released by various cell types in response to extracellular stimuli including LPS, TNF, IL-1 and phorbol esters, all of which translocate the transcription factor $NF{\kappa}B$ from cytoplasm to nucleus by releasing an inhibitory protein subunit, $I{\kappa}B$. Activation of $NF{\kappa}B$ is mimicked by exposure to mild oxidant stress, and inhibited by agents that remove oxygen radicals. It means the cytoplasmic form of the inducible tanscription factor $NF{\kappa}B$ might provide a physiologically important target for oxygen radicals. At the same time, it is well known that LPS induces the release of oxygen radicals in neutrophil with the activation of $NF{\kappa}B$. From above facts, we can assume the expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ gene by LPS stimulation may occur through the activation of $NF{\kappa}B$, which is mediated through the release of $I{\kappa}B$ by increasing amounts of oxygen radicals. But definitive evidence is lacking about the role of oxygen free radicals in the expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ gene in mononuclear phagocytic cells. We conducted a study to determine whether oxygen radicals act a role in the expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ gene in mononuclear phagocytic cells. Method: Human peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Time and dose relationship of $H_2O_2$-induced IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA expression was observed by Northern blot analysis. To evaluate the role of oxygen radicals in the expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA by LPS stimulation, pretreatment of various antioxiants including PDTC, TMTU, NAC, ME, Desferrioxamine were done and Northern blot analysis for IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA was performed. Results: In PBMC, dose and time dependent expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA by exogenous $H_2O_2$ was not observed. But various antioxidants suppressed the expression of LPS-induced IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA expression of PBMC and the suppressive activity was most prominant when the pretreatment was done with TMTU. Conclusion: Oxygen free radical may have some role in the expression of IL-8 and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA of PBMC but that radical might not be $H_2O_2$.

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Effect of Retrovirus Mediated TNF-$\alpha$ Gene Transfer to Tumor Necrosis Factor(TNF) Sensitive Tumor Cell Lines on Sensitivity to TNF (Retroviral Vector를 이용한 TNF-$\alpha$ 유전자의 이입이 암세포의 종양괴사인자(TNF) 감수성에 미치는 효과)

  • Oh, Yeon-Mok;Park, Kyeo-Yeong;Jung, Man-Pyo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Goo;Sim, Young-Soo;Han, Yong-Chol
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.87-96
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    • 1994
  • Background : Since tumor necrosis factor was discovered in 1975, TNF has been well known about its cytotoxic effect on tumor cells in vivo and in vitro. According to the recent improvement of molecular biological techinques, it is possible that exogenous TNF gene is transferred to tumor cells and is expressed in theirs. By virtue of TNF gene transfer, we have expected that TNF expressed in TNF-gene-transferred tumor cells would kill tumor cells in vivo without systemic side effect. The expected mechanisms in which antitumor effects of TNF expressed in TNF-gene-transferred tumor cells are working would be as followings. In the first mechanism, TNF expressed in TNF-gene-transferred tumor cells would kill tumor cells around(like homicide). In the second mechanism, TNF expressed in TNF-gene-transferred tumor cells would kill themselves(like suicide). In the third mechanism, TNF expressed in TNF-gene-transferred tumor cells would recruit immune effector cells and kill tumor cells indirectly. In the last mechanism, TNF expressed in TNF-gene-transferred tumor cells would augment cytokine such as interferon-$\gamma$ to kill tumor cells. Among these four mechanisms of antitumor effect, only the second mechanism has not been established yet. Therefore, to elucidate the second mechanism, We performed this study. Method : We transferred TNF-$\alpha$ gene to NCI-H2058, a human mesothelioma cell line and WEHI164, a murine fibrosarcoma cell line by using retroviral vector(pLT12SNTNF). And, We determined by using MTT assay whether TNF expressed in TNF-gene-transferred tumor cell lines would kill themselves like suicide or not. Then, if TNF-gene-transferred tumor cell lines would not suicide themselves, I would know more about the TNF sensitivity of TNF-gene-transferred tumor cell lines to exogenous TNF also by MTT assay. Result : NCI-H2058 and WEHI164 which were sensitive to TNF, became far less sensitive to endogenous and exogenous TNF after being transferred TNF-$\alpha$ gene to. Conclusion : TNF-gene-transfer to NCI-H2058 and WEHI164 gave them resistance to TNF.

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Anti-Allergic Inflammatory Effect of Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Soybean and Jeotgal on Human Mast Cell Line (HMC-1) (장류 및 젓갈 분리 균주 추출물의 비만세포 매개 항염증효과)

  • Ko, Yu-Jin;Kim, Hui-Hun;Kim, Eun-Jung;Kim, Jin-Yong;Kang, Sang-Dong;Son, Yong-Hwi;Choi, Sin-Yang;Cha, Seong-Kwan;Kim, Jong-Won;Lee, Jeong-Ok;Ryu, Chung-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.393-399
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    • 2011
  • The mast cell is one of the major effector cells in inflammatory reactions and can be found in most tissues throughout the body. Activated mast cells can produce histamine, as well as a wide variety of other inflammatory mediators such as eicosanoids, proteoglycans, proteases, and several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, and interleukins (IL-6), IL-8, IL-4, IL-13. In the present study, we isolated two bacterial strains (J80 and G147) from fermented soybean and Jeotgal, and investigated the inhibitory effects of their extracts which were prepared by several pretreatment methods (sonication for 20 min, heating at $100^{\circ}C$ for 30 min, autoclaving at $121^{\circ}C$ for 15 min) on the mast cell-mediated inflammatory response. The pretreated bacterial extracts had no cytotoxicity against Human Mast Cell (HMC-1). Among various pretreatments, the extracts treated at $100^{\circ}C$ showed highest inhibition of histamine release (J80, 28.46%; G147, 41.14%). The J80 and G147 extracts treated at $100^{\circ}C$ resulted in the inhibition of IL-6 secretion by 38.46% and 56.45%, respectively. The J80 extract treated at $100^{\circ}C$ resulted in the inhibition of TNF-${\alpha}$ secretion by 66.67%, but G147 extract showed the highest inhibition effect by 41.1% when treated with sonication. These results suggest that bacterial extracts treated at $100^{\circ}C$ have a higher level of anti-inflammatory effects than other treatments such as sonication or autoclaving.

The Ability of Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha(TNF-${\alpha}$) Antibodies Produced in Sheep Colostrums

  • Yun, Sung-Seob
    • 한국유가공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2007
  • Inflammatory process leads to the well-known mucosal damage and therefore a further disturbance of the epithelial barrier function, resulting abnormal intestinal wall function, even further accelerating the inflammatory process[1]. Despite of the records, etiology and pathogenesis of IBD remain rather unclear. There are many studies over the past couple of years have led to great advanced in understanding the inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and their underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. From the current understanding, it is likely that chronic inflammation in IBD is due to aggressive cellular immune responses including increased serum concentrations of different cytokines. Therefore, targeted molecules can be specifically eliminated in their expression directly on the transcriptional level. Interesting therapeutic trials are expected against adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-${\alpha}$. The future development of immune therapies in IBD therefore holds great promises for better treatment modalities of IBD but will also open important new insights into a further understanding of inflammation pathophysiology. Treatment of cytokine inhibitors such as Immunex(Enbrel) and J&J/Centocor(Remicade) which are mouse-derived monoclonal antibodies have been shown in several studies to modulate the symptoms of patients, however, theses TNF inhibitors also have an adverse effect immune-related problems and also are costly and must be administered by injection. Because of the eventual development of unwanted side effects, these two products are used in only a select patient population. The present study was performed to elucidate the ability of TNF-${\alpha}$ antibodies produced in sheep colostrums to neutralize TNF-${\alpha}$ action in a cell-based bioassay and in a small animal model of intestinal inflammation. In vitro study, inhibitory effect of anti-TNF-${\alpha}$ antibody from the sheep was determined by cell bioassay. The antibody from the sheep at 1 in 10,000 dilution was able to completely inhibit TNF-${\alpha}$ activity in the cell bioassay. The antibodies from the same sheep, but different milkings, exhibited some variability in inhibition of TNF-${\alpha}$ activity, but were all greater than the control sample. In vivo study, the degree of inflammation was severe to experiment, despite of the initial pilot trial, main trial 1 was unable to figure out of any effect of antibody to reduce the impact of PAF and LPS. Main rat trial 2 resulted no significant symptoms like characteristic acute diarrhea and weight loss of colitis. This study suggested that colostrums from sheep immunized against TNF-${\alpha}$ significantly inhibited TNF-${\alpha}$ bioactivity in the cell based assay. And the higher than anticipated variability in the two animal models precluded assessment of the ability of antibody to prevent TNF-${\alpha}$ induced intestinal damage in the intact animal. Further study will require to find out an alternative animal model, which is more acceptable to test anti-TNF-${\alpha}$ IgA therapy for reducing the impact of inflammation on gut dysfunction. And subsequent pre-clinical and clinical testing also need generation of more antibody as current supplies are low.

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