• Title, Summary, Keyword: development

Search Result 147,599, Processing Time 0.259 seconds

An Ontology Model for Public Service Export Platform (공공 서비스 수출 플랫폼을 위한 온톨로지 모형)

  • Lee, Gang-Won;Park, Sei-Kwon;Ryu, Seung-Wan;Shin, Dong-Cheon
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.149-161
    • /
    • 2014
  • The export of domestic public services to overseas markets contains many potential obstacles, stemming from different export procedures, the target services, and socio-economic environments. In order to alleviate these problems, the business incubation platform as an open business ecosystem can be a powerful instrument to support the decisions taken by participants and stakeholders. In this paper, we propose an ontology model and its implementation processes for the business incubation platform with an open and pervasive architecture to support public service exports. For the conceptual model of platform ontology, export case studies are used for requirements analysis. The conceptual model shows the basic structure, with vocabulary and its meaning, the relationship between ontologies, and key attributes. For the implementation and test of the ontology model, the logical structure is edited using Prot$\acute{e}$g$\acute{e}$ editor. The core engine of the business incubation platform is the simulator module, where the various contexts of export businesses should be captured, defined, and shared with other modules through ontologies. It is well-known that an ontology, with which concepts and their relationships are represented using a shared vocabulary, is an efficient and effective tool for organizing meta-information to develop structural frameworks in a particular domain. The proposed model consists of five ontologies derived from a requirements survey of major stakeholders and their operational scenarios: service, requirements, environment, enterprise, and county. The service ontology contains several components that can find and categorize public services through a case analysis of the public service export. Key attributes of the service ontology are composed of categories including objective, requirements, activity, and service. The objective category, which has sub-attributes including operational body (organization) and user, acts as a reference to search and classify public services. The requirements category relates to the functional needs at a particular phase of system (service) design or operation. Sub-attributes of requirements are user, application, platform, architecture, and social overhead. The activity category represents business processes during the operation and maintenance phase. The activity category also has sub-attributes including facility, software, and project unit. The service category, with sub-attributes such as target, time, and place, acts as a reference to sort and classify the public services. The requirements ontology is derived from the basic and common components of public services and target countries. The key attributes of the requirements ontology are business, technology, and constraints. Business requirements represent the needs of processes and activities for public service export; technology represents the technological requirements for the operation of public services; and constraints represent the business law, regulations, or cultural characteristics of the target country. The environment ontology is derived from case studies of target countries for public service operation. Key attributes of the environment ontology are user, requirements, and activity. A user includes stakeholders in public services, from citizens to operators and managers; the requirements attribute represents the managerial and physical needs during operation; the activity attribute represents business processes in detail. The enterprise ontology is introduced from a previous study, and its attributes are activity, organization, strategy, marketing, and time. The country ontology is derived from the demographic and geopolitical analysis of the target country, and its key attributes are economy, social infrastructure, law, regulation, customs, population, location, and development strategies. The priority list for target services for a certain country and/or the priority list for target countries for a certain public services are generated by a matching algorithm. These lists are used as input seeds to simulate the consortium partners, and government's policies and programs. In the simulation, the environmental differences between Korea and the target country can be customized through a gap analysis and work-flow optimization process. When the process gap between Korea and the target country is too large for a single corporation to cover, a consortium is considered an alternative choice, and various alternatives are derived from the capability index of enterprises. For financial packages, a mix of various foreign aid funds can be simulated during this stage. It is expected that the proposed ontology model and the business incubation platform can be used by various participants in the public service export market. It could be especially beneficial to small and medium businesses that have relatively fewer resources and experience with public service export. We also expect that the open and pervasive service architecture in a digital business ecosystem will help stakeholders find new opportunities through information sharing and collaboration on business processes.

Bankruptcy Forecasting Model using AdaBoost: A Focus on Construction Companies (적응형 부스팅을 이용한 파산 예측 모형: 건설업을 중심으로)

  • Heo, Junyoung;Yang, Jin Yong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.35-48
    • /
    • 2014
  • According to the 2013 construction market outlook report, the liquidation of construction companies is expected to continue due to the ongoing residential construction recession. Bankruptcies of construction companies have a greater social impact compared to other industries. However, due to the different nature of the capital structure and debt-to-equity ratio, it is more difficult to forecast construction companies' bankruptcies than that of companies in other industries. The construction industry operates on greater leverage, with high debt-to-equity ratios, and project cash flow focused on the second half. The economic cycle greatly influences construction companies. Therefore, downturns tend to rapidly increase the bankruptcy rates of construction companies. High leverage, coupled with increased bankruptcy rates, could lead to greater burdens on banks providing loans to construction companies. Nevertheless, the bankruptcy prediction model concentrated mainly on financial institutions, with rare construction-specific studies. The bankruptcy prediction model based on corporate finance data has been studied for some time in various ways. However, the model is intended for all companies in general, and it may not be appropriate for forecasting bankruptcies of construction companies, who typically have high liquidity risks. The construction industry is capital-intensive, operates on long timelines with large-scale investment projects, and has comparatively longer payback periods than in other industries. With its unique capital structure, it can be difficult to apply a model used to judge the financial risk of companies in general to those in the construction industry. Diverse studies of bankruptcy forecasting models based on a company's financial statements have been conducted for many years. The subjects of the model, however, were general firms, and the models may not be proper for accurately forecasting companies with disproportionately large liquidity risks, such as construction companies. The construction industry is capital-intensive, requiring significant investments in long-term projects, therefore to realize returns from the investment. The unique capital structure means that the same criteria used for other industries cannot be applied to effectively evaluate financial risk for construction firms. Altman Z-score was first published in 1968, and is commonly used as a bankruptcy forecasting model. It forecasts the likelihood of a company going bankrupt by using a simple formula, classifying the results into three categories, and evaluating the corporate status as dangerous, moderate, or safe. When a company falls into the "dangerous" category, it has a high likelihood of bankruptcy within two years, while those in the "safe" category have a low likelihood of bankruptcy. For companies in the "moderate" category, it is difficult to forecast the risk. Many of the construction firm cases in this study fell in the "moderate" category, which made it difficult to forecast their risk. Along with the development of machine learning using computers, recent studies of corporate bankruptcy forecasting have used this technology. Pattern recognition, a representative application area in machine learning, is applied to forecasting corporate bankruptcy, with patterns analyzed based on a company's financial information, and then judged as to whether the pattern belongs to the bankruptcy risk group or the safe group. The representative machine learning models previously used in bankruptcy forecasting are Artificial Neural Networks, Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost) and, the Support Vector Machine (SVM). There are also many hybrid studies combining these models. Existing studies using the traditional Z-Score technique or bankruptcy prediction using machine learning focus on companies in non-specific industries. Therefore, the industry-specific characteristics of companies are not considered. In this paper, we confirm that adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) is the most appropriate forecasting model for construction companies by based on company size. We classified construction companies into three groups - large, medium, and small based on the company's capital. We analyzed the predictive ability of AdaBoost for each group of companies. The experimental results showed that AdaBoost has more predictive ability than the other models, especially for the group of large companies with capital of more than 50 billion won.

A Study on Foreign Air Operator Certificate in light of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (시카고협약체계에서의 외국 항공사에 대한 운항증명제도 연구)

  • Lee, Koo-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
    • /
    • v.30 no.1
    • /
    • pp.31-64
    • /
    • 2015
  • The Chicago Convention and Annexes have become the basis of aviation safety regulations for every contracting state. Generally, aviation safety regulations refer to the SARPs provided in the Annexes of the Chicago Convention. In order to properly reflect international aviation safety regulations, constant studies of the aviation fields are of paramount importance. Treaties duly concluded and promulgated under the Constitution and the generally recognized rules of international law shall have the same effect as the domestic laws of the Republic of Korea. Each contracting state to the Chicago Convention should meet ICAO SARPs about AOC and FAOC. According to ICAO SARPs, Civil Aviation Authorities shall issue AOC to air carriers of the state, but don't require to issue for foreign air carrier. However some contracting states of the Chicago Convention issue FAOC and/or Operations Specifications for the foreign operators. This FAOC is being expanded from USA to the other contracting states. Foreign operators have doubly burden to implement AOC of the ICAO SARPs because FAOC is an additional requirement other than that prescribed by the ICAO SARPs In Article 33, the Chicago Convention stipulates that each contracting state shall recognize the validity of the certificates of airworthiness and licenses issued by other contracting states as long as they are equal to or above the minimum standards of the ICAO. In ICAO Annex 6, each contracting state shall recognize as valid an air operator certificate issued by another contracting state, provided that the requirements under which the certificate was issued are at least equal to the applicable Standards specified in this Annex. States shall establish a programme with procedures for the surveillance of operations in their territory by a foreign operator and for taking appropriate action when necessary to preserve safety. Consequently, it is submitted that the unilateral action of the states issuing the FAOC to the foreign air carriers of other states is against the Convention. Hence, I make some proposals on the FAOC as an example of comprehensive problem solving after comparative study with ICAO SARPs and the contracting state's regulations. Some issues must be improved and I have made amendment proposals to meet ICAO SARPs and to strengthen aviation development. Operators should be approved by FAOC at most 190 if all states require FAOC. Hence, it is highly recommended to eliminate the FAOC or reduce the restrictions it imposes. In certain compliance-related issues, delayed process shall not be permitted to flight operations. In addition, it is necessary for the ICAO to provide more unified and standardized guidelines in order to avoid confusion or bias regarding the arbitrary expansion of the FAOC. For all the issue mentioned above, I have studied the ICAO SARPs and some state's regulation regarding FAOC, and suggested some proposals on the FAOC as an example of comprehensive problem solving. I hope that this paper is 1) to help understanding about the international issue, 2) to help the improvement of korean aviation regulations, 3) to help compliance with international standards and to contribute to the promotion of aviation safety, in addition.

A Study of Decrease Exposure Dose for the Radiotechnologist in PET/CT (PET-CT 검사에서 방사선 종사자 피폭선량 저감에 대한 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Bit-Na;Cho, Suk Won;Lee, Juyoung;Lyu, Kwang Yeul;Park, Hoon-Hee
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
    • /
    • v.38 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-30
    • /
    • 2015
  • Positron emission tomography scan has been growing diagnostic equipment in the development of medical imaging system. Compare to 99mTc emitting 140 keV, Positron emission radionuclide emits 511 keV gamma rays. Because of this high energy, it needs to reduce radioactive emitting from patients for radio technologist. We searched the external dose rates by changing distance from patients and measure the external dose rates when we used shielder investigate change external dose rates. In this study, the external dose distribution were analyzed in order to help managing radiation protection of radio technologists. Ten patients were searched (mean age: $47.7{\pm}6.6$, mean height: $165.5{\pm}3.8cm$, mean weight: $65.9{\pm}1.4kg$). Radiation was measured on the location of head, chest, abdomen, knees and toes at the distance of 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 cm, respectively. Then, all the procedure was given with a portable radiation shielding on the location of head, chest, and abdomen at the distance of 100, 150, and 200 cm and transmittance was calculated. In 10 cm, head ($105.40{\mu}Sv/h$) was the highest and foot($15.85{\mu}Sv/h$) was the lowest. In 200 cm, head, chest, and abdomen showed similar. On head, the measured dose rates were $9.56{\mu}Sv/h$, $5.23{\mu}Sv/h$, and $3.40{\mu}Sv/h$ in 100, 150, and 200 cm, respectively. When using shielder, it shows $2.24{\mu}Sv/h$, $1.67{\mu}Sv/h$, and $1.27{\mu}Sv/h$ in 100, 150, and 200 cm on head. On chest, the measured dose rates were $8.54{\mu}Sv/h$, $4.90{\mu}Sv/h$, $3.44{\mu}Sv/h$ in 100, 150, and 200 cm, respectively. When using shielder, it shows $2.27{\mu}Sv/h$, $1.34{\mu}Sv/h$, and $1.13{\mu}Sv/h$ in 100, 150, and 200 cm on chest. On abdomen, the measured dose rates were $9.83{\mu}Sv/h$, $5.15{\mu}Sv/h$, and $3.18{\mu}Sv/h$ in 100, 150, and 200 cm, respectively. When using shielder, it shows $2.60{\mu}Sv/h$, $1.75{\mu}Sv/h$, and $1.23{\mu}Sv/h$ in 100, 150, and 200 cm on abdomen. Transmittance was increased as the distance was expanded. As the distance was further, the radiation dose were reduced. When using shielder, the dose were reduced as one-forth of without shielder. The Radio technologists are exposed of radioactivity and there were limitations on reducing the distance with Therefore, the proper shielding will be able to decrease radiation dose to the technologists.

A Study of Factors Associated with Software Developers Job Turnover (데이터마이닝을 활용한 소프트웨어 개발인력의 업무 지속수행의도 결정요인 분석)

  • Jeon, In-Ho;Park, Sun W.;Park, Yoon-Joo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.191-204
    • /
    • 2015
  • According to the '2013 Performance Assessment Report on the Financial Program' from the National Assembly Budget Office, the unfilled recruitment ratio of Software(SW) Developers in South Korea was 25% in the 2012 fiscal year. Moreover, the unfilled recruitment ratio of highly-qualified SW developers reaches almost 80%. This phenomenon is intensified in small and medium enterprises consisting of less than 300 employees. Young job-seekers in South Korea are increasingly avoiding becoming a SW developer and even the current SW developers want to change careers, which hinders the national development of IT industries. The Korean government has recently realized the problem and implemented policies to foster young SW developers. Due to this effort, it has become easier to find young SW developers at the beginning-level. However, it is still hard to recruit highly-qualified SW developers for many IT companies. This is because in order to become a SW developing expert, having a long term experiences are important. Thus, improving job continuity intentions of current SW developers is more important than fostering new SW developers. Therefore, this study surveyed the job continuity intentions of SW developers and analyzed the factors associated with them. As a method, we carried out a survey from September 2014 to October 2014, which was targeted on 130 SW developers who were working in IT industries in South Korea. We gathered the demographic information and characteristics of the respondents, work environments of a SW industry, and social positions for SW developers. Afterward, a regression analysis and a decision tree method were performed to analyze the data. These two methods are widely used data mining techniques, which have explanation ability and are mutually complementary. We first performed a linear regression method to find the important factors assaociated with a job continuity intension of SW developers. The result showed that an 'expected age' to work as a SW developer were the most significant factor associated with the job continuity intention. We supposed that the major cause of this phenomenon is the structural problem of IT industries in South Korea, which requires SW developers to change the work field from developing area to management as they are promoted. Also, a 'motivation' to become a SW developer and a 'personality (introverted tendency)' of a SW developer are highly importantly factors associated with the job continuity intention. Next, the decision tree method was performed to extract the characteristics of highly motivated developers and the low motivated ones. We used well-known C4.5 algorithm for decision tree analysis. The results showed that 'motivation', 'personality', and 'expected age' were also important factors influencing the job continuity intentions, which was similar to the results of the regression analysis. In addition to that, the 'ability to learn' new technology was a crucial factor for the decision rules of job continuity. In other words, a person with high ability to learn new technology tends to work as a SW developer for a longer period of time. The decision rule also showed that a 'social position' of SW developers and a 'prospect' of SW industry were minor factors influencing job continuity intensions. On the other hand, 'type of an employment (regular position/ non-regular position)' and 'type of company (ordering company/ service providing company)' did not affect the job continuity intension in both methods. In this research, we demonstrated the job continuity intentions of SW developers, who were actually working at IT companies in South Korea, and we analyzed the factors associated with them. These results can be used for human resource management in many IT companies when recruiting or fostering highly-qualified SW experts. It can also help to build SW developer fostering policy and to solve the problem of unfilled recruitment of SW Developers in South Korea.

Development of the Accident Prediction Model for Enlisted Men through an Integrated Approach to Datamining and Textmining (데이터 마이닝과 텍스트 마이닝의 통합적 접근을 통한 병사 사고예측 모델 개발)

  • Yoon, Seungjin;Kim, Suhwan;Shin, Kyungshik
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.1-17
    • /
    • 2015
  • In this paper, we report what we have observed with regards to a prediction model for the military based on enlisted men's internal(cumulative records) and external data(SNS data). This work is significant in the military's efforts to supervise them. In spite of their effort, many commanders have failed to prevent accidents by their subordinates. One of the important duties of officers' work is to take care of their subordinates in prevention unexpected accidents. However, it is hard to prevent accidents so we must attempt to determine a proper method. Our motivation for presenting this paper is to mate it possible to predict accidents using enlisted men's internal and external data. The biggest issue facing the military is the occurrence of accidents by enlisted men related to maladjustment and the relaxation of military discipline. The core method of preventing accidents by soldiers is to identify problems and manage them quickly. Commanders predict accidents by interviewing their soldiers and observing their surroundings. It requires considerable time and effort and results in a significant difference depending on the capabilities of the commanders. In this paper, we seek to predict accidents with objective data which can easily be obtained. Recently, records of enlisted men as well as SNS communication between commanders and soldiers, make it possible to predict and prevent accidents. This paper concerns the application of data mining to identify their interests, predict accidents and make use of internal and external data (SNS). We propose both a topic analysis and decision tree method. The study is conducted in two steps. First, topic analysis is conducted through the SNS of enlisted men. Second, the decision tree method is used to analyze the internal data with the results of the first analysis. The dependent variable for these analysis is the presence of any accidents. In order to analyze their SNS, we require tools such as text mining and topic analysis. We used SAS Enterprise Miner 12.1, which provides a text miner module. Our approach for finding their interests is composed of three main phases; collecting, topic analysis, and converting topic analysis results into points for using independent variables. In the first phase, we collect enlisted men's SNS data by commender's ID. After gathering unstructured SNS data, the topic analysis phase extracts issues from them. For simplicity, 5 topics(vacation, friends, stress, training, and sports) are extracted from 20,000 articles. In the third phase, using these 5 topics, we quantify them as personal points. After quantifying their topic, we include these results in independent variables which are composed of 15 internal data sets. Then, we make two decision trees. The first tree is composed of their internal data only. The second tree is composed of their external data(SNS) as well as their internal data. After that, we compare the results of misclassification from SAS E-miner. The first model's misclassification is 12.1%. On the other hand, second model's misclassification is 7.8%. This method predicts accidents with an accuracy of approximately 92%. The gap of the two models is 4.3%. Finally, we test if the difference between them is meaningful or not, using the McNemar test. The result of test is considered relevant.(p-value : 0.0003) This study has two limitations. First, the results of the experiments cannot be generalized, mainly because the experiment is limited to a small number of enlisted men's data. Additionally, various independent variables used in the decision tree model are used as categorical variables instead of continuous variables. So it suffers a loss of information. In spite of extensive efforts to provide prediction models for the military, commanders' predictions are accurate only when they have sufficient data about their subordinates. Our proposed methodology can provide support to decision-making in the military. This study is expected to contribute to the prevention of accidents in the military based on scientific analysis of enlisted men and proper management of them.

Development of Root Media Containing Pine Bark for Cultivation of Horticultural Crops (소나무 수피를 포함한 원예작물 재배용 혼합상토의 개발)

  • Park, Eun Young;Choi, Jong Myung
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
    • /
    • v.32 no.4
    • /
    • pp.499-506
    • /
    • 2014
  • This research was conducted to develop root media containing ground and aged pine bark (GAPB) and ground and raw pine bark (GRPB). After analysis of physico chemical properties, the pine barks were blended with peat moss (PM) or coir dust (CD) in various ratios to formulate 12 root media. Then, two out of 12 root media were chosen based on the physical properties for further experiments. The pre-planting nutrient charge fertilizers (PNCF) were incorporated into two root media and chemical properties were analysed again. The total porosity (TP), container capacity (CC), and air-filled porosity (AFP) of GAPB were 78.7%. 39.4%, and 38.3%, respectively, while those of GRPB were 74.7%, 41.2%, and 33.4%, respectively. The percentage of easily available water (EAW, from CC to 4.90 kPa tension) and buffering water (BW, 4.91-9.81 kPa tension) in GAPB were 12.7% and 8.5%, respectively, which were a little lower than the 13.5% and 8.8% in GRPB. The pH and EC were not different significantly, but cation exchange capacity was different between the two pine barks (GAPB: pH 5.26, EC $0.61dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$, CEC $15.7meq{\cdot}100g^{-1}$; GRPB: pH 5.19, EC $0.32dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$, CEC $9.32meq{\cdot}100g^{-1}$). The concentrations of exchangeable cations in GAPB were Ca 0.32, K 0.05, Mg 0.27 and $0.12cmol+{\cdot}kg^{-1}$, whereas those in GRPB were Ca 0.28, K 0.08, Mg 0.25 and $0.09cmol+{\cdot}kg^{-1}$. The concentrations of $PO_4$-P, $NH_4$-N and $NO_3$-N were 485.8, 0.62 and $0.91mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ in GAPB and 578, 1.00 and $0.82mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ in GRPB, respectively, when those were analyzed in the solution of the saturated paste. The TP, CC and AFP in the two selected media were 89.3 and 76.3, and 13.0% in PM+GAPB (8:2, v/v) and 88.2, 68.2 and 20.0% in CD+GRPB (8:2), respectively. The pHs and ECs were 3.8 and $0.24dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ in PM+GAPB which were a little lower than 5.8 and $0.65dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ in CD+GRPB. However, the pHs analysed before and after incorporation of PNCF in the two root media did not show large differences. This is because the solubility of dolomitic lime is very low, and the pH it is expected to rise gradually when crops are cultivated int he root media. The information obtained in this study should facilitate effective formulation of root media containing pine bark.

Tectonic evolution of the Central Ogcheon Belt, Korea (중부 옥천대의 지구조 발달과정)

  • Kang, Ji-Hoon;Hayasaka, Yasutaka;Ryoo, Chung-Ryul
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.129-150
    • /
    • 2012
  • The tectonic evolution of the Central Ogcheon Belt has been newly analyzed in this paper from the detailed geological maps by lithofacies classification, the development processes of geological structures, microstructures, and the time-relationship between deformation and metamorphism in the Ogcheon, Cheongsan, Mungyeong Buunnyeong, Busan areas, Korea and the fossil and radiometric age data of the Ogcheon Supergroup(OSG). The 1st tectonic phase($D^*$) is marked by the rifting of the original Gyeonggi Massif into North Gyeonggi Massif(present Gyeonggi Massif) and South Gyeonggi Massif (Bakdallyeong and Busan gneiss complexes). The Joseon Supergroup(JSG) and the lower unit(quartzose psammitic, pelitic, calcareous and basic rocks) of OSG were deposited in the Ogcheon rift basin during Early Paleozoic time, and the Pyeongan Supergroup(PSG) and its upper unit(conglomerate and pelitic rocks and acidic rocks) appeared in Late Paleozoic time. The 2nd tectonic phase(Ogcheon-Cheongsan phase/Songnim orogeny: D1), which occurred during Late Permian-Middle Triassic age, is characterized by the closing of Ogcheon rift basin(= the coupling of the North and South Gyeonggi Massifs) in the earlier phase(Ogcheon subphase: D1a), and by the coupling of South China block(Gyeonggi Massif and Ogcheon Zone) and North China block(Yeongnam Massif and Taebaksan Zone) in the later phase(Cheongsan subphase: D1b). At the earlier stage of D1a occurred the M1 medium-pressure type metamorphism of OSG related to the growth of coarse biotites, garnets, staurolites. At its later stage, the medium-pressure type metamorphic rocks were exhumed as some nappes with SE-vergence, and the giant-scale sheath fold, regional foliation, stretching lineation were formed in the OSG. At the D1b subphase which occurs under (N)NE-(S)SW compression, the thrusts with NNE- or/and SSW-vergence were formed in the front and rear parts of couple, and the NNE-trending Cheongsan shear zone of dextral strike-slip and the NNE-trending upright folds of the JSG and PSG were also formed in its flank part, and Daedong basin was built in Korean Peninsula. After that, Daedong Group(DG) of the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic was deposited. The 3rd tectonic phase(Honam phase/Daebo orogeny: D2) occurred by the transpression tectonics of NNE-trending Honam dextral strike-slip shearing in Early~Late Jurassic time, and formed the asymmetric crenulated fold in the OSG and the NNE-trending recumbent folds in the JSG and PSG and the thrust faults with ESE-vergence in which pre-Late Triassic Supergroups override DG. The M2 contact metamorphism of andalusite-sillimanite type by the intrusion of Daebo granitoids occurred at the D2 intertectonic phase of Middle Jurassic age. The 4th tectonic phase(Cheongmari phase: D3) occurred under the N-S compression at Early Cretaceous time, and formed the pull-apart Cretaceous sedimentary basins accompanying the NNE-trending sinistral strike-slip shearing. The M3 retrograde metamorphism of OSG associated with the crystallization of chlorite porphyroblasts mainly occurred after the D2. After the D3, the sinistral displacement(Geumgang phase: D4) occurred along the Geumgang fault accompanied with the giant-scale Geumgang drag fold with its parasitic kink folds in the Ogcheon area. These folds are intruded by acidic dykes of Late Cretaceous age.

A Study on Developing Customized Bolus using 3D Printers (3D 프린터를 이용한 Customized Bolus 제작에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Sang Min;Yang, Jin Ho;Lee, Seung Hyun;Kim, Jin Uk;Yeom, Du Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.61-71
    • /
    • 2015
  • Purpose : 3D Printers are used to create three-dimensional models based on blueprints. Based on this characteristic, it is feasible to develop a bolus that can minimize the air gap between skin and bolus in radiotherapy. This study aims to compare and analyze air gap and target dose at the branded 1 cm bolus with the developed customized bolus using 3D printers. Materials and Methods : RANDO phantom with a protruded tumor was used to procure images using CT simulator. CT DICOM file was transferred into the STL file, equivalent to 3D printers. Using this, customized bolus molding box (maintaining the 1 cm width) was created by processing 3D printers, and paraffin was melted to develop the customized bolus. The air gap of customized bolus and the branded 1 cm bolus was checked, and the differences in air gap was used to compare $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$ and $V_{95%}$ in treatment plan through Eclipse. Results : Customized bolus production period took about 3 days. The total volume of air gap was average $3.9cm^3$ at the customized bolus. And it was average $29.6cm^3$ at the branded 1 cm bolus. The customized bolus developed by the 3D printer was more useful in minimizing the air gap than the branded 1 cm bolus. In the 6 MV photon, at the customized bolus, $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of GTV were 102.8%, 88.1%, 99.1%, 95.0%, 94.4% and the $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of branded 1cm bolus were 101.4%, 92.0%, 98.2%, 95.2%, 95.7%, respectively. In the proton, at the customized bolus, $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of GTV were 104.1%, 84.0%, 101.2%, 95.1%, 99.8% and the $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of branded 1cm bolus were 104.8%, 87.9%, 101.5%, 94.9%, 99.9%, respectively. Thus, in treatment plan, there was no significant difference between the customized bolus and 1 cm bolus. However, the normal tissue nearby the GTV showed relatively lower radiation dose. Conclusion : The customized bolus developed by 3D printers was effective in minimizing the air gap, especially when it is used against the treatment area with irregular surface. However, the air gap between branded bolus and skin was not enough to cause a change in target dose. On the other hand, in the chest wall could confirm that dose decrease for small the air gap. Customized bolus production period took about 3 days and the development cost was quite expensive. Therefore, the commercialization of customized bolus developed by 3D printers requires low-cost 3D printer materials, adequate for the use of bolus.

  • PDF

Chinese relationship between animation and best pole - Focused on the aesthetic principles of the Cultural Revolution period (중국 애니메이션과 모범극의 상관관계 연구 - 문화대혁명 시기의 미학 원칙을 중심으로)

  • Kong, De Wei
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
    • /
    • /
    • pp.215-231
    • /
    • 2015
  • The Cultural Revolution in the history of Chinese animation hinder the development of the initial animation, and after a negative assessment instrument provided the cause is to become sluggish growth of the Chinese animation. So this time animation are things that are the subject of academic research studies or analysis has been depreciating almost uniformly without evaluation. However, of all the cultural and artistic creation it is developing in its own specific historical conditions and has the aesthetic results. This paper puts the primary purpose is to hold in consideration the aesthetic principles that led to cultural and artistic creativity and objective perspective the achievements the Chinese animation of the time period of the Cultural Revolution. Cultural Revolution is avoided to the previous period in accordance with the socialist ideology of Mao Ze-dong(毛澤東) sikindaneun highlight the culture of the proletariat and placed our goal to create a new class culture. Therefore, cultural and artistic creation of this period is often inconsistent with this part of our aesthetic principles generally accepted character has a non- elitist and anti properties. Best drama is a creative one hand as a model to implement the principles of aesthetics, art and culture Cultural Revolution period kkophimyeo reference for understanding the aesthetic principles that animated the Chinese Cultural Revolution period of orientation. This paper has San Tu Chu(三突出), Hong Guang Liang(紅光亮), and Gao Da Quan(高大全) at the time of the Cultural Revolution aesthetic principles are reflected in how the concrete work, the Cultural Revolution when the animation is how to accommodate these aesthetic principles and placed emphasis on comparative studies on best pole and correlation of the Cultural Revolution when the Chinese animation to ensure that adaptation in own way. First, after analyzing whether the aesthetic principles of focusing on the similarities of the best pole time of the Cultural Revolution and China, and how to implement animation in the works, these aesthetic principles according to the analysis of positive and negative influence on the creation of Chinese animation It was described as neutral. The detailed analysis and comparative study courses were trying to access in two significant aspects of the characters and scenes directing. In terms of character animation of the Cultural Revolution in China when a young boy or girl, emphasis should emphasize the health tinged with red lips and cheek blush to highlight the desired Gong Nong Bing(工農兵) shape as the main character and smooth texture and sophisticated highlights the glittering feeling to the touch, it was confirmed focused hayeoteum to implement the principle of 'Hong Guang Liang', highlighting the brilliant colors with a clean, bright colors. Highlighting a number of protagoniste compared to the antagonist in the animated scene of the Cultural Revolution a few times in terms of production and, among a number of protagoniste also emphasizes the outstanding hero figure, "yet three outstanding heroes heroic figures also emphasize the leading figures among the the director of the extrusion step-by-step approach "('San Tu Chu')was used. In addition, the hero figure is generally high and low angle by directing a large and perfect aesthetic appearance was to faithfully implement the principle of 'high-charged'('Gao Da Quan').