• Title, Summary, Keyword: cytokine

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Expression Patterns of Host Inflammatory Cytokine Genes during Infestation with Haemaphysalis longicornis, a Zoonotic Vector, in Blood Sucking Periods

  • Islam, Mohammad Saiful;You, Myung-Jo
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2018
  • Tick saliva is critically important for continuous attachment to the host, blood feeding for days, and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. To characterize the patterns of inflammatory cytokine gene expression during its attachment and blood sucking time, peripheral blood samples of rabbits infested with Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were collected at different intervals. Blood histamine concentration was evaluated as well as gene encoding IFN-${\gamma}$, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 were compared with non-infested rabbits. Blood histamine concentration of tick-infested rabbits during fast feeding time was significantly higher than that of non-infested rabbits. In both nymph and adult tick infested rabbits, expression of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IFN-${\gamma}$ genes were decreased significantly (P<0.05), while expression of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 were increased 1.3 to 7 folds in adult infested rabbits with the exception of IL-6 that was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in nymph infested rabbits. IL-2 was not expressed in either nymph or adult infestation. H. longicornis saliva is capable of modulate host responses through a complex correlation with histamine and Th1, Th2 mediated cytokines that suppress the inflammatory responses directed toward inflammatory mediators introduced into the host during tick feeding.

Inhibitory Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Ulmus davidiana on Apoptosis Induced by Glucose-glucose Oxidase and Cytokine Production in Cultured Mouse Primary Immune Cells

  • Lee, Jeong-Chae;Lim, Kye-Taek
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.463-471
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    • 2001
  • The bark of Ulmus darvidiana var. japonica Nakai (UDN) has been used for a long time to cure inflammation in oriental medicine. In the present study, two types of extracts, Ulmus water-eluted fraction (UWF) and Ulmus ethanol-eluted fraction (UEF), were prepared from the UDN stem bark, and employed to test the extracts to see if they had anti-oxidative properties against hydroxyl radicals that could alter immune reactivity in mouse immune cells. Deoxyribose assay, DNA nicking assay, and glucose/glucose oxidase assay showed that both fractions had scavenging activity against oxygen free radicals at 50 mg/ml. In addition, hydroxyl radical-mediated apoptosis in mouse thymocytes was not protected by UEF treatment, but the apoptosis was protected by UWF at the same concentration. DNA synthesis and cytokine production that were induced in splenocytes by mitogens (Concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide) were reduced by the addition of both fractions. These results indicate that both extracts that were prepared from the UDN stem bark have anti-oxidative activities, anti-apoptotic effects, and inhibitory effects on DNA synthesis and cytokine production in mouse immune cell cultures.

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The Effects of Chungganhaeju-tang(Qingganjiejiu-tang) on Ethanol-mediated Cytokine Expression (청간해주탕이 에탄올 매개성 cytokine 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • 김병삼;김영철;이장훈;우홍정
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.190-201
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    • 2003
  • Object : This study was designed to investigate the effects of Chungganhaeju-tang (Qingganjiejiu-tang) on cytotoxicity, growth inhibition, apoptosis and expression of cytokine in damaged HepG2 cells. Method : Toxicity on HepG2 cell induced by ethanol and acetaldehyde was measured for viability, cell growth, DNA replication and generation of apoptosis and cytokine. The recovery of the cell activity by Chungganhaeju-tang was estimated for the measured parameters using PCR with different cycle numbers, DNA gel-electrophoresis, and densitometric analysis, Results : Chungganhaeju-tang improves the recovery of HepG2 cells damaged by ethanol or acetaldehyde. The suppressed DNA synthesis of the cell damaged by ethanol or acetaldehyde is improved by Chungganhaeju-tang. A liver-protection effect was shown by the reduction of apoptosis and $TNF-{\alpha},{\;}IL-1{\beta}$ expressions that are induced by ethanol or acetaldehyde. Conclusion : The result indicates that Chungganhaeju-tang reduces toxicity induced by ethanol or acetaldehyde and recovers damaged liver function.

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Modulation of Aqueous Extracted Angelicae sinensis Radix on Nitric Oxide Production and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expressions in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

  • Lee Young Sun;Han Ok Kyung;Shin Sang Woo;Park Jong Hyun;Kwon Young Kyu
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1514-1518
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    • 2003
  • Angelica sinensis radix, Danggui, is a traditional oriental medication, which has been used to modulate immune response. We report here that aqueous extract of Angelica sinensis radix (ASR) can induces NO production, and inhibit LPS-induced NO production in dose-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. ASR also induces iNOS mRNA and iNOS protein expression, and exhibit inhibitory effect on iNOS mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Cytokines involved in the regulation of inflammatory reaction and immune response may play a role in the pathogenesis. ASR induces. pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6 gene) in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibits the expressions of these cytokines in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. These data indicate that (1) ASR may be a potential therapeutic modulator of NO synthesis in various pathological conditions, and (2) the immunomodulatory effects of ASR may be, in part, associated with the inducing or suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expressions.

The Effect of Injinchunggan-tang on Hepatitis C Virus Infection (인진청간탕이 C형 간염 바이러스의 임파구계 세포감염에 미치는 영향)

  • 김선민;이장훈;우홍정
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2001
  • Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Injinchunggan-tang on Hepatitis C virus infection, and to clarify the mechanism of treatment by indentifying the effect of Injinchunggan-tang on cytokine secretion. Methods : In vitro model of HCV infection in MOLT 4 cell was used. The effect of Injinchunggan-tang on the attachment of HCV on MOLT 4 cell was studied by PCR method. The change of cytokine secretion according to Injinchunggan-tang treatment was investigated by ELISA. Results : Injinchunggan-tang inhibited the attachment of HCV on MOLT 4 in the concentration of $10-2{\mu\textrm{g}}/\mu\textrm{\ell}$ and $10-1{\mu\textrm{g}}/\mu\textrm{\ell}$. In cytokine assay, Injinchunggan-tang increased the secretion of IL-4 of mouse splenocytes and PBMC in 48 hour culture as well as the secretion of IL-12 of mouse splenocytes and PBMC in 48 hour culture, whereas it decreased the secretion of $IFN-{\gamma}$ of mouse splenocytes in 24 and 48 hour culture. Conclusion : The results of this study show that Injinchunggan-tang has an inhibitory effect on the attachment on HCV on Mo1t4 Cell, and that it increases the secretion of IL-4 and IL-12 of mouse splenocyte and PBMC.

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Studies on the Regulatory Effect of Cytokine Production in Patients with Cerebral Infarction by Yangkyuksanhwatang (양격산화탕(凉膈散火湯)이 소양인(少陽人) 뇌경색증(腦硬塞症) 환자(患者)의 세포활성물질(細胞活性物質) 생성조절(生成調節)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Kyung-Yo;Kweon, Deog-Yun
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.153-161
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    • 2000
  • 1. Purpose This studies the regulatory effect of cytokine production in Soyangin patients with cerebral infarction by Yangkyuksanhwatang. 2 Method ELISA 3. Result & Conclusion Yangkyuksanhwatang(YST) is a prescription for the cerebral infarction (CI) patients of Soyangin according to Sasang constitution philosophy. Soyangin patients with CI were treated with YST during the acute stage. Clinical signs of CI disappeared markedly in about 2 to 4 weeks after oral administration of YST in all patients. The mean interleukin (IL)-2 plasma levels were slightly lower in the patients with CI than in the normal groups, whereas the mean IL-4, IL-6 and IgE levels were significantly higher in the patients. There were no significant differences in interferon- ${\gamma}$ (IFN- ${\gamma}$ ) levels between the groups. Serum IFN- ${\gamma}$ and IL-2 levels derived from T helper (Th)1 cells were elevated significantly in the patients with CI by YST administration. Significant reduced plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-6 derived from Th2 cells and IgE were observed in the patients treated with YST. During the period of YST administration, there were no other adverse effects. The data indicate that YST has a good CI treatment effect, and that its action may be due to regulation of cytokine production.

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Studies on the Regulatory Effect of Cytokine Production in Taumin Patients with Cerebral Infarction by Cheongsimyeonjatang (청심연자탕(淸心蓮子湯)이 태음인(太陰人) 뇌경색증(腦硬塞症) 환자(患者)의 세포활성물질(細胞活性物質) 생성조절(生成調節)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Kyung-Yo;Noh, Hyun-Soo
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.162-170
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    • 2000
  • Purpose : Studies on the Regulatory Effect of Cytokine Production in Taumin Patients with Cerebral Infarction by Cheongsimyeonjatang Method : ELISA(enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay) Result : Chungsimyeunjatang(CYT) is a prescription for the cerebral infarction (CI) patients of Taeumin according to Sasang constitution philosophy. Taeumin patients with CI were treated with CYT during the acute stage. Clinical signs of CI disappeared markedly in about two to four weeks after oral administration of CYT in all patients. The mean interleukin (IL)-2 plasma levels were slightly lower in the patients with CI than in the normal groups, whereas the mean IL-4, IL-6 and IgE levels were significantly higher in the patients. There were no significant differences in $interferon-{\gamma}$ $(IFN-{\gamma})$ levels between the groups. Serum $IFN-{\gamma}$ and IL-2 levels derived from T helper (Th)1 cells were elevated significantly in the patients with CI by CYT administration. Significant reduced plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-6 derived from Th2 cells and IgE were observed in the patients treated with CYT. During the period of CYT administration, there were no other adverse effects. The data indicate that CYT has a good CI treatment effect, and that its action may be due to regulation of cytokine Production.

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Effects of Acanthopanacis cortex Extracts on the Cytokine-inducing and Immune response in Mice (생쥐에서 오가피에 의한 싸이토카인 유도와 면역반응에 관한 효과)

  • Lim, Seok-rhin
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2002
  • This experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Acanthopanacis cortex on Cytokine-inducing and and immune response in Mice. In order to investigate the effect of Acanthopanacis cortex, the following was performed; Cytotoxicity, in vitro, the fraction of $CD4^+$, $CD8^+$, $B220^+$ in splenic cell, gene expression of IL-12(p35), IL-12(p40), IFN-${\gamma}$, and splenic cell proliferation by Acanthopanacis cortex. Analysis of cytokine gene expression was carried out by RT-PCR amplification. Amplified PCR products were electrophoresed on 1.2% agarose gel, and the analysis (Ht) was used to 1D-density program. The results were obtained as follows. Acanthpanacis cortex showed didn't have cell toxicity under $12{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ group on mouse lung fibroblast cells. In an in vitro model using mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), extract of Acanthpanacis cortex induced multiple cytokine, including interleukin-12 (p35), interleukin-12 (p40), interferon-gamma (IFN-${\gamma}$). The extract also enhanced the percentages of the $CD4^+$, and $CD8^+$ in the untreated control were $22.1{\pm}3.3$ to $38.4{\pm}2.1$, and $5.0{\pm}0.4$ to $10.7{\pm}0.3%$, respectively. From above findings, it is suggested that Acanthopanacis cortex is able to anti-cancer and activate immune response system.

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Immunomodulatory Effects of Hominis Placenta Extract Injection into an Acupuncture Point on the Experimental Subcutaneous Tumor Model of Mice

  • Lee, Soo-Jin
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.1285-1289
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    • 2006
  • Hominis placenta (HP) has been used as an agent for promoting physiological function in traditional asian medicine. The present study was peformed to investigate whether HP acupuncture treatment in an experimental tumor mice model inhibit tumor growth through immunomodulatory effects. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with colon26-L5 cells on the back. Three days after tumor inoculation, HP herbal acupuncture treatment was conducted on BL18 acupoint every other day for three weeks. HP Herbal acupuncture treatment significantly suppressed the primary tumor growth and prolonged survival rate. To evaluate immunomodulatory effect of HP acupuncture, splenocytes proliferation assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and ELISA for IFN- ${\gamma}$, and IL-4 cytokine level. HP herbal acupuncture enhanced the mitogenic activity of Balb/c whole splenocytes induced by various mitogenic stimuli and increased immune cell population such as T cell, B cell, Th cell, Tc cell and Macrophages. HP herbal acupuncture caused a marked increase of production of Th1 cytokine (IFN- ${\gamma}$ ,) and decrease of production of Th2 cytokine (IL-4). These results indicated that HP herbal acupuncture suppresses tumor growth through a mechanism leading to a Th1 dominant immune state.

Effect of Phellinus baumii Extract on the Cytokine Activity (상황버섯추출물의 Cytokine 활성 효과 평가)

  • Yoo, Jeong-Hyun;Lee, You-Suk;Kim, Jong-Yeon;Lee, Won-Gyul;Han, Jin-Young;Lee, Hae-Jeung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
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    • pp.423-424
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    • 2017
  • 상황버섯은 오랜 역사와 전통이 있는 소재로서 폴리페놀류가 함유되어 있어 항암, 혈중콜레스테롤 저하, 혈압강하 등의 약리효과가 있는 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 in vivo 실험을 통해 CPA (Cyclophosphamide)로 유도된 면역저하 마우스 모델에서 상황버섯 투여 농도에 따른 cytokine 활성 효과를 확인하여 상황버섯의 면역 증진 효과를 평가하고, 유효한 농도를 선정하여 시제품을 제작하고자 하였다. 연구결과, 림프기관 장기 무게(흉선, 비장, 악하림프절)와 혈청과 비장의 cytokine이 CPA군(CPA control)에 비해 상황버섯 추출물 투여군에서 유의적으로 증가하였다. 또한 실험을 퉁해 선정한 유효한 농도인 50 mg/kg의 농도로 시제품을 제작하였으며, 상황버섯 특유의 떫은 맛을 감쇄하기 위해 아스코르빈산과 NaHCO3을 첨가하여 최적 배합 비율을 선정하여 음료 200 mL당 상황버섯 추출물 55.6 mg (0.0278%), 아스코르빈산 200 mg (0.1%), NaHCO3 60 mg (0.03%)이 함유 되도록 제작하였다. 본 연구 결과 상황버섯추출물은 CPA로 인해 감소된 사이토카인 분비를 상향 조절함으로써 면역저하 상태를 개선시켜 면역 증진 효과가 있는 것으로 판단된다.

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