• Title, Summary, Keyword: depression

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Development of a Prediction Model for Postpartum Depression: Based on the Mediation Effect of Antepartum Depression (산후우울 예측모형 개발: 산전우울의 매개효과 검증을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Eun Joo;Park, Jeong Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.211-220
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study was done to develop a prediction model for postpartum depression by verifying the mediation effect of antepartum depression. A hypothesized model was developed based on literature reviews and predictors of postpartum depression by Beck. Methods: Data were collected from 186 pregnant women who had a gestation period of more than 32 weeks and were patients at a maternity hospital, two obstetrics and gynecology specialized hospitals, or the outpatient clinic of K medical center. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, correlation and exploratory factor analysis using the SPSS/WIN 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 programs. Results: The final modified model had good fit indices. Parenting stress, antepartum depression and postpartum family support had statistically significant effects on postpartum depression, and defined 74.7% of total explained variance of postpartum depression. Antepartum depression had significant mediation effects on postpartum depression from stress in pregnancy and self-esteem. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that it is important to develop nursing interventions including strategies to reduce parenting stress and improve postpartum family support in order to prevent postpartum depression. Especially, it is necessary to detect and treat antepartum depression early to prevent postpartum depression as antepartum depression can affect postpartum depression by mediating antepartum factors.

Associations between Smoking and Depression in Adolescence: An Integrative Review

  • Park, Sun-Hee;Romer, Dan
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.227-241
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    • 2007
  • Background. Although research has established the existence of an association between smoking and depression among adolescents, researchers have not reached consensus on the nature of the association. Objectives. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature, to examine the nature of the relationship between smoking and depression in adolescence, and to suggest future research directions. Methods. A literature search was conducted from the following six databases: (a) Ovid MEDLINE, (b) CINAHL, (c) PubMed Unrestricted, (d) PsycINFO, (e) ERIC, and (f) Sociological Abstracts. The combinations of the words, "depression," "smoking," "tobacco," "adolescent," and "teen" were used for keyword searches to find relevant articles. Results. In 47 of 57 studies, significant associations between smoking and depression were found. However, these significant relationships may either be spurious or unrelated to depression because a substantial number of studies did not adjust for confounders or did not use validated instruments to measure depression. Additionally, if the relationship is causal, its direction remains controversial. Five relationships have been suggested: (a) Depression causes smoking, (b) smoking causes depression, (c) there is a bidirectional relationship between smoking and depression, (d) smoking and depression occur due to confounders, and (e) subgroups with different relationships between the two conditions exist. Conclusions. It is necessary to further explore the relationship between smoking and depression. Future research should consider the need for: (a) longitudinal research designs, (b) more accurate measurement of depression, and (c) the control of confounders between smoking and depression.

Gender Difference in Factors Related to Depression in Vulnerable Elderly (취약계층 노인의 성별 우울 관련 요인)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyung
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.169-179
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study was to understand the factors related to depression according to gender in vulnerable elderly. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 1,709 elderly beneficiaries of the visiting health care program in Seoul. Depression was measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korea Version(GDSSF-K) questionnaire. Depression score was mild level in vulnerable elderly. There was no gender difference in depression level. Factors related to depression differ by gender. In the elderly men, higher depression showed significant correlation with a lower level of health-related quality of life(HRQOL) and self-rated health(SRH). In addition, higher depression was observed for elderly men living alone than for those living with family. These factors explained depression by 23.1%. In the elderly women, higher depression showed significant correlation with a lower level of HRQOL, SRH and a higher dependence of instrumental activities of daily living. In addition, higher depression was observed for elderly women who has fall experience. These factors explained depression by 22.8%. Gender-specific nursing strategies may be required for prevention of depression in vulnerable elderly.

Interaction between Personality and Depression Outcome (인격과 우울증 치료결과의 상호작용)

  • Park, Yong Chon;Kim, Seok Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2001
  • It is known that the personality is the crucial factor in the treatment outcome of depression. The authors tried to identify the results of such studies and various components which determine the treatment outcome of depression. Nearly 60 papers published between the year 1990 and 2000 about the treatment of depression and personality were reviewed. Among them about 30 papers were selected to compare the research methods, results and discussions. The arguments and critics of the papers were discussed. In the many debates, the authors admitted the fact that premorbid personality trait influences the treatment outcome of depression negatively regardless of treatment method. Subtyping of depression is feasible along the presence of good or bad predictors of treatment outcome for depression. Differentiation of depression and personality seems to have no problem, however test of personality state before the development of psychiatric disorder such as depression is not amenable. For example, cluster A personality trait is often misunderstood as depression in clinical setting. In some cases cognitive behavioral therapy is effective in the treatment of depression accompanying personality disorder. The authors insist that the analysis of personality in the dimensional aspect rather than in the categorical aspect gives more information in the research of personality influencing the treatment outcome of depression. In addition, the reason why we understand the relationship between depression and personality were discussed.

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Research on Depression in Married Immigrant Women: Trends in Korea (여성결혼이민자의 우울에 관한 연구 동향)

  • Byun, Seong Won
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Rural Health Nursing
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.69-77
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was done to identify the current status of research on depression in married immigrant women and to suggest directions for future nursing research. Method: Sixteen articles for the period between 2001 and 2010 were selected by key words such as "Married Immigrant Women" and "Depression" from the databases (RISS4U et al). Results: Twelve of the research reports were related to correlations and 4 were related to interventions. Depression level was measured using BDI or CES-D. Depression levels were as follows: 20-30% reported major depression and less than 10%, severe depression. Factors which influenced depression included: socio-demographic factors, and family, economic, psychological and situational characteristics. Psychological treatment prevailed in the intervention research, for example, art therapy, and horticultural therapy. In 2 papers significant improvement in the state of depression among participants in the intervention group were reported. Conclusion: The next phase of nursing research related to married immigrant women is to reconsider the importance of the concept of depression to reexamine research methods and directions.

Depression in Cancer Patients (암 환자의 우울증)

  • Kim, Sung-Wan;Lee, Sam-Yeon;Kim, Jae-Min
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2006
  • Bidirectional relationships exist between cancer and depression; the prevalence of depression in cancer patients is higher than in the general population, and depression predicts cancer progression and mortality. The mechanisms through which depression contributes to the progression of cancer are related with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and impairment of immune function. However, depression in cancer patients tends to be underdiagnosed and not appropriately treated. The methods of diagnosis and assessment of depression in cancer patents have been debated because physical symptoms of depression mimic both cancer symptoms per se and the side effects of cancer treatment. Many studies have shown that various psychosocial and/or pharmacological interventions are effective at improving de-pressive symptoms and quality of life in cancer patients. Furthermore, antidepressant treatments are effective for various physical symptoms related to cancer, such as fatigue, anorexia, pain, hot flashes, and itching. This article reviews and discusses current knowledge about depression in cancer patients.

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Factors associated with Postpartum Depression and Its Influence on Maternal Identity (산후우울의 영향요인과 모성 정체성과의 관련성)

  • Jung, Yoen Yi;Kim, Hae Won
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study aimed to examine the factors associated with postpartum depression and its influence on maternal identity of postpartum women. Methods: Research design was a cross sectional descriptive study with a total of 89 women within the six month postpartum period. Associations of eating habits, overall sleep quality and other factors with postpartum depression utilizing the Korean Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI) were done. The influence of postpartum depression on maternal identity was analyzed. Variables yielding significant associations (p<.05) were included in an adjusted logistic regression and a stepwise multiple regression. Results: Mean scores of postpartum depression was $9.42{\pm}6.08$ and 31.5% (n=28) for mild depression, 11.2% (n=10) was moderate and 4.5% (n=4) was severe depression on the K-BDI scale. Perceived health status and overall sleep quality were predictors of postpartum depression. Postpartum depression and the husband's love were predictors of maternal identity. Conclusion: Awareness of poor health perception and sleep quality will be helpful to detect for postpartum depression. Strategies to increase maternal identity during the postpartum period would be tailored by level of depression.

Comparison of CES-D and RADS-2-K in Measuring Adolescent Depression (청소년 우울 측정을 위한 CES-D와 RADS-2-K 도구의 비교)

  • Sung, Kyung Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the scales measuring adolescent depression. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using CES-D and RADS-2-K as sales measuring adolescent depression. The participants were 1,217 adolescents from two middle schools located in South Korea. Data were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 21.0. All the items included in the two instruments were analysed through content analysis. Results: The study revealed that the two instruments produced different results in the number of depressive students, depression levels according to subjects' characteristics, and item distribution based on content analysis. The total number of the students belonging to the depression group was 194, including 132 from CES-D and 183 from RADS-2-K. Based on the content analysis covering two categories, general and adolescent depression, the study determined fifteen subcategories in the items of the two scales. Conclusion: In this study, CES-D showed less sensitivity than RADS-2-K in depression levels according to factors relevant to adolescent depression, and both scales had no item for three subcategories of adolescent depression and one subcategory of general depression. The researcher suggests that further studies to evaluate the validity of adolescent depression scales will be useful for helping adolescents with depression.

A Study on Awareness of Depression and Needs of a Depression Support Program in the University (일 대학 대학생의 우울증 인식도 및 우울증 지원프로그램 수요조사)

  • Kim, Woo-Jae;Kim, Sul-Min;Kim, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Song, Ji-Young;Paik, Jong-Woo
    • Anxiety and mood
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 2010
  • Objective : Depression is a significant and growing problem among college students. Depression contributes to numerous academic, social, and health problems, including suicide. This study surveyed depression awareness and the need for establishing a depression support program through Kyunghee University. Methods : We used the Kyunghee University Mail delivery system for college students to conduct this survey on depression and depression. Results : All of the students who responded to the survey, 41.86% reported that they had experienced depression. Among students experiencing depression, 27.27% experienced suicidal ideation, and 56.56% said they wanted to receive mental health counseling or treatment. All the respondents, 47.04% of respondents said they would to go to the external medical center, not school's internal counseling center of school, for such treatment. All the respondents, 73.75% said the student depression/suicide problem was serious. In addition, 71.34% of respondents required a depression support program. Conclusion : The university's depression support program needs to improve its accessibility by developing content focused on the early detection of, and improved awareness of, depression.

A Longitudinal Study on the Causal Association Between Smoking and Depression

  • Kang, Eun-Jeong;Lee, Jae-Hee
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.193-204
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the causal relationship between smoking and depression using longitudinal data. Methods: Two waves of the Korea Welfare Panel collected in 2006 and 2007 were used. The sample consisted of 14 426 in 2006 and 13 052 in 2007 who were aged 20 and older. Smoking was measured by smoking amount (none/$\geq$ two packs). Depression was defined when the summated CESD (center for epidemiological studies depression)-11 score was greater than or equal to 16. The causal relationship between smoking and depression was tested using logistic regression. In order to test the causal effect of smoking on depression, depression at year 2 was regressed on smoking status at year 1 only using the sample without depression at year 1. Likewise, smoking status at year 2 was regressed on depression at year 1 only using those who were not smoking at year 1 in order to test the causal effect of depression on smoking. The statistical package used was Stata 10.0. Sampling weights were applied to obtain the population estimation. Results: The logistic regression testing for the causal relationship between smoking and depression showed that smoking at year 1 was significantly related to depression at year 2. Smoking amounts associated with depression were different among age groups. On the other hand, the results from the logistic regression testing for the opposite direction of the relationship between smoking and depression found no significant association regardless of age group. Conclusions: The study results showed some evidence that smoking caused depression but not the other way around.