• Title, Summary, Keyword: dielectric

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Sputtering Yield and Secondary Electron Emission Coefficient(${\gamma}$) of the MgO, $MgAl_2O_4$ and $MgAl_2O_4/MgO$ Thin Film Grown on the Cu Substrate by Using the Focused Ion Beam (Cu 기판위에 성장한 MgO, $MgAl_2O_4$$MgAl_2O_4/MgO$ 박막의 집속이온빔을 이용한 스퍼터링수율 측정과 이차전자방출계수 측정)

  • Jung K.W.;Lee H.J.;Jung W.H.;Oh H.J.;Park C.W.;Choi E.H.;Seo Y.H.;Kang S.O.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.395-403
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    • 2006
  • It is known that $MgAl_2O_4$ has higher resistance to moisture than MgO, in humid ambient MgO is chemically unstable. It reacts very easily with moisture in the air. In this study, the characteristic of $MgAl_2O_4$ and $MgAl_2O_4/MgO$ layers as dielectric protection layers for AC- PDP (Plasma Display Panel) have been investigated and analysed in comparison for conventional MgO layers. MgO and $MgAl_2O_4$ films both with a thickness of $1000\AA$ and $MgAl_2O_4/MgO$ film with a thickness of $200/800\AA$ were grown on the Cu substrates using the electron beam evaporation. $1000\AA$ thick aluminium layers were deposited on the protective layers in order to avoid the charging effect of $Ga^+$ ion beam while the focused ion beam(FIB) is being used. We obtained sputtering yieds for the MgO, $MgAl_2O_4$ and $MgAl_2O_4/MgO$ films using the FIB system. $MgAl_2O_4/MgO$ protective layers have been found th show $24{\sim}30%$ lower sputtering yield values from 0.244 up to 0.357 than MgO layers with the values from 0.364 up to 0.449 for irradiated $Ga^+$ ion beam with energies ranged from 10 kV to 14 kV. And $MgAl_2O_4$ layers have been found to show lowest sputtering yield values from 0.88 up to 0.109. Secondary electron emission coefficient(g) using the ${\gamma}$- FIB. $MgAl_2O_4/MgO$ and MgO have been found to have similar g values from 0.09 up to 0.12 for indicated $Ne^+$ ion with energies ranged from 50 V to 200 V. Observed images for the surfaces of MgO and $MgAl_2O_4/MgO$ protective layers, after discharge degradation process for 72 hours by SEM and AFM. It is found that $MgAl_2O_4/MgO$ protective layer has superior hardness and degradation resistance properties to MgO protective layer.

Effect of Acrylic Acid on the Physical Properties of UV-cured Coating Films for Metal Coating (금속코팅용 광경화 코팅필름의 물성에 대한 아크릴산(Acrylic acid)의 영향)

  • Seo, Jong-Chul;Choi, Jun-Suk;Jang, Eui-Sung;Seo, Kwang-Won;Han, Hak-Soo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2011
  • Five different composition UV-cured poly(urethane acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PU-co-AA) films have been prepared by reacting isophorone diisocyanate(IPDI), polycaprolactone triol(PCLT), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate(HEA), and different weight ratio trimethylolpropane triacrylate(TMPTA) and acrylic acid(AA) as diluents, and characterized using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR). The adhesion properties onto the stainless steel, morphology, mechanical hardness, and electrical property of UV-cured PU-co-AA films were investigated as a function of acrylic acid(AA) content. All the PU-co-AA films are structure-less and the molecular ordering and packing density decreased with increasing content of AA due to the flexible structure and -COOH side chains in AA. The crosscut test showed that PU-co-AA films without AA and with low content of AA showed 0% adhesion(0B) and the adhesion of PU-co-AA films in the range of 40-50% AA increased dramatically as the content of AA increases. The pull-off measurements showed that the adhesion force of PU-co-AA films to stainless steel substrate varied from 6 to 31 kgf /$cm^2$ and increased linearly with increasing AA content. The mechanical hardness also decreased as the content of AA increases. This may come from relatively linear and flexible structure in AA and low crystallinity in PU-co-AA films with higher content of AA. The higher AA-containing PU-co-AA films showed higher dielectric constant due to the increase of polarization by introducing AA monomer. In conclusion, the physical properties of UV-cured PU-co-AA films are strongly dependent upon the content of AA and the incorporation of AA in polyurethane acrylate is very useful way to increase the adhesion strength of UV-curable polymers on the stainless steel substrate.

Characteristics of a planar Bi-Sb multijunction thermal converter with Pt-heater (백금 히터가 내장된 평면형 Bi-Sb 다중접합 열전변환기의 특성)

  • Lee, H.C.;Kim, J.S.;Ham, S.H.;Lee, J.H.;Lee, J.H.;Park, S.I.;Kwon, S.W.
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.154-162
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    • 1998
  • A planar Bi-Sb multijunction thermal converter with high thermal sensitivity and small ac-dc transfer error has been fabricated by preparing the bifilar thin film Pt-heater and the hot junctions of thin film Bi-Sb thermopile on the $Si_{3}N_{4}/SiO_{2}/Si_{3}N_{4}$-diaphragm, which functions as a thermal isolation layer, and the cold junctions on the dielectric membrane supported with the Si-substrate, which acts as a heat sink, and its ac-dc transfer characteristics were investigated with the fast reversed dc method. The respective thermal sensitivities of the converter with single bifilar heater were about 10.1 mV/mW and 14.8 mV/mW in the air and vacuum, and those of the converter with dual bifilar heater were about 5.1 mV/mW and 7.6 mV/mW, and about 5.3 mV/mW and 7.8 mV/mW in the air and vacuum for the inputs of inside and outside heaters, indicating that the thermal sensitivities in the vacuum, where there is rarely thermal loss caused by gas, are higher than those in the air. The ac-dc voltage and current transfer difference ranges of the converter with single bifilar heater were about ${\pm}1.80\;ppm$ and ${\pm}0.58\;ppm$, and those of the converter with dual bifilar heater were about ${\pm}0.63\;ppm$ and ${\pm}0.25\;ppm$, and about ${\pm}0.53\;ppm$ and ${\pm}0.27\;ppm$, respectively, for the inputs of inside and outside heaters, in the frequency range below 10 kHz and in the air.

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Effect of Surface Area of Soybean Oil and Lard on the Thermooxidative Stability (대두유와 돈지의 가열산화 안정성에 미치는 표면적의 영향)

  • Kim, In-Hwan;Kim, Young-Soon;Choi, Yang-Moon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.781-786
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    • 1998
  • To assess effect of surface area on the oxidative stability in thermooxidative system, soybean oil and lard with different surface area $(0.04{\;}cm^2/g,{\;}0.08{\;}cm^2/g,{\;}0.12{\;}cm^2/g{\;}and{\;}0.16{\;}cm^2/g)$ were heated 8 hrs/day at $185^{\circ}C$. The iodine values of soybean oil heated for 64 hrs with surface area of $0.12{\;}cm^2/g$ and $0.16{\;}cm^2/g$ were 113.1 and 116.9, while those of the oil heated for the same length time with surface area of $0.04{\;}cm^2/g$ and $0.08{\;}cm^2/g$ were 126.4 and 125.9, respectively. The same trend was observed in lard, but less markedly than in soybean oil. The polar lipid content, dielectric constant and refractive index of soybean oil and lard heated with surface area above $0.12{\;}cm^2/g$ significantly increased as the heating time increased, while those of the oil heated with surface area below $0.08{\;}cm^2/g$ slowly increased as the heating time increased. On the other hand, the conjugated diene content of soybean oil heated with surface area above $0.12{\;}cm^2/g$ oil increased as the heating time increased while ratio of linoleic acid to palmitic acid decreased as the heating time increased. However, the conjugated diene content and ratio of linoleic acid to palmitic acid of lard were not significantly different depending on the surface area. The results obtained from this investigation indicated that the thermooxidative stability of oil heated with surface area below $0.08\;}cm^2/g$ was better than that of oil heated with surface area above $0.12{\;}cm^2/g$ (P<0.05).

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Characteristics of the ( Pb, La ) $TiO_3$ Thin Films with Pb/La Compositions (Pb/La 조성에 따른 ( Pb, La ) $TiO_3$ 박막의 특성 변화)

  • Kang, Seong-Jun;Joung, Yang-Hee;Yoon, Yung-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics D
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    • v.36D no.1
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 1999
  • In this study, we have prepared PLT thin films having various La concentrations by using sol-gel method and studied on the effect of La concentration on the electrical properties of PLT thin films. As the La concentration increases from 5mol% to 28mol%, the dielectric constant at 10kHz increases from 428 to 761, while the loss tangent decreases from 0.063 to 0.024. Also, the leakage current density at 150kV/cm has a tendency to decrease from 6.96${\mu}A/cm^2$ to 0.79${\mu}A/cm^2$. In the result of hysteresis loops of PLT thin films, the remanent polariation and the coercive field decrease from 9.55${\mu}C/cm^2$ to 1.10${\mu}C/cm^2$ and from 46.4kV/cm to 13.7kV/cm, respectively. With the result of the fatigue test on the PLT thin films, we have found that the fatigue properties are improved remarkably as the La concentration increases from 5 mol% to 28mol%. In particular, the PLT28) has paraelectric phase and its charge storage clensity and leakage current density at 5V are 134fC/${\mu}cm^2$ and 1.01${\mu}A/cm^2$, respectively. The remanent polarization and coercive field of the PLT(10) film are 6.96${\mu}C/cm^2$ and 40.2kV/cm, respectively. After applying of $10^9$ square pulses with ${\pm}5V$, the remanent polarilzation of the PLT(10) film decreases about 20% from the initial state. In the results, we conclude that the 10mol% and the 28mol% La doped PLT thin films are very suitable for the capacitor dielectrics of new generation of DRAM and NVFRAM respecitively.

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Real-Time 3D Ultrasound Imaging Method Using a Cross Array Based on Synthetic Aperture Focusing: II. Linear Wave Front Transmission Approach (합성구경 기반의 교차어레이를 이용한 실시간 3차원 초음파 영상화 기법 : II. 선형파면 송신 방법)

  • 김강식;송태경
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.403-414
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    • 2004
  • In the accompanying paper, we proposed a real. time volumetric imaging method using a cross array based on receive dynamic focusing and synthetic aperture focusing along lateral and elevational directions, respetively. But synthetic aperture methods using spherical waves are subject to beam spreading with increasing depth due to the wave diffraction phenomenon. Moreover, since the proposed method uses only one element for each transmission, it has a limited transmit power. To overcome these limitations, we propose a new real. time volumetric imaging method using cross arrays based on synthetic aperture technique with linear wave fronts. In the proposed method, linear wave fronts having different angles on the horizontal plane is transmitted successively from all transmit array elements. On receive, by employing the conventional dynamic focusing and synthetic aperture methods along lateral and elevational directions, respectively, ultrasound waves can be focused effectively at all imaging points. Mathematical analysis and computer simulation results show that the proposed method can provide uniform elevational resolution over a large depth of field. Especially, since the new method can construct a volume image with a limited number of transmit receive events using a full transmit aperture, it is suitable for real-time 3D imaging with high transmit power and volume rate.

Changes in microbial and chemical properties of rough rice treated with cold plasma by storage temperatures and periods (저온 플라즈마 처리한 벼의 저장온도 및 기간에 따른 미생물학적 및 이화학적 특성 변화)

  • Woo, Koan Sik;Yong, Hae In;Jo, Cheorun;Lee, Seuk Ki;Lee, Byong Won;Lee, Byoungkyu;Lee, Yu-Young;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Kim, Hyun-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.908-914
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    • 2017
  • Cold plasma (CP) was applied to examine microbial safety and physicochemical properties of rough rice. CP was generated in a square-shaped plastic container (250 W, 15 kHz, ambient air) and dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment was applied for periods of 0, 10, and 20 min during 2 weeks at 4 and $25^{\circ}C$. As a result of observing changes in growth of microorganisms, 3.46-3.86 log CFU/g of total aerobic bacteria and 2.27-2.86 log CFU/g of mold were detected in the early stage of storage. The growth of total aerobic bacteria and mold was increased depending on the storage temperature and period, but there was no big difference between cultivars. Microbial analysis after storage showed that microorganisms of plasma-treated group were less grown approximately 1.50 log CFU/g. Moisture content of rough rice was decreased by storage temperature and periods. As for the amylose content, changes in the content by plasma were not observed in Samkwang, Cheongpum and Misomi, whereas Palbangmi showed a tendency to increase. The results of this study indicated that CP treatment improved the microbial quality of rough rice, but further studies should be conducted to reduce the deterioration of sensory quality induced by CP.

Enhancement and Quenching Effects of Photoluminescence in Si Nanocrystals Embedded in Silicon Dioxide by Phosphorus Doping (인의 도핑으로 인한 실리콘산화물 속 실리콘나노입자의 광-발광현상 증진 및 억제)

  • Kim Joonkon;Woo H. J.;Choi H. W.;Kim G. D.;Hong W.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.78-83
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    • 2005
  • Nanometric crystalline silicon (no-Si) embedded in dielectric medium has been paid attention as an efficient light emitting center for more than a decade. In nc-Si, excitonic electron-hole pairs are considered to attribute to radiative recombination. However the surface defects surrounding no-Si is one of non-radiative decay paths competing with the radiative band edge transition, ultimately which makes the emission efficiency of no-Si very poor. In order to passivate those defects - dangling bonds in the $Si:SiO_2$ interface, hydrogen is usually utilized. The luminescence yield from no-Si is dramatically enhanced by defect termination. However due to relatively high mobility of hydrogen in a matrix, hydrogen-terminated no-Si may no longer sustain the enhancement effect on subsequent thermal processes. Therefore instead of easily reversible hydrogen, phosphorus was introduced by ion implantation, expecting to have the same enhancement effect and to be more resistive against succeeding thermal treatments. Samples were Prepared by 400 keV Si implantation with doses of $1\times10^{17}\;Si/cm^2$ and by multi-energy Phosphorus implantation to make relatively uniform phosphorus concentration in the region where implanted Si ions are distributed. Crystalline silicon was precipitated by annealing at $1,100^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours in Ar environment and subsequent annealing were performed for an hour in Ar at a few temperature stages up to $1,000^{\circ}C$ to show improved thermal resistance. Experimental data such as enhancement effect of PL yield, decay time, peak shift for the phosphorus implanted nc-Si are shown, and the possible mechanisms are discussed as well.

The Effect of Strong Acid and Ionic Material Addition in the Microwave-assisted Solubilization of Waste Activated Sludge (Microwave를 이용한 폐활성슬러지의 가용화 반응에서 강산과 이온성 물질의 첨가가 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jeongmin;Lee, Jaeho;Lim, Jisung;Kim, Youngwoo;Byun, Imgyu;Park, Taejoo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.60-68
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    • 2015
  • The study of waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization has been increased for sludge volume reduction and enhancing the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. Microwave (MW)-assisted solubilization is an effective method for the solubilization of WAS because this method can lead to thermal, nonthermal effect and ionic conduction by dielectric heating. In this study, the solubilization of WAS by MW heating and conductive heating (CH) was compared and to enhance the MW-assisted solubilization of WAS at low MW output power, chemical agents were applied such as $H_2SO_4$ as the strong acid and $CaCl_2$, NaCl as the ionic materials. Compared to the COD solubilization of WAS by CH, that by MW heating was approximately 1.4, 6.2 times higher at $50^{\circ}C$, $100^{\circ}C$, respectively and the highest COD solubilization of WAS was 10.0% in this study of low MW output power condition. At the same MW output power and reaction time in chemically agents assisted experiments, the COD solubilization of WAS were increased up to 18.1% and 12.7% with the addition of $H_2SO_4$ and NaCl, however, that with the addition of $CaCl_2$ was 10.7%. This result might be due to the fact that the precipitation reaction occurred by calcium ion ($Ca^{2+}$) and phosphate ion (${PO_4}^{3-}$) produced in WAS after MW-assisted solubilization. In this study, $H_2SO_4$ turned out to be the optimal agent for the enhancement of MW efficiency, the addition of 0.2 M $H_2SO_4$ was the most effective condition for MW-assisted WAS solubilization.

Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on the Quality of Commercially Available Sunsik (대기압 플라즈마가 선식의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun-Joo;Woo, Koan Sik;Jo, Cheorun;Lee, Seuk Ki;Park, Hye Young;Sim, Eun-Yeong;Won, Yong-Jae;Lee, Sang-Bok;Oh, Sea-Kwan
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.375-379
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    • 2016
  • Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) was applied to examine microbial safety and qualities of commercial Sunsik. APP was generated in a square-shaped plastic container (250 W, 15 kHz, ambient air) and dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment was applied for periods of 0, 5, 10, and 20 minutes. The total aerobic bacterial count in the control was 4.44 log CFU/g. Under plasma treatment for 20 minutes, Sunsik samples inoculated with Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 resulted in a reduction of bacterial counts by approximately 2.20, 2.22, and 2.52 log CFU/g, respectively. The pH of the sample was found to decrease after APP treatment. Although hunter color $L^*$ of Sunsik increased, $a^*$ and $b^*$ value decreased as a result of APP. Increasing the APP time also enhanced the peroxide value. Further, sensory evaluation revealed that APP decreased color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability. The results of this study indicated that APP treatment improved the microbial quality of Sunsik, although further studies should be conducted to reduce the deterioration of sensory quality induced by APP.