• Title, Summary, Keyword: diameter

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Normal Corpus Callosum Dimensions Measured by MRI (MR Midsagittal 영상을 이용한 정상 뇌량의 크기 측정)

  • Kim, Ham-Gyum
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 2008
  • As a result of measuring the size of corpus callosum in normal Korean people by using MRI, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. Maximum, minimum, and mean values by the region in whole subjects 1) Anteroposterior length amounted to the mean with 69.30mm, the minimum with 50.70mm, and the maximum with 80.40mm. 2) Diameter of genu amounted to the mean with 11.93mm, the minimum with 6.00mm, and the maximum with 18.50mm. 3) Diameter of mid body amounted to the mean with 7.00mm, the minimum with 3.40mm, and the maximum with 10.40mm. 4) Diameter of narrowing portion amounted to the mean with 4.51mm, the minimum with 0.80mm, and the maximum with 9.50mm. 5) Diameter of splenium amounted to the mean with 12.17mm, the minimum with 6.90mm, and the maximum with 17.20mm. 2. Comparison by region according to the gender in the whole subjects 1) Anteroposterior length was bigger in men than in women, and showed the significant difference depending on gender. 2) Diameter of genu, diameter of mid body, and diameter of narrowing portion were bigger in men than in women, but there was no significant difference. 3) Diameter of splenium was bigger in men than in women, and showed the statistically significant difference. 3. Comparison by region according to the age in the whole subjects 1) Anteroposterior length was the biggest in the 50s at the age, and was smaller in heir 10s than other age levels. In addition, the significant difference was indicated depending on age. 2) Diameter of genu and diameter of mid body were the biggest in their 30s, and were smaller in the 60s than other age levels. And, the statistically significant difference was indicated. 3) Diameter of narrowing portion was the thickest in their 20s, and was thinner in their 60s than other age levels. And, the significant difference was indicated depending on age. 4) Diameter of splenium was the thickest in their 30s, and was thinner in their 10s than other age levels. And, the statistically significant difference was indicated. 4. Correlation by region in whole subjects 1) Diameter of genu showed the statistically significant positive correlation with anteroposterior length. 2) Diameter of mid body showed the statistically significant positive correlation with anteroposterior length and diameter of genu. 3) Diameter of narrowing portion didn't show the statistically significant correlation with anteroposterior length, but showed the statistically significant positive correlation with diameter of genu and diameter of mid body. 4) Diameter of splenium showed the statistically significant positive correlation with anteroposterior length, diameter of genu, diameter of mid body, and diameter of narrowing portion.

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Design and implementation of prepaid service for Mobile-lP in Diameter (Diameter Mobile-lP 응용을 지원하는 Diameter 선불 시스템의 설계 및 구현)

  • Yoo Sangkeun;Kim Hyungon
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1A
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    • pp.76-83
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents the design and implementation of credit-control application to provide prepaid service for Diameter Mobile-lP application in Diameter-based AAA system. Diameter credit-control application is designed to support prepaid accounting service, which is not supported in RADIUS and Diameter accounting. Real-time credit-control requires that an application must be able to rate service information in real-time. In addition, it is necessary to check that the end user's account provides coverage for the requested service, prior to initiation of that service. In this paper, we design and implementation Diameter credit-control to provide prepaid service for Diameter Mobile-IP application.

Individual Tree Growth Models for Natural Mixed Forests in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China

  • Lu, Jun;Li, Fengri
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.96 no.2
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    • pp.160-169
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    • 2007
  • The data used to develop distance-independent individual models for natural mixed forests were collected from 712 remeasured permanent sample plots (25,526 trees) of 10-year periodic from 1990 to 2000 in Baihe Forest Bureau of Changbai Mountains, northeast China. Based on analyzing relationship between diameter increment of individual trees with tree size, competitive status, and site condition, the diameter growth models for individual trees of 15 species growing in mixed-species uneven-aged forest stands, that have simple form, good predicting precision, and easily applicable, were developed using stepwise regression method. The main variables influencing on diameter increment of individual trees were tree size and competition, however, the site conditions were not significantly related with diameter increment. The tree size variables (lnDBH and $DBH^2$) were the most significant and important predictors of diameter growth existing in all 15 growth models. The diameter increment was directly proportional to tree diameter for each species. For the competitive factors in growth model, the relative diameter (RD), canopy closure (P), and the ratio of diameter of subject tree with maximum diameter (DDM) were contributed to the diameter increment at a certain extent. Other measures of stand density, such as basal area of stand (G) and stand density index (SDI), were not significantly influenced on diameter increment. Site factors, such as site index, slope and aspect were not important to diameter increment and excluded in the final models. The total variance explained by the final models of squared diameter increment ($R^2$) for all 15 species ranged from 35% to 72% and these results compared quit closely with those of Wykoff (1990) for mixed conifer stands. Using independent data set, validation measures were evaluated for predicting models of diameter increment developed in this study. The result indicated that the estimated precision was all greater than 94% and the models were suitable to describe diameter increment.

Efficient Re-Establishment Mechanism of Diameter Security Association lost in MIP Application (MIP 환경에서의 Diameter Security Association 정보 분실시의 재설정 기법)

  • 유희종;김말희;김현곤
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 2003
  • AAA(Authentication, Authorization, Accounting) protocol is a framework that propose functions of AAA on multiple networks and platforms. AAA protocol is extending from previous RADIUS protocol to Diameter protocol. There are some Diameter applications for variety purpose. Diameter CMS Application makes Diameter messages more secure by using PKI. Diameter CMS Application establish DSA(Diameter Security Association) for end to end security. However the Application has some problems to establish DSA(Diameter Security Association), which can make Diameter system unstable. If one system lose DSA information for some system error - for example, reboot -, the secure communication between two nodes may not be possible. At the application such as MIP, even user registration can't be done. In this paper, we propose a mechannism for DSA re-establishment, and also show the result of the implementation.

Fleece Phenotype Influences Susceptibility to Cortisol-induced Follicle Shutdown in Merino Sheep

  • Ansari-Renani, H.R.;Hynd, P.I.;Aghajanzadeh, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.1761-1769
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    • 2007
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the extent to which susceptibility to cortisol-induced follicle shutdown is influenced by fleece phentotype. Twenty Finewool (10 sheep low fibre diameter, low coefficient of fibre diameter-LL and 10 low fibre diameter, high coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-LH) and twenty Strongwool (10 low fibre diameter, low coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-HL and 10 high fibre diameter and high coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-HH) sheep of 9 months of age were individually penned in an animal house and were injected intramuscularly with an aqueous suspension of hydrocortisone acetate at a rate of 1.42 mg/kg body weight for a period of two weeks. Fibre diameter was measured from clipped tattooed patch wool samples. Follicle activity was measured by histological changes in skin biopsies taken weekly. Blood samples were collected at two-week intervals and plasma cortisol measured. Increased plasma cortisol concentration significantly (p<0.05) reduced clean wool production and mean fibre diameter dropped to its lowest level four weeks after commencement and two weeks after the cessation of cortisol injection. Elevation of plasma cortisol concentration significantly (p<0.0001) increased the percentage of inactive follicles two weeks after injection started. High fibre diameter groups (Strongwool sheep; i.e. HL+HH) had significantly (p<0.0001) higher percentage of follicle shutdown than low fibre diameter groups (Finewool sheep; i.e. LL+LH). Average percentage of shutdown follicles for Finewool (LL+LH) and Strongwool (HL+HH) Merino sheep was $9.8{\pm}0.9$ and $13.5{\pm}0.9$ respectively. Shutdown of primary follicles was more pronounced in Finewool than Strongwool sheep. There was no significant effect of coefficient of variation of fibre diameter on propensity to follicle shutdown induced by exogenous cortisol. It is concluded that elevation in plasma cortisol concentration is inhibitory to the normal activity of follicles in Strongwool sheep but that variation in fibre diameter has little or no effect.

A Study on the Aerodynamic Diameter of Flame-generated Aggregates (화염에서 생성된 응집체의 공기역학적 입경에 대한 연구)

  • Kwon, Moon-Seok;Park, Hyung-Ho;Kim, Sang-Soo
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.600-604
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    • 2001
  • The relation between the aerodynamic diameter and some morphological parameters was studied for flame-generated aggregates. $SiO_{2}$ aggregates were generated from $SiCl_{4}$ in premixed methane/air flames. These aggregates were sampled and classified according to their aerodynamic diameter by a cascade impactor; moreover, computer program was developed and tested to find the equivalent area diameter and the fractal dimension of the aggregates. We calculated the parameters from the digitized images of the aggregate TEM micrographs. The aerodynamic diameters of the sampled aggregates were larger than $0.4{\mu}m$ in this experiment. In most cases, fractal dimension of their projection image was very close to 2.0 for these large aggregates. It was found that the equivalent area diameter of these aggregates was approximately three times larger than the Stokes' diameter of them.

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INFLUENCE OF IMPLANT DIAMETER ON THE OSSEOINTEGRATION OF IMPLANTS : AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN RABBITS (임플란트 직경이 골유착에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Jun-Ho;Shin Sang-Wan;Kwon Sang-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.169-181
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    • 2003
  • Statement of problem : The survival rate of wide diameter implants was lower than of 3.75-mm implants in some clinical researches. Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of implant diameter on the osseointegration of implants in the rabbit femoral condyle and tibial metaphyses by means of removal torque measurements and histomorphometric analysis. Material and Method : Ten adult New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study Two 3.75-mm diameter implants were inserted through one cortical layer in the tibial metaphyses and one 3.75-mm diameter implant was inserted in the femoral condyle. 5.0-mm diameter implants were inserted in the other leg in the same manner. A total of 60 implants (3.75-mm diameter implants:30 : 5.0-mm diameter implants:30) were installed. After a healing time of 4 and 12 weeks, the peak removal torque values required to shear off the implants were recorded. From the removal torque values (Ncm) obtained, the mean shear stress ($N/mm^2$) was calculated. And the percentage of direct bone-to-implant contact and the percentage of bone area inside the thread were measured by Kappa Image Base-metreo. The Student's t-test was undertaken for statistical analysis (p<0.05). Results : The removal torque value of 5.0-mm diameter implants was higher than of 3.75-mm diameter implants (p<0.05). The difference of shear stress value between 3.75-mm and 5.0-mm diameter implants was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The percentage direct bone-to-implant contact had no statistical difference between two groups (p>0.05). The percentage of bone area inside the thread had no statistical difference between two groups (p>0.05). Conclusion It is concluded that the quality f osseointegration is not influenced by increasing implant diameter.

A Study on the Correlation Between Nugget Diameter and Contact Diameter of Sheets by Electrode Force (點熔接 의 너깃지름 과 板間接觸지름 의 關聯性)

  • 송삼홍;김부동
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.313-318
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    • 1983
  • It is required in designing a spot welding to get in advance an estimated figure of nugget diameter. A method of estimating nugget diameter of low carbon steel sheets is suggested in tesms of utilizing elastic calculation in theory and of making a sectional observation of specimen of spot welding in experiment. The resultant findings are summarized as follows: 1) A contact diameter of sheet, 2.gamma.$_{o}$=d sub e/+(1.1)t, wheer de is the electrode tip diameter and t is the thickness of sheets. 2) The practical measurement of the nugget diameter reveals that $d_{n}$=(1.05) $d_{e}$+(0.9)t, and $d_{b}$ is less by 0.8-4.3% than 2.gamma.$_{o}$. 3) The more $d_{n}$ is as compared with t, the less the difference between a theoretical value and an experimental value is. 4) In the spot welding of thin steel sheets less than 3mm in thickness that are commonly used in sheet metal works, the contact diameter equals the nugget diameter. In this case, either the theoretical or experimental approach can be used for estimating the nugget diameter.meter.ter.r.

Dependence of Weibull parameters on the diameter and the internal defects of Tyranno ZMI fiber in the strength analysis

  • Morimoto, Tetsuya;Yamamoto, Koji;Ogihara, Shinji
    • Advanced Composite Materials
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.245-258
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    • 2007
  • The single-modal Weibull model has been assessed on Tyranno ZMI Si-Zr-C-O fiber if a set of shape and scale parameters accurately reproduced the effect of the size of the diameter on strength. The tensile data of a single fiber have been divided into two expedient groups as 'small diameter' group and 'large diameter' group in deriving the parameters, which should be consistent if the Weibull model accurately reproduced the size effect. However, the derived Weibull parameters were inconsistent between the two groups. Thereby the authors have concluded that the parameters of the single-modal Weibull model are dependent on the fiber diameter, so that the model is inadequate to reproduce the strength size effect. On the other hand, Weibull parameters were found consistent between the two groups by excluding the data of 'large mirror zone' sample, which was defined as the sample around 10% mirror zone area of the fracture surface. What is more, the exclusion reduced the strength variance more drastically in the 'large diameter' group than in the 'small diameter' group, even though the 'large mirror zone' samples were found identical in the percentage between the two groups. The authors therefore conclude that diameter limitation to the 'small diameter' group level can lead to drastically less distributed strength values than the estimated strength through the Weibull scaling on the present Tyranno ZMI Si-Zr-C-O fiber.

The Pressure Drop Characteristics in Small Diameter Tubes Using HCFC Alternative Refrigerants (세관내 HCFC계 대체냉매의 압력강하에 관한 연구)

  • Son, C.H.;Lee, H.R.;Jeong, J.H.;Choi, Y.S.;Oh, H.K.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.347-352
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    • 2000
  • The pressure drop characteristics of R-22 and R-410A(a mixture of 50wt% R-32 and 50wt% R-125) flowing in a small diameter tube with 1.77[mm] inner diameter and 3.14[mm] outer diameter was investigated experimentally. the mass fluxes of refrigerants are ranged from 450 to $1050[kg/(m^2{\cdot}s)]$ and the qualites are varied from 0.05 to 0.95. The main experimental results were summarized as follows; The single-phase liquid friction factors for small diameter tubes are higher than those predicted by the Blasius equation. In case of two-phase flow, the pressure gradient of the small diameter tube increases with increasing mass velocity and vapor quality. The experimental data are not well correlated by predictions which were proposed for the large diameter tube.

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