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Effect of Feeding Strategies on Milk Production of Holstein Dairy Cows Managed by Small-Farmers Alpine Grassland in Korea

  • Kim, Tae-Il;Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar;Lim, Dong-Hyun;Park, Seong-Min;Park, Ji-Hoo;Kim, Sang-Bum;Jung, Jeong-Sung;Ki, Kwang-Seok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2018
  • The main objective of this experiment was to investigate effects of two different feeding systems on body weight, milk yield, milk composition, and mineral and fatty acids content of Holstein dairy cows' milk. Sixteen of 25 months-old Holstein dairy cows were assigned to two groups (n=8) to study effects of the feeding system for 150 days. Two feeding systems were compared for five months; Group 1 was housed indoors and mainly fed a concentrate diet, Group 2 was maintained outdoors for five-seven hours/day on various kinds grass in a pasture. The experiment was conducted June-October 2017. Results revealed the indoor-fed cows had higher body weight, that was significant compared with the outdoor-based feeding system of Holstein dairy cows (p<0.05). Indoor-raised milking cows had higher milk yield (32.45 kg) as compared with pasture-raised milk yield (26.44 kg). Cows fed indoors significantly increased milk yield, total protein content, lactose, citric acid level, and lowered level of total solid and free fatty acids relative to the pasture-fed milking cows (p>0.05). There were higher levels of mineral content and fatty acid content in the milk of indoor-fed dairy cows than the pasture-raised dairy cows (p>0.05). Our study results demonstrated the potential benefits of the indoor feeding system for increased body weight, milk yield, mineral and fatty acids content summer through autumn when low pasture growth rates and quality may otherwise limit production.

Influence of Mentha×piperita L. (Peppermint) Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Metabolism in Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Hosoda, K.;Nishida, T.;Park, W.Y.;Eruden, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1721-1726
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    • 2005
  • The characteristic smell of cow milk was suppressed when herbs were consumed by lactating dairy cows. But it is unclear whether or not peppermint ingestion affects the nutritional and milk production parameters in lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of peppermint feeding to lactating dairy cows on nutrient digestibility, energy metabolism, ruminal fermentation and milk production. Eight Holstein cows were given a diet supplemented with or without 5% of dried peppermint per diet on a dry matter basis. The digestion of nutrients from cows fed the diet with peppermint was significantly lower than that of the control group. Energy loss as methane and methane released from cows receiving the peppermint treatment was significantly lower than that in the control cows. Peppermint feeding to cows resulted in the promotion of thermogenesis. However, ruminal fermentation and milk production were not affected by peppermint feeding. In conclusion, peppermint ingestion by lactating dairy cows reduces the nutrient digestibility and methanogenesis, and changes energy metabolism.

Morphological Observations of Ovaries in Relation to Infertility in Slaughtered Cows in Kyungnam Province 1. Appearance of follicles and corpus luteums in cow ovaries (경남지방의 도태우에 불임과 관련된 난소의 형태학적 관찰 1. 난포와 황체의 출현에 대하여)

  • 양재훈;표병민;서득록;고필옥;강정부;김종섭;곽수동
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2002
  • Ovaries from total 192 slaughtered cows, 154 Korean native cows and 38 dairy cows were collected during the slaughtering process in Kimhae, Changyoung and Yangsan abattoirs in Kyungnam province from January 2001 to January 2002. Rates of pregnant and non-pregnant and ovarian findings were invested. Rates of pregnant cows in 192 slaughtered cows were 12.5% (24 cows) and in difference of cow breeds, 11.0% (17 cows) in 154 Korean native cows and 18.4% (7 cows) in 38 dairy cows from total 192 cows, respectively. Ages of fetuses in pregnant Korean native cows were mostly less than 4 months and ages of fetuses in dairy cows were mostly about 7-8 months. Cows which each diameter of follicles and corpus luteums in same cow was more than 5-6 mm in diameter were 69.8% (134 cows) in total 192 slaughtered cows and in difference of cow breeds, 64.7% (11 cows) in 17 Korean native cows and 57.1% (4 cows) in 7 dairy cows. Mean diameter of foliicles and corpus luteums in Korean native cows are 13.7$\pm$5.6$\times$ 11.2$\pm$4.6mm and 17.5$\pm$4.6$\times$14.6$\pm$4.0 mm in non-pregnat cows, and are 11.0$\pm$4.8$\times$9.1 $\pm$ 2.6mm and 21.2$\pm$2.9$\times$18.3$\pm$ 2.7 mm in pregnant cows, respectively. Mean diameter of follicles and corpus luteums in dairy cows are 15.8$\pm$7.1 $\times$ 14.3$\pm$ 6.0 mm and 20.3$\pm$5.9$\times$16.9$\pm$ 5.8 mm in non-pregnant cows, and are 10.1 $\pm$ 3.0$\times$9.2$\pm$2.3 mm and 23.0$\pm$ 1.7$\times$20.1 $\pm$ 1.3 mm in pregnant cows, respectivley. The above findings indicate that the co-appearance rate of follicles and corpus luteums in same cows are higher in both pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Compared in pregnant and non-pregnant cow ovaries, mean size of follicles are smaller in pregnant cows but size of corpus luteums are more larger in pregnant cows than in non-pregnant cows. Correlation of the follicle size (Y) and corpus luteum size (X) in same cows developed each other in inversive size. Those correlative formulas appeared to be Y = -0.2022X+17.175 in Korean native cows and Y= -0.5754 X+24.153 in dairy cows.

Studies on Automatization of Dairy Cattle Farming II. Automatic System for Detection of Diseased Cattle by Taking Body Temperature (젖소 사양기술의 자동화를 위한 연구 II. 체온 측정 방법을 통한 질병자동 진단 시스템)

  • 김용준;유일정;정길도;한병성;김동원;김명순
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.450-454
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    • 1998
  • These studies were performed to find out the possibility of automatic detection of the diseased animal with fever by farmers themselves. Firstly, the body temperature of 331 dairy cows was investigated according to major disease symptoms manifested. Secondly, AD 590 thermometer was used to take the teat temperature of the milking cows to determine the possibility of automatic taking of body temperature while milking. The temperatures of scapha of ear and coccygeal artery part were also taken fur the non-milking dairy cows and Korean native cowl 1. The average body temperature of dairy cows associated with respiratory diseases puerperal disease, or mastitis was higher than normal temperature denoting respectively 39.8,39.6, and $39.3{\circ}C.2.$ The teat temperaure of the milking dairy cows with fever($39.5~39.6{\circ}C$) and the cows with mastitis was respectively 1.02 and 0.56${\circ}C$ higher than that of normal cows. 3. The average teat temperature taken by AD 590 was 33.91, 34.93, and 34.50${\circ}C$ in normal milking dairy cows, cows with fever(39.5~39.6${\circ}C$), and cows with mastitis, respectively. 4. The mean temperatures at scapha and coccygeal part of non-milking dairy cows and Korean native cows were 35.62 and 36.63${\circ}C$, respectively. It was concluded that AD 590 thermometer would be usable for the farmers to automatirally detect the body temperature of dairy cows while milking and subsquently to find the diseased cow with fever and that the scapha of ear and coccygeal artery part of the cattle could be the body parts of simply detecting body temperature of non-milking cattle.

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Application of Artificial Insemination Technology for Dairy Breeding in Mongolia

  • Jin, Jong-In;Kim, Sung-Su;Cho, Hyun-Tae;Choi, Byung-Hyun;Lee, Jung-Gyu;Kim, Yun-Shik;Kim, Sam-Churl;Cho, Kyu-Woan;Baldan, Tumor;Kong, Il-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.271-276
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    • 2011
  • This study was focused on improvement of milk production in Mongolian dairy industry by artificial insemination (AI) technology, supported by ODA of KOICA in Republic of Korea. This program was started in January 2009 and it is in $3^{rd}$ years. This manuscript summarized the data especially on estrus synchronization and pregnancy establishment in dairy cows (Holstein) this year. A total of 81 dairy cows from 4 private farms (38 from Undarmal milk and that of 30, 8 and 5 dairy cows from Onjin (Enkhbayer), Jargalant, and BRM School farms respectively) were synchronized with 5 ml Lutalyse (i.m.) in the dump of dairy cows and then estrus was detected 2 to 3 days after $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ injection. The synchronized dairy cows were inseminated with 0.5 ml dairy frozen semen by conventional artificial insemination (AI) techniques. Pregnancy was diagnosed about 60 days after AI by palpation method. About 96.3% (78/81) of synchronized cows were responded to single $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ injection. Total 75 over 78 dairy cows (90.1%) inseminated were diagnosed as pregnant. The estrus induction and pregnancy rates were very effective using Lutalyse injection and conventional AI techniques in Mongolian dairy cow. The present results indicated that AI after estrus induction in Mongolian dairy cows could be applied to dairy breeding technology for improving breeding efficiency and milk production of the country.

Effect of Short-distance Walking Activity on Milk Production and Metabolic Status of Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Lim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Tae-Il;Kim, Hyun-Jong;Kim, Sang-Beom;Park, Seong-Min;Park, Ji-Hoo;Ha, Seong-Min;Lee, Ji-Hwan;Lim, Hyun-Joo;Jeong, Ha-Yeon;Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.343-348
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    • 2018
  • In this study, the effect of daily short-distance walking exercise on milk production and metabolic status of the lactating dairy cows was investigated. The experiment was conducted with 10 lactating dairy cows comprising 2 groups (5 dairy cows/group), which were walking activity and non-walking activity. The walking activity (WA) group lactating dairy cows walked outdoors for 1 km/d, and the non-walking activity (non-WA) lactating dairy cows were maintained within a cowshed from $18^{th}$ April to $30^{th}$ May. The activity volume of the neck was not significantly different between the groups, but the activity volume of the leg was higher in WA group compared with non-WA (p<0.05). The rectal temperature was higher in the WA group ($38.6^{\circ}C$) compared with non-WA ($38.2^{\circ}C$) (p<0.05). No significant differences in dietary NE intake, milk production and milk composition were found between the groups. The plasma cortisol concentration was higher in WA group ($2.14{\mu}g/dl$) compared to non-WA ($0.95{\mu}g/dl$) (p<0.05). However, plasma cortisol level of WA dairy cows was significantly decreased as compared with non-WA cows. On the contrary, the level of plasma melatonin was increased in WA cows than that of non-WA dairy cows. It may be interpreted as a change in physical fitness. From this study, we suggest that walking activity can be improved energy balance. Further investigation is needed to determine whether different combinations of distance, rate or doing in morning or afternoon will stimulate energy balance.

Progesterone assays as an aid for improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle III. Milk progesterone profiles in repeat-breeder dairy cows (Progesterone 농도측정(濃度測定)에 의한 유우(乳牛)의 번식효율증진(繁殖效率增進)에 관한 연구(硏究) III. 저수태우(低受胎牛)에서 유즙(乳汁)중 progesterone 농도변화(濃度變化))

  • Kang, Byong-kyu;Choi, Han-sun;Choi, Sang-gong;Son, Chang-ho;Chon, Hong-suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.189-193
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    • 1994
  • This study was undertaken to clarify the relationship between the cause of repeat-breeder and the luteal dysfunction in repeat-breeder dairy cows that failed to conceive to three or more artificial insemination(AI) at a regular interval. Progesterone concentrations were measured in milk fat for 20 to 22 days after AI. From the 15 repeat-breeder dairy cows, six cows had a normal progesterone profiles. Five cows showed a delayed rise of the progesterone concentrations until 7 to 10 days after AI, two cows had a comparatively low concentration of milk progesterone below 150 ng/ml through most of the luteal phase, and two cows had a combined pattern of a delayed rise and a low concentration of milk progesterone during luteal phase. It is suggest that luteal dysfunction as indicated by progesterone profiles is one of the causes of repeat-breeder in dairy cows.

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Effects of heat stress on body temperature, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cows: a novel idea for monitoring and evaluation of heat stress - A review

  • Liu, Jiangjing;Li, Lanqi;Chen, Xiaoli;Lu, Yongqiang;Wang, Dong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.9
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    • pp.1332-1339
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    • 2019
  • Heat stress exerts a substantial effect on dairy production. The temperature and humidity index (THI) is widely used to assess heat stress in dairy operations. Herein, we review the effects of high temperature and humidity on body temperature, feed intake, milk production, follicle development, estrous behavior, and pregnancy in dairy cows. Analyses of the effects of THI on dairy production have shown that body temperature is an important physiological parameter in the evaluation of the health state of dairy cows. Although THI is an important environmental index and can help to infer the degree of heat stress, it does not reflect the physiological changes experienced by dairy cows undergoing heat stress. However, the simultaneous measurement of THI and physiological indexes (e.g., body temperature) would be very useful for improving dairy production. The successful development of automatic detection techniques makes it possible to combine THI with other physiological indexes (i.e., body temperature and activity), which could help us to comprehensively evaluate heat stress in dairy cows and provide important technical support to effectively prevent heat stress.

Reproductive Monitoring and Estrus Induction using Ultrasonography and Hormone Assay in Dairy Cows I. Periodical Examination of Reproductive Status and Treatment of Reproductive Dysfunctions (초음파검사 및 호르몬검사에 의한 젖소 번식검진과 발정유도 I. 정기적인 번식검진 및 번식장애 치료)

  • 오기석;박상국;김방실;고진성;신종봉;백종환;홍기강;문광식;임원호
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2003
  • The ultrasonography was performed in 77,924 subestrous dairy cows from 680 dairy farms at 57 districts. The cows were examined for confirmation of resumption of ovaries and uterus after 30 days postpartum, for early pregnancy diagnosis after 30 days post-insemination, confirmation of pregnancy at 8 month post-insemination, and for diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions, respectively. The results of reproductive examination by ultrasonography in 77,924 dairy cows were ovarian disorders 35,452 (46.8%), uterine disorders 10,721 (13.8%), pregnancy and pregnant failure 24,044 (30.8%), adhesion of reproductive tracts 167 (0.2%), freematins 13 (0.01%) and others 6,527 (8.4%) cows, respectively. The 13,732 (49.6%) cows out of 27,694 cows were treated for silent heat or error of estrus detection, 3,473 (12.5%) cows for follicular cysts, 815 (3.0%) cows for luteal cysts, 606 (2.2%) cows for inactive ovaries, 4 (0.01%) cows for granulosa cell tumors, and 6,455 (23.3%) cows for endometritis, respectively. The indices of reproductive efficiencies before (2001-08-10) and after (2003-07-20) periodical examination of reproductive status were as follows; the mean intercalving interval were shortened from 471 days to 383 days, the mean interval calving to conception were shortened from 187 days to 99 days, the mean interval calving to first service were shortened from 105 days to 67 days, the mean cows showing heat by 60 days postpartum were increased from 33% to 89%, the mean conception rate to first service were increased from 43% to 68%, and the mean service per conception were shortened from 2.6 times to 1.8 times, respectively. These results suggest that periodical examination of reproductive status would be useful for the improvement of the reproductive performance in dairy cows.

Feeding of Whole Sugar Cane to Dairy Cattle during the Dry Season

  • Suksombat, W.;Mernkrathoke, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.345-349
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    • 2005
  • A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding chopped whole sugar cane compared to corn silage on performances of dairy cows during the dry season. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation; averaging 16.5${\pm}$2.0 kg of milk, 121${\pm}$22 days in milk, 54.5${\pm}$4.5 months old and 440${\pm}$31 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to two treatment groups (12 cows in each group). The first group was fed corn silage together with commercial concentrate while the second group was fed chopped whole sugar cane together with commercial concentrate. All cows consumed similar DM, however, cows on corn silage consumed more CP while cows on chopped whole sugar cane consumed more $NE_{LP}$. No significant differences in performances between the two groups were observed except for final live weight and body weight change. Cows on chopped whole sugar cane showed higher final live weight and gained more weight than cows on corn silage. The present study clearly indicates that chopped whole sugar cane can be fed to lactating dairy cows, while giving similar milk yield to corn silage.