• Title, Summary, Keyword: cytokine production

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The Role of Intracellular Receptor NODs for Cytokine Production by Macrophages Infected with Mycobacterium Leprae

  • Kang, Tae-Jin;Chae, Gue-Tae
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.424-427
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    • 2011
  • The nucleotide-oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins are members of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, which are intracellular and cytoplasmic receptors. We analyzed the role of NODs for cytokine production by macrophages infected with intracellular pathogen M. leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-$1{\beta}$ and TNF-${\alpha}$ was inhibited in the presence of cytochalasin D, an agent blocking phagocytosis, suggesting that intracellular signaling was, partially, required for macrophage activation to M. leprae infection. Next, we investigated the role of NOD1 and NOD2 proteins on NF-${\kappa}B$ activation and cytokine expression. Treatment with M. leprae significantly increased NF-${\kappa}B$ activation and expression of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$ in NOD1- and NOD2-transfected cells. Interestingly, their activation and expression were inhibited by cytochalasin D, suggesting that stimulation of NOD proteins may be associated with the enhancement of cytokine production in host to M. leprae.

Isolation of Macrophage-activating Bifidobacterium for the Manufacture of Fermented Rice Products (쌀 발효제품 제조를 위한 마크로파지활성 비피더스균의 선발)

  • 차성관;홍석산;지근억;목철균;박종현
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.509-514
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    • 1999
  • Forty seven amylolytic Bifidobacterium strains were isolated on starch-containing agar medium from the faecal samples of the various age groups of Korean. From these amyloytic Bifidobacterium spp., two strains of KFRI 1535, identified temporarily as Bifidobacterium longum, and KFRI 1550, identified as Bifidobacterium breve, showed great macrophage-stimulating activity for the production of tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ and inteleukin-6. As the cell concentration increased the cytokine production increased, although in some strains the cytokine levels started to decline over cell concentration increased the cytokine production increased, although in some strains the cytokine levels started to decline over cell concentration of $250\mu\textrm{g}$/ml. the strains which showed high cytokine-stimulating activity generally showed greater production of nitric oxide even though differences were less between strains. Selected Bifidobacterium strains were compared for their fermentation capability in saccharified rice solution and in apple pomace mixture.

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Effects of Red Ginseng-Ejung-tang Water Extract on Cytokine Production in LPS-induced Mouse Macrophages

  • Park, Wansu
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.42-49
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of Red Ginseng-Ejung-tang Water Extract (ER) on cytokine production in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: Levels of various cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-2, IL-12p70, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were measured by high-throughput multiplex bead array cytokine assay based on xMAP (multi-analyte profiling beads) technology. Results: ER significantly decreased levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-2, IL-12p70, VEGF, and MCP-1 for 24 hrs incubation at the concentrations of 25, 50, and $100{\mu}g/mL$ in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells (P < 0.05). But ER did not exert significant effects on production of MIP-2, KC, TNF-${\alpha}$, and GM-CSF in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusions: These results suggest that ER has an anti-inflammatory property related with its inhibition of cytokine production in LPS-induced macrophages.

Effect of Pumpkin Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batas L.) Water Extracts on Mouse Spleen and Cytokine Cell Activation (호박고구마 물 추출물 투여가 마우스의 비장세포와 사이토카인의 분비량에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Hye-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.317-321
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    • 2020
  • Pumpkin sweet potato (Ipomoea batas L.) has been known as a traditional remedy and food source, not only in South Korea but worldwide. It is rich in fiber, potassium, vitamin C, and other minerals and vitamins, making it a nutritional food loved by many. showed that pumpkin sweet potato had antioxidant biological effects. The in vitro study showed that both splenocytes and cytokine production byactivated peritoneal macrophages increased when water extracts were supplemented at 100 and 250 μL/mL. Notably, the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by splenocytes was significantly increased at 100 μL/mL. The results suggest that supplementation with pumpkin sweet potato (Ipomoea batas L.) water extract may enhance immune function by stimulating splenocyte proliferation and improving cytokine production, activating macrophages in vitro.

Inhibitory Effects of Onchungeum on Cytokine Production from Phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated Peripheral blood Mononuclear cells of Behcets Patients (Behcet 환자의 단구세포에서 온청음의 Cytokine 분필억제 효과)

  • Lim Hong Jin;Hwang Choong Yeon;Chiang Hsueh Chuan;Kim Nam Kwon;Kwon Il Ho
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.768-773
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    • 2002
  • Behcets disease is a systemic inflammatory disorder. The etiology and pathogenesis of Behcets disease has yet been fully elucidated but might involve immune dysfunction. Cytokines involved in the regulation of inflammatory reactions and immune responses may play a role in the pathogenesis of Behcets disease (BD). Onchungeum is an Oriental herbal medication, which has been successfully used in Korea for the treatment of BD. This report describes modulation effects of Onchungeum on cytokine production from phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Behcets patients by ELISA. Onchungeum significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. TNF-α and IL-1β, compared to absence of Onchungeum (by 52.3 1.4 % inhibition for TNF-α and 113.5 3.3 % for IL-1β, p < 0.001). Onchungeum also inhibited the production of IFN-γ, immunoregulatory Th1 cytokine, by 89.4 0.8 % (p < 0.001). The inhibitory effects of Onchungeum on cytokine production showed dose-dependent manner, and the pre-treatment of 1 mg/ml Onchungeum had better effects than immunosuppressive drug for treatment of BD, cyclosporin A. Our results suggest that Onchungeum treatment for Behcets disease patients may have pharmacologic activities and abilities of regulation of immune and inflammatory responses by cytokine modulation.

Factors Influencing the Production of Water-soluble Endopolysaccharides and Exopolysaccharides from Lentinus lepideus and their Effects on Immune Cytokine Production

  • Lee, Wi-Young;Ahn, Jin-Kwon;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Ka, Kang-Hyeon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.560-567
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    • 2008
  • An efficient method to produce water-soluble polysaccharides from Lentinus lepideus is described. The productivity of both endopolysaccharides (PPS) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) was compared under various culture conditions. The effect of treating their own PPS and EPS on immune cytokine production was also studied in relation to culture factors. High yield production of EPS required a moderate culture temperature $(25^{\circ}C)$ as well as long culture period (16-20 days). In contrast, PPS production required a high culture temperature $(30^{\circ}C)$ and short culture period (8 days). Most of the carbon sources did not affect polysaccharides and mycelial production except for sucrose. Immune cytokine levels in the EPS treatment varied among carbon sources or culture periods. PPS did not appear to affect much on the production of cytokines, regardless of the culturing factors, except for the culture period. These results suggest that the optimal culture conditions for L. lepideus vary according to culture purposes, and different culture conditions should be used for different targets including mycelial biomass, EPS, and PPS. Whereas the immunomodulating activitiy of EPS appeared to be affected by culture conditions in L. lepideus, that of PPS did not.

Effects of Job's Tears(Yul-Moo) Extracts on Mouse Splenocyte and Macrophage Cell Activation (율무 추출물의 마우스 비장세포와 대식세포 활성 효과)

  • Ryu, Hye-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2008
  • Job's Tears(Yul-Moo) is a grass crop long-used as a traditional medicine; it is also a nourishing food. There are reports of its anti-inflammatory, stomachic, antiallergic activity, and antispastic effects and Job's Tears has been used in China to treat rheumatism, and neuralgia although its warts, rheumanism remains unclear. Thus, the present study was performed to investigate the in vitro effect of Job's Tears extracts on immune function. Here mouse splenocyte proliferation and cytokine production$(IL-1{\beta},\;IL-6,\;TNF-{\alpha})$ by peritoneal macrophages cultured with ethanol and water extracts of Job's Tears were examined. splenocytes proliferation increased with Job's Tears water extracts supplement at concentrations investigated The cytokine production$(IL-1{\beta},\;IL-6,\;TNF-{\alpha})$ by ELISA using a cytokine kit And $IL-1{\beta}$, IL-6 and $TNF-{\alpha}$ production increased water extracts supplementation. This in vitro study suggests that supplementation with Job's Tears water extracts may enhance immune function by regulating the splenocyte proliferation and enhancing cytokine production of activated macrophages.

Effect of Theobroma cacao L. Extracts on Mouse Spleen Immune Cells Activation (카카오 열수 추출물 투여의 마우스 면역세포 활성효과)

  • Ryu, Hye-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.732-736
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    • 2020
  • Theobroma cacao L., a fruit of cacao trees, is a perennial plant, which belongs to Sterculiaceae, and is native to the Amazon in South Africa. It also has been known for its various biologically active effects, such as anti-oxidation, anti-cancer, and anti-bacterial. The spleen cell proliferations of mice were measured at 48 hours after treatment of Theobroma cacao L. water extracts in seven concentrations(0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1,000 ㎍/mL) an ELISA assay. The production of cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ), is secreted by macrophages stimulated with LPS, was detected by ELISA assay using the cytokine kit. From the results of in vitro study, both splenocytes and cytokine production activated by peritoneal macrophages have increased when water extracts were supplemented in the range between 250 and 500 ㎍/mL concentration. Notably, splenocytes production has a signigicant proliferation at 500 ㎍/mL concentration. The result from this research suggests that supplementation with Theobroma cacao L. water extracts may enhance the immune function by stimulating the splenocyte proliferation and improving the cytokine production activating macrophage in vitro.

Effect of Corn Extracts on Mouse IL-2 Cytokine Production by Peritoneal Macrophage and the Ratio of IFN-${\gamma}$, IL-10 Cytokine (옥수수 추출물의 경구 투여가 사이토카인 IL-2 생성과 IFN-${\gamma}$와 IL-10 Ratio에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Hye-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.362-367
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    • 2012
  • Corn has been used for a long time as a traditional remedy, as well as a food source. We previously reported that in vitro supplementation of corn water extracts enhanced the proliferation of splenocytes, compared to the control group. In this study, we examined the immunomodulative effect of a water extract of corn. Seven to eight weeks old mice(Balb/c) were fed an ad libitum chow diet, and were orally administrated a water extract of corn every other day, for four weeks, at two different concentrations(50 and 500 mg/kg B.W). Cytokine production(IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-${\gamma}$) by macrophages stimulated with LPS or not stimulated with LPS was detected by ELISA assay using the cytokine kit. In an ex vivo study, the cytokines IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-${\gamma}$ were detected at 500 mg/kg b.w. supplementation group with LPS stimulation in all cases. Also, the ratio of IFN-${\gamma}$ to IL-10 was in the range of 0~3 with mitogen stimulation, such as con A and LPS. In conclusion, this study suggests that in mice, corn extracts may enhance immune function by regulating the cytokine production(IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-${\gamma}$) of the activated macrophages.

Screening of Immune-Active Lactic Acid Bacteria

  • Hwang, E-Nam;Kang, Sang-Mo;Kim, Mi-Jung;Lee, Ju-Woon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.541-550
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cell wall extract on the proliferation and cytokine production of immune cells to select suitable probiotics for space food. Ten strains of LAB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. paracasei, L. casei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. delbruekii, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, and Pedicoccus pentosaceus) were sub-cultured and further cultured for 3 d to reach 7-10 Log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL prior to cell wall extractions. All LAB cell wall extracts failed to inhibit the proliferation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes or mesenteric lymphocytes. Most LAB cell wall extracts except those of L. plantarum and L. delbrueckii induced the proliferation of both immune cells at tested concentrations. In addition, the production of TH1 cytokine (IFN-γ) rather than that of TH2 cytokine (IL-4) was enhanced by LAB cell wall extracts. Of ten LAB extracts, four (from L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, and S. thermophiles) promoted both cell proliferating and TH1 cytokine production. These results suggested that these LAB could be used as probiotics to maintain immunity and homeostasis for astronauts in extreme space environment and for general people in normal life.