• Title, Summary, Keyword: difenoconazole

Search Result 47, Processing Time 0.033 seconds

Dissipation Pattern of Azoxystrobin, Difenoconazole and Iprodione Treated on Field-Grown Green Garlic (노지재배 풋마늘 중 Azoxystrobin, Difenoconazole 및 Iprodione의 잔류특성)

  • Kang, Hye-Rim;Lee, Young-Ju;Lee, Yu-Ri;Han, Guk-Tak;Chang, Hee-Ra;Kim, Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.30 no.4
    • /
    • pp.446-452
    • /
    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: To investigate the dissipation patterns of 3 pesticides, azoxystrobin, difenoconazole and iprodione, on green garlic after field treatment pesticides were treated as foliar treatment by single application at recommended and double the recommended rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Residue samples were harvested at 0, 1, 2, 5, 7 and 10 days post-treatment for azoxystrobin and 0, 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 21 days post-treatment for difenoconazole and iprodione. After preparation the fortified samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromotography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to determine the residue levels. Recoveries ranged from 87 to 109% for azoxystrobin, difenoconazole and iprodione at two different levels. The limit of Quantification (LOQ) values were 0.002 mg/kg for azoxystrobin and difenoconazole and 0.01 mg/kg for iprodione. CONCLUSION(S): Half-lives of azoxystrobin, difenoconazole and iprodione in green garlic after treatment were 1.2, 3.8 and 3.2 days at recommended and 1.4, 3.3 and 3.2 at double the recommended rate, respectively. Residue level of azoxystrobin, difenoconazole and iprodione in green garlic were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) at 0 day, 0 day and 5 days, respectively. Therefore, these pesticide were considered that residues was satisfied to the requirement of domestic trade related to the consumer safety.

Toxic Effects of Triazole Fungicide Difenoconazole on the Early Development of African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis (Triazole계 농약 Difenoconazole이 Xenopus laevis의 초기 배 발생에 미치는 독성 영향)

  • Lee, You-Hwa;Yoon, Chun-Sik;Lee, Mi-Ju;Hwang, Yong-Gi;Cheong, Seon-Woo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.20 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1221-1232
    • /
    • 2011
  • We investigated the toxic effects of difenoconazole on the development in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. To test the toxic effects, frog embryo teratogenesis assays using Xenopus were performed. Embryos were exposed to various concentrations of difenoconazole (0-30 ${\mu}M$). $LC_{100}$ for difenoconazole was 30 ${\mu}M$, and the $LC_{50}$ determined by probit analysis was 27.19 ${\mu}M$. Exposure to difenoconazole concentrations ${\geq}$5 ${\mu}M$ resulted in 10 different types of severe external malformation. Histological examinations revealed dysplasia of the eye, heart, liver, somatic muscle, and swelling of the pronephric ducts. The tissue-specific toxic effects were investigated with an animal cap assay. Blood cells were normally induced at a high frequency by mSCF and activin A. However, the induction of blood cells was strongly inhibited by the addition of difenoconazole. Electron micrographs of tested embryos showed the degeneration of somatic muscle and the shrinkage of microvilli on pronephric duct. The gene expression of cultivated animal cap explants was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). It revealed that the expression of the blood-specific marker(${\beta}$-globin II) and muscle-specific marker (XMA) were more strongly inhibited than the neural-specific marker(XEn2) by the addition of difenoconazole.

Pesticide residues in chili pepper seeds and their transfer into the seed oil (고추씨 중 농약 잔류와 고추씨 기름으로 농약의 이행)

  • Lee, Mi-Gyung;Kim, Jong Seong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.48 no.4
    • /
    • pp.317-322
    • /
    • 2016
  • A pesticide mix solution containing difenoconazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and lufenuron was applied 3 times on field grown chili pepper at a fivefold overdose dilution concentration of the spray solution at a pre-harvest interval of 7 day. Difenoconazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and lufenuron were detected at 4.43, 0.334, and 1.56 mg/kg, respectively, in raw chili pepper. Washing with water reduced the residue levels to 91.4, 94.3, and 85.3%, respectively. In dried chili pepper, the residues of difenoconazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and lufenuron were 22.2 mg/kg (processing factor, Pf =5.01), 1.65 mg/kg (Pf =4.94), and 6.54 mg/kg (Pf =4.19). In the seeds, difenoconazole and lambda-cyhalothrin were not detected, and lufenuron was detected at 0.0075 mg/kg (n=1) and <0.005 mg/kg (n=2). Thus the pesticide residues in the seeds was negligible. In the seed oil, difenoconazole and lufenuron residues were 0.0263 and 0.0295 mg/kg, respectively (concentration factors=5.26 and 4.72). These concentration factors supported the theoretical concentration factor of 6.8, assuming that all of compound present in the seed are transferred into the oil.

Gas Chromatographic Analysis on Residual Difenoconazole in Apple and Soil (사과와 토양 중에서 Difenoconazole의 잔류성에 대한 기체 크로마토그래피 분석)

  • Han, Sung Soo;Kim, Il Kwang
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.123-133
    • /
    • 1996
  • The optimum conditions for the analysis of the difenoconazole fungicide on soil and crops were investigated and the residues of that in apple and soil were identified by using the gas chromatography. The extract with acetonitrile was separated with saturated NaCl and n-hexane solution after filtered, and concentrated. Obtained fungicide residues were transfered to the florisil column and eluted with acetone and n-hexane mixed solution for the analysis by GLC(ECD). From the standard addition experiments with 0.20 and 1.0ppm, the average recoveries were 86~92% and the detection limit was 0.01 ppm. It seems to be safely used when difenoconazole is treated three times until 15 days before harvest of apple. In this case residual amounts of difenoconazole in apple was from 0.037ppm to 0.044ppm. The soil samples extracted with methanol and ammonium hydroxide mixed solution were partitioned with dichloromethane and saturated sodium chloride solution. The organic phase was concentrated and redissolved with toluene and analyzed with GLC(FID) after cleaned with Sep-Pak column. From the standard addition experiments with 0.10, 0.50 and 1.0ppm, the average recoveries were 101.2~103.7% and the detection limit was 0.025ppm.

  • PDF

Measurement of Operator Exposure During Treatment of Fungicide Difenoconazole on Grape Orchard (포도 과수원에서 살균제 Difenoconazole의 농작업자 노출량 측정)

  • Cho, ll Kyu;Park, Joon Seong;Park, So Hyun;Kim, Su Jin;Kim, Back Jong;Na, Tae Wong;Nam, Hyo Song;Park, Kyung Hun;Lee, Jiho;Kim, Jeong-Han
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.35 no.4
    • /
    • pp.286-293
    • /
    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: 18% of difenoconazole+iminoctadin triacetate microemulsion (3%+15%) formulation were mixed and sprayed as closely as possible to normal practice on the ten of farms located in the Youngju of South Korea. Patches, cotton gloves, socks, masks and XAD-2 resin were used to measure the potential exposure for applicators wearing standardized whole-body outer and inner dosimeter (WBD). This study has been carried out to determine the dermal and inhalation exposure to difenoconazole during preparation of spray suspension and application with a power sprayer on a grape orchard. METHODS AND RESULTS: A personal air monitor equipped with an air pump IOM sampler and cassette and glass fiber filter were used for inhalation exposure. The field studies were carried out in a grape orchard. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored with a thermometer and a hygrometer. Wind speed was measured using a pocket weather meter. All mean field fortification recoveries were between 97.3% and 119.6% in the level of 100 LOQ (limit of quantification) while the LOQ for difenoconazole was $0.025{\mu}g/mL$ using HPLC-UVD. The arms exposure to difenoconazole for the mixer/loader (0.0794 mg) was higher than other body parts (head, hands, upper body, legs). The exposure to difenoconazole in the legs for applicator (3.78 mg) was highest in the parts of body. The dermal exposure for mixer/loader and applicator were 0.02 and 2.28 mg on a grape orchard, respectively. The inhalation exposure during application was estimated as 0.02 mg. The ratio of inhalation exposure to dermal exposure was equivalent to 0.9% of the dermal exposure. CONCLUSION: The inhalation exposure for applicator indicated $18.8{\times}10^{-3}mg$, which was level of 0.9% of the dermal exposure (2.28 mg). Operator exposure (0.004 mg/kg bw/day) to difenoconazole during treatment for grape is calculated as 2.5% of the established AOEL (0.16 mg/kg bw/day).

Establishment of Pre-Harvest Residue Limit (PHRL) of Fungicides Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole on Prunus mume fruits (매실 중 살균제 azoxystrobin과 difenoconazole의 생산단계 잔류허용기준 설정)

  • Lee, Dong Yeol;Kim, Yeong Jin;Park, Min Ho;Lee, Seung Hwa;Kim, Sang Gon;Kang, Nam Jun;Kang, Kyu Young
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.307-313
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to investigate the residual characteristics of fungicide azoxystrobin and difenoconazole in Prunus mume fruits, and establish pre-harvest residue limits (PHRL) based on dissipation and biological half-lives of fungicide residues. The fungicides were sprayed onto the crop at recommended dosage once and 3 times in 7 days interval, respectively. The samples were harvested at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days after treatment. These residual pesticides were extracted with QuEChERS method, clean-up with $NH_2$ SPE cartridge, and residues were analyzed by HPLC/DAD and GLC/ECD, respectively. Method quantitative limits (MQL) of azoxystrobin were 0.03 mg $kg^{-1}$ and of difenoconazole were 0.006 mg $kg^{-1}$. Average recovery were $93.2{\pm}2.49%$, $85.5{\pm}1.97%$ for azoxystrobin at fortification levels at 0.3 and 1.5 mg $kg^{-1}$, and $100.8{\pm}6.74%$, $87.6{\pm}9.92%$ for difenoconazole at fortification levels at 0.06 and 0.3 mg $kg^{-1}$, respectively. The biological half-lives of azoxystrobin were 5.9 and 5.2 days at recommended dosage once and 3 times in 7 days interval, respectively. The biological half-lives of difenoconazole were 9.3 and 8.0 days at recommended dosage once and 3 times in 7 days interval, respectively. The PHRL of azoxystrobin and difenoconazole were recommended as 5.32 and 1.64 mg $kg^{-1}$ for 10 days before harvest, respectively.

Selection of Fungicide Against Lichen-forming Fungi for the Chemical Control of Lichen Colonization on Stone Heritages and Plants (석조문화재 및 식물 착생 지의류의 화학적 방제를 위한 살균제 선발)

  • Kim, Jung-A;Jung, Min-Hae;Jeon, Hae-Sook;Koh, Young-Jin;Hur, Jae-Seoun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
    • /
    • v.14 no.3
    • /
    • pp.261-265
    • /
    • 2010
  • Lichens, a symbiotic organism of fungi and algae, cause serious damage to national heritages of stone master piece and costly trees for gardening. The present study was conducted to screen effective fungicides against lichen-forming fungi to control the biological agents deteriorating stone heritages and trees. Five commercial fungicides (Fenarimol EC, Etridiazole EC, Iminoctadinetriacetate SL, Difenoconazole+lminocatadinetriacetate ME and Difenoconazole+Azoxystrobin SC) were tested against the lichen-forming fungi (LFF) isolated from seven saxicolous (Caloplaca sp., Ramalina sp., Xanthoparmelia sp., and Xanthoria sp.,) or corticolous (Parmelia sp.,) lichen species. Preliminary screening test showed that no LFF could grow on the MY (malt-yeast extract) agar medium amended with the recommended concentrations of each fungicide. Further screening was conducted at 1%, 10% and 20% of the recommended concentrations of the fungicides. After 7 week incubation at $15^{\circ}C$ in the dark, Difenoconazole+Iminocatadinetriacetate ME and Difenoconazole+Azoxystrobin SC completely inhibited the fungal growth of all the tested LFF, even at 1% of the concentration. Two fungicides of Fenarimol EC and Iminoctadinetriacetate SL exhibited a moderate inhibition activity at the lower concentrations. Etridiazole EC was less effective in the fungal growth inhibition than the other four fungicides. The results suggested that lichens colonizing on precious stone heritages and trees can be eradicated by applying Difenoconazole+Iminocatadinetriacetate ME and Difenoconazole+Azoxystrobin SC even 1% of the recommended concentrations. Selected fungicide application at such a low concentration will facilitate the chemical use to prevent and preserve stone heritages from biological deterioration induced by lichens and the allied microbes.

Residue Studies of Difenoconazole and Thiamethoxam during Cultivation of Sweet Persimmon for Export (수출용 단감에 대한 Difenoconazole과 Thiamethoxam의 잔류특성 연구)

  • Chang, Hee-Ra;Kang, Hae-Rim;Do, Jung-A;Oh, Jae-Ho;Hwang, In-Kyun;Kwon, Ki-Sung;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Kim, Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.31 no.3
    • /
    • pp.248-254
    • /
    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: In order to elucidate residual characteristics of difenoconazole and thiamethoxam by treatment to sweet persimmons for one year and to generate the data for the maximum residue limit (MRL) establishment for those pesticides in or on sweet persimmon. METHODS AND RESULTS: Systemic fungicide difenoconazole WP (10% a.i.) and systemic insecticide thiamethoxam WG (10% a.i.) were sprayed onto 12~25-years-old sweet persimmons according to its preharvest interval (PHI), respectively, and then fresh sweet persimmons were harvested at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 days after treatment from pesticide-sprayed plots at each 3 sites. The analytical methods were evaluated to limit of quantification, linearity, specificity, reproducibility and recoveries. The crop samples were extracted with acetone and performed dichloromethane partition process. The extracted samples of difenoconazole were analyzed by GC-ECD and the thiamethoxam extracted samples were analyzed by HPLC with good sensitivity and selectivity of the method. The average recoveries of difenoconazole ranged from 87.5 to 99.5% with the percentage of coefficient variation in the range 4.1~7.6% at three different spiking levels(0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 mg/kg). And the average recoveries of thiamethoxam and clothianidin ranged from 88.8 to 98.9% and 83.2 to 96.6% with the percentage of coefficient variation in the range 3.6~5.0% and 3.8~9.4% at three different spiking levels(0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 mg/kg), respectively. The residue amounts ranges of difenoconazole were 0.2~0.56 mg/kg and the residue amount was decreased below the MRL level, 1.0 mg/kg, after 1 day harvest. The residue amounts ranges of thiamethoxam were 0.08~0.28 mg/kg and the residue amount was decreased below the MRL level, 0.5 mg/kg, after 1 day harvest. And the residue amount of clothianidin was below then 0.03 mg/kg for only one test site of 14 and 28 day samples. CONCLUSION: As a result, the residual amounts of difenoconazole and thiamethoxam were not exceeded the MRL of established criteria for sweet persimmon. The biological half-lives of difenoconazole and thiamethoxam were 13.6, 19.4, 16.3 and 10.0, 15.3, 14.0 days at each three test sites, respectively.

Processing and Reducing Factors of Difenoconazole during Ginseng Processing (국내산 인삼 가공과정 중 difenoconazole의 가공 및 감소계수 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Geol;Park, Hong-Ryeol;Yang, Kyew-Wan;Kim, Seong-Soo;Kwon, Chan-Hyuk;Jeong, Yeon-Ho;Hur, Jang-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.43 no.3
    • /
    • pp.263-270
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study was performed to acquire processing and reducing factors of difenoconazole during ginseng processing, and to establish the maximum residue limits of ginseng and its commodities. Difenoconazole was used in two fields (Wonju and Icheon) containing 6 year old ginseng plants. The amount of residue at Wonju and Icheon were