• Title/Summary/Keyword: desertification

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Early Warning System for Desertification in I. R. of Iran (An Application of GIS and Remote Sensing)

  • Sepehr A.;BodaghJamali J.;Javanmard S.
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.189-192
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    • 2005
  • Desertification is one of the main global environmental phenomena. It has resulted in deterioration environment and poor economy, and imposed threat to the surviving environment of the overall mankind. Therefore, creating of methods for monitoring and estimate of risk desertification are necessary. Early warning system is one of important ways for monitoring and forecasting of desertification. Remote Sensing and GIS technology are as suitable tools and methods for early warning system. In this aim, we have evaluated of applications of remote sensing and GIS in monitoring and estimating desertification process (case study in Fars Province of Iran). In this research, we have considered erosion and vegetation cover parameters as main factors affecting in desertification process. The result shows that remote sensing and GIS technology could be useful in evaluation of desertification as one method for desertification early warning. Also, Results suggested that erosion and plant cover are affecting in develop the desertification process in study area.

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Studies on the Desertification Combating and Sand Industry Development(I) - Present Status and Countermeasures for the Combating Desertification in China - (사막화방지(沙漠化防止) 및 방사기술개발(防沙技術開發)에 관한 연구(硏究)(I) - 중국(中國)의 사막화현황(沙漠化現況) 및 방지대책(防止對策) -)

  • Woo, Bo-Myeong;Lee, Kyung-Joon;Jeon, Gi-Seong;Kim, Kyung-Hoon;Choi, Hyung-Tae;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Byung-Kwon;Kim, So-Yeon;Lee, Sang-Ho;Jeon, Jeong-Ill
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.45-76
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    • 2000
  • The purposes of this study were to investigate and understand the present status of various types of "deserts", such as sand desert, gravel desert, rock desert, earth desert, salt desert, desert, rocky desert, gobi desert, sandy desert, clay desert, etc., and the general countermeasures for the combating "desertification" "desertization", and to develop the technologies on the revegetation and restoration for the combating desertification in China. The methods of this study were mainly composed of field surveys on the several experimental sites and research institutes related to combating desertification in China, and examinations on the various technologies for the combating desertification at the Daxing Experimental Station of Beijing Forestry University. The conclusion from this study may be summarized as follows; 1. Status and tendency of desertification in China : China is one of the countries seriously threatened by desertification. Desertification affected areas in China are mainly distributed in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas in China, covering the most regions of the Northeast China (eastern region of Inner-Mongolia), the northern part of the North China (middle and western region of Inner-Mongolia, Shaanxi, Ningsha, Gansu) and the western part of the Northwest China (Xinzang, Qinghai, Xizang). The total area affected by desertification in China is approximately 2.622 million $km^2$. It covers 27.3% of the total territory of China. Until recently, it is estimated that the annual spreading ratio of desertification in China is 2,460 $km^2$. Therefore, desertification is mostly serious problems facing to the Chinese people. 2. The causes and environmental effect of desertification : The desertification in China is mainly caused by compound factors, including natural condition and human activities. In China, the desertification is started by the decrease of precipitation, continuous dry and drought, strong wind, wind and water erosion, land degradation and loss of natural vegetation caused by climate variation, and accelerated by the human activities, such as over-cultivating, over-grazing, over-cutting of woods, irrational use of water resources. Because desertification has affected the geographical features, soil nutrients contents, salinity, vegetation coverage and the functions of ecosystem, the environmental deteriorations in the desertification affected areas are very seriously. 3. The fundamental strategies of combating desertification in China are the increase of education and awareness of people through various mass media, the revision of laws to guarantee operation of Desertification Combating Law and to improve many relating laws and regulations, the application of advanced technologies and training of experts, the establishment of discriminative policies, and increasing arrangement of budget-investment, and so on. China, as a signed country in UNCCD, has made efforts for the combating desertification. Korea is also signed country in UNCCD, so we should play an important role in the desertification combating projects of China for the northest asia and global environmental conservation as well as environmental conservation of Korea.

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Feasibility of Vegetation Temperature Condition Index for monitoring desertification in Bulgan, Mongolia

  • Yu, Hangnan;Lee, Jong-Yeol;Lee, Woo-Kyun;Lamchin, Munkhnasan;Tserendorj, Dejee;Choi, Sole;Song, Yongho;Kang, Ho Duck
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.621-629
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    • 2013
  • Desertification monitoring as a main portion for understand desertification, have been conducted by many scientists. However, the stage of research remains still in the level of comparison of the past and current situation. In other words, monitoring need to focus on finding methods of how to take precautions against desertification. In this study, Vegetation Temperature Condition Index (VTCI), derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST), was utilized to observe the distribution change of vegetation. The index can be used to monitor drought occurrences at a regional level for a special period of a year, and it can also be used to study the spatial distribution of drought within the region. Techniques of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) were combined to detect the distribution change of vegetation with VTCI. As a result, assuming that the moisture condition is the only main factor that affects desertification, we found that the distribution of vegetation in Bulgan, Mongolia could be predicted in a certain degree, using VTCI. Although desertification is a complicated process and many factors could affect the result. This study is helpful to provide a strategic guidance for combating desertification and allocating the use of the labor force.

Detection of Land Cover Change Using Landsat Image Data in Desert Area (Landsat 영상자료를 이용한 사막지역의 토지피복 변화 분석)

  • M, Erdenechimeg;Choi, Byoung-Gil;Na, Young-Woo;Kim, Tae-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.471-476
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    • 2010
  • This study aimed at monitoring, mapping, and assessing the land degradation in the desert area. In this research, the Landsat TM and ETM+ imageries to assess the extent of land degradation for study area during the period from 1991 to 2007. Were used to study supervized, unsupervized classfication and NDVI land cover changes in the desert area in Mongolia. The classified map consists of five classes of water, vegetation, slight desertification, middle desertification and sever desertification. It shows that for determination classfication methods and NDVI, desertification map of the study area are prepared. The result showed accounting for a clear deterioration in vegetative cover, an increase of sever desertification and a decrease in middle desertification and slight desertification respectively of the total study area.

Experimental Research for Prevention of Stone Hazarding Guizhou, China (중국 귀주성 석막화 방지를 위한 실험적 연구)

  • Park, Jae Hyeon;Jun, Jaehong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.28-39
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the rehabilitation measures and select appropriate tree species and rehabilitation methods for rehabilitating the rock desert areas in Guizhou, China. The study was carried out during the periods from 2003 to 2006 and results are as follows. Afforestation site is classified as a dolomite sandstone hilly country, a halfstony hilly country, a karst physiognomy, a rock desertification farmland and an latent rock desertification farmland by soil type and rock desertification status. Total afforestation area of Xuiwen is 1,300ha and afforestation area of a dolomite sandstone hilly country, a halfstony hilly country, a karst physiognomy, a rock desertification farmland and an latent rock desertification farmland are respectively 104.0ha (8.0%), 146.6ha (11.3%), 200.5ha (15.4%), 705.7ha (54.3%) and 143.2ha (11.0%). Planted tree species were selected by five site types. Robinia pseudoacacia, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Thuja orientalis, Cupressus duclouxiana and Juniperus chinensis L. var. chinensis were planted in a dolomite sandstone hilly country and Choerospondias axillaris and Robinia pseudoacacia were planted in a halfstony hilly country. Cupressus duclouxiana, Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Lonicera fulvotomentosa, Ilex kudincila, Quercus aliena, Quercus variabilis, Choerospondias axillaris, Koelreuteria bipinnata, Cryptomeria japonica, Cinnamomum camphora and Cinnamomum bodinieri were planted in a karst physiognomy. Cupressus duclouxiana, Toona sinensis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Lonicera fulvotomentosa, Eucommia ulmoides, Ilex kudincha. Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Magnolia officinalis were planted in a rock desertification farmland. Lonicera fulvotomentosa, Juglans sinensis, Pyrus pyrifolia, Choerospondias axillaris, Prunus salicina and Diospyros Kaki was planted in an latent rock desertification farm land. Robinia pseudoacacia showed high survival rate in 2004 and 2005, but Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Cinnamomum camphora showed slightly low survival rate in 2004. Survival rate of planting species in 2005 was over 80% because some species which showed low survival in 2004 were changed with other species and a proper afforestation method was applied. Growth rate of tree species was evaluated by height and diameter growth rate. Cupressus duclouxiana showed a highest height growth rate in 2004. Toona sil1ensis, Choerospondias axillaris, Koelreuteria bipinnata, and Cinnamomum camphora showed almost 100% height growth rate in 2005, although they showed a negative height growth rate in 2004. Robinia pseudoacacia showed a good growth rate in the rock desertification farmland and the halfstony hilly country so it could give a commercial benefit like honey as well as an afforestation effect.

The Land Use Change and the Desertification in the East Inner Mongolia, China - A Case Study on Horqin Desert - (중국 내몽고 동부지역의 토지이용 변화와 사막화 -커얼친 사지의 사례 -)

  • Lee Kang-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.694-715
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    • 2005
  • I examine in this paper the change of land use and the development of desertification in Horqin desert, east Inner Mongolia, China. The change of land use in this area can be summarized as the increase of agricultural field and intensive livestock farming. The agriculture and livestock farming in semi-arid area such as Horqin desert raised the problem in the management and use of water and vegetation. This problem led to desertification. The types of development of desertification in this area could be classified as follows: the mobile sand dune extension, the riverside shifting sand flat extension, the shifting sand speck extension around settlements, and the shifting sand speck extension in agricultural Held and grassland. There have been political or social movements such as the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution and the Reform and Open Policy in the background of land use change and desertification. Specially, the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution played an important role in the land use change and desertification in this area. Since 1990s, there has been some kind of policy in the control of desertification. However, it is necessary for the controling desertification of this area to consider the globalization and marketization, the survival and profit of peasants and livestock farmers, and the disturbrd and fixed population and land use structure in this area since 1949.

Spectral Mixture Analysis for Desertification Detection in North-Eastern China

  • Yoon Bo-Yeol;Jung Tae-Woong;Yoo Jae-Wook;Kim Choen
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.419-422
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    • 2004
  • This paper was carried out desertification area change detection from 1980s to 2000s per unit decade using by multitemporal satellite images (Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+). This study aims to use Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) to identify and classify study area. Endmembers is selected bare soil, green vegetation (GV), water body using by Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF). Endmembers used to generate increase and decrease images respective from 1980s to 1990s and from 1990s to 2000s. From the analysis of multitemporal change detection for three periods, it was apparent that the area of bare soil increased significantly, with simultaneous decrease of GV and water body. The multitemporal fraction images can be effectively used for change detection. Though there is no field survey dataset, SMA is reliable result of change detection in desertification in China.

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Crisis Construction in the Inner Mongolia Grassland and the Controversy of Desertification: The Emergence of Grassland Chicken Farming (중국 내몽고 초원의 위기와 사막화 논쟁 -초원목계(草原牧鷄)가 등장하기까지-)

  • Lee, Seonhwa
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.836-852
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    • 2012
  • Based on a long-term ethnographic study, this paper examines how the propositions and practices for desertification management in Inner Mongolia, China have changed over time. Desertification as an ecological issue cannot simply be treated as a something "natural" or "social," while it is an outcome of the construction made by both human and non-human agents. My research has found that the propositions for desertification management have been involved in the process of defining desertification, particularly by selecting different actors related to the ecological process in this region. Ultimately, the crisis in the inner Mongolia has always been constructed by the ways in which the selected actors and their relationships are differently defined. My study also reveals that although the proposed preventive measures, including afforestation, area protection, and pasturing prohibition, have tried to reconcile the conflicts of interest among the different actors, they have always been faced with certain limitations and failed in dryland management. In this historical context of crisis construction, by introducing a new non-human agent, "the chicken," the project of grassland chicken farming has eventually appeared to be an innovative strategy that can overcome the earlier limitations and coordinate the interests of Mongolian pastoralists who have suffered from economic difficulty.

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A study for Desertification Monitoring and Assessment based on satellite imagery in Tunisia (위성영상기반 튀니지 사막화 모니터링 및 평가에 관한 연구)

  • KIM, Ji-Won;SONG, Chol-Ho;PARK, Eun-Been;LEE, Jong-Yeol;CHOI, Sol-E;LEE, Eun-Jung;LEE, Woo-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.91-107
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    • 2018
  • It is required to monitor and assess the desertification in Tunisia, where the Sahara Desert, which is located in the southern part of Tunisia, is recently expanding northward. In this study, by using remote sensed data, land cover changes were examined, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Topsoil Grain Size Index (TGSI) and Albedo are used to monitor and assess desertification in Tunisia. Decision Tree was constructed, and the frequencies and trends of each assessment indicator, desertification degree and land cover were identified. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between assessment indicators and precipitation. As a result, desertification is generally intensifying northward, especially in areas with high levels of desertification. Also, bivariate correlation analysis showed that Albedo, NDVI and TGSI were all highly correlated with precipitation. It indicates that changes in precipitation have also been shown to affect Tunisian desertification. In conclusion, this study has improved the usability of various methodologies considering the assessment indicators based on satellite imagery, Decision Tree, which is a method of evaluating them complexly, and trends of land cover change.

The Performance Analysis of Korean NGOs' Tree Plantation Projects in Mongolia

  • Kang, Min-Kyung;Park, Dong-Kyun;Chun, Young-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.99 no.5
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    • pp.655-662
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    • 2010
  • Desertification has been expanding with a remarkable speed across the Northeast Asia. Desertification in Northeast Asia significantly influences Korea's economy and environmental health conditions in recent years. For these reasons, a number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Korea have carried out the reforestation projects to combat desertification in China and Mongolia. Several tree plantation projects were implemented in Mongolia and China. The objective of this study was to analyze and evaluate the performance of tree plantation aid projects carried out by Korean NGOs in Mongolia. The performance of tree plantation projects was examined through effectiveness, efficiency, equity and responsiveness of those projects. The performance was analyzed with the survival rate of planted trees and planting cost, the recognitions of Mongolian people. The analysis of the performance showed that the tree plantation cooperation projects carried out by Korean NGOs in Mongolia had comparatively high performance from a larger point of view. Especially, effectiveness and responsiveness of their projects were highly marked in spite of all the difficulties of carrying out the tree plantation. Such a high effectiveness represented the relatively higher survival rates of trees and Mongolian's positive recognition of plantation projects. Furthermore, the responsiveness also turned out to be high with a great satisfaction of the Mongolian people for plantation projects conducted by the Korean NGOs. Survey results indicated that the efficiency and equity of the projects would be increased by promoting the cooperation projects for tree planting throughout Mongolia with reinforcing infrastructures. By comparison between Korean NGOs and Mongolian Government plantation projects, confirmed the importance of sustained financial support and maintenance activities in the plantation sites.