• Title, Summary, Keyword: dissipation of collision energy

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Studies on the Performance Evaluation of Downsized High-efficiency Cooling Module (높이 축소형 고효율 냉각모듈의 성능 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Jung-Hun;Shin, Yoon-Hyuk;Park, Sung-Wook;Jeong, Sun-An;Kim, Sung-Chul
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 2011
  • The cooling module needs enough space (or distance) from hood to absorb the energy from any pedestrian collision. Downsized cooling module for pedestrian protection is important to reduce the severity of pedestrian injury. When a vehicle collision happens, the downsized cooling module is required to reduce the risk of injury to the upper legs of adults and the heads of children. In this study, the performance of cooling module to cool the engine was investigated under 25% height reduction. The heat dissipation and pressure drop characteristics have been experimentally studied with the variation of coolant flow rate, air inlet velocity and A/C operation ON/OFF for the downsized cooling module. The results indicated that the cooling performance was about 94% level compared to that of the conventional cooling module. Therefore, we checked that the cooling module had good performance, and expected that the cooling module could meet the same cooling performance as conventional cooling module through optimization of components efficiency.

Shaking table test of pounding tuned mass damper (PTMD) on a frame structure under earthquake excitation

  • Lin, Wei;Wang, Qiuzhang;Li, Jun;Chen, Shanghong;Qi, Ai
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.545-553
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    • 2017
  • A pounding tuned mass damper (PTMD) can be considered as a passive device, which combines the merits of a traditional tuned mass damper (TMD) and a collision damper. A recent analytical study by the authors demonstrated that the PTMD base on the energy dissipation during impact is able to achieve better control effectiveness over the traditional TMD. In this paper, a PTMD prototype is manufactured and applied for seismic response reduction to examine its efficacy. A series of shaking table tests is conducted in a three-story building frame model under single-dimensional and two-dimensional broadband earthquake excitations with different excitation intensities. The ability of the PTMD to reduce the structural responses is experimentally investigated. The results show that the traditional TMD is sensitive to input excitations, while the PTMD mostly has improved control performance over the TMD to remarkably reduce both the peak and root-mean-square (RMS) structural responses under single-dimensional earthquake excitation. Unlike the TMD, the PTMD is found to have the merit of maintaining a stable performance when subjected to different earthquake loadings. In addition, it is also indicated that the performance of the PTMD can be enhanced by adjusting the initial gap value, and the control effectiveness improves with the increasing excitation intensity. Under two-dimensional earthquake inputs, the PTMD controls remain outperform the TMD controls; however, the oscillation of the added mass is observed during the test, which may induce torsional vibration modes of the structure, and hence, result in poor control performance especially after a strong earthquake period.

Application of a mesh-free method to modelling brittle fracture and fragmentation of a concrete column during projectile impact

  • Das, Raj;Cleary, Paul W.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.933-961
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    • 2015
  • Damage by high-speed impact fracture is a dominant mode of failure in several applications of concrete structures. Numerical modelling can play a crucial role in understanding and predicting complex fracture processes. The commonly used mesh-based Finite Element Method has difficulties in accurately modelling the high deformation and disintegration associated with fracture, as this often distorts the mesh. Even with careful re-meshing FEM often fails to handle extreme deformations and results in poor accuracy. Moreover, simulating the mechanism of fragmentation requires detachment of elements along their boundaries, and this needs a fine mesh to allow the natural propagation of damage/cracks. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is an alternative particle based (mesh-less) Lagrangian method that is particularly suitable for analysing fracture because of its capability to model large deformation and to track free surfaces generated due to fracturing. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of SPH for predicting brittle fracture by studying a slender concrete structure (column) under the impact of a high-speed projectile. To explore the effect of the projectile material behaviour on the fracture process, the projectile is assumed to be either perfectly-elastic or elastoplastic in two separate cases. The transient stress field and the resulting evolution of damage under impact are investigated. The nature of the collision and the constitutive behaviour are found to considerably affect the fracture process for the structure including the crack propagation rates, and the size and motion of the fragments. The progress of fracture is tracked by measuring the average damage level of the structure and the extent of energy dissipation, which depend strongly on the type of collision. The effect of fracture property (failure strain) of the concrete due to its various compositions is found to have a profound effect on the damage and fragmentation pattern of the structure.

Study of Inhibition Characteristics of Slurry Additives in Copper CMP using Force Spectroscopy

  • Lee, Hyo-Sang;Philipossian Ara;Babu Suryadevara V.;Patri Udaya B.;Hong, Young-Ki;Economikos Laertis;Goldstein Michael
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.5-10
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    • 2007
  • Using a reference slurry, ammonium dodecyl sulfate (ADS), an anionic and environmentally friendly surfactant, was investigated as an alternative to BTA for its inhibition and lubrication characteristics. Results demonstrated that the inhibition efficiency of ADS was superior to that of BTA. Coefficient of friction (COF) was the lowest when the slurry contained ADS. This suggested that adsorbed ADS on the surface provided lubricating action thereby reducing the wear between the contacting surfaces. Temperature results were consistent with the COF and removal rate data. ADS showed the lowest temperature rise again confirming the softening effect of the adsorbed surfactant layer and less energy dissipation due to friction. Spectral analysis of shear force showed that increasing the pad-wafer sliding velocity at constant wafer pressure shifted the high frequency spectral peaks to lower frequencies while increasing the variance of the frictional force. Addition of ADS reduced the fluctuating component of the shear force and the extent of the pre-existing stick-slip phenomena caused by the kinematics of the process and collision event between pad asperities with the wafer. By contrast, in the case of BTA, there were no such observed benefits but instead undesirable effects were seen at some polishing conditions. This work underscored the importance of real-time force spectroscopy in elucidating the adsorption, lubrication and inhibition of additives in slurries in CMP.

Retardation Effect on the Breach of the Earth Filled Embankment Using the Stiffener During Overtopping (흙댐 제체의 보강재 설치에 따른 월류붕괴 지연효과)

  • Joo, Yo Han;Yeo, Chang-Geon;Lee, Seung Oh
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.1377-1387
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    • 2013
  • Most embankment of the reservoirs (99.1 %) have been constructed in the earth filled type in Korea because the construction of this type is less expensive and simpler than others such as concrete one. However, it has to be reinforced the slope to prevent the breach due to overtopping or piping under unexpected flood conditions. This study has been analyzed the retardation effect using three types (L, T, $L^*$ shape) of stiffener in order to reinforce embankment when they are collapsed by overtopping flow. Experimental results showed that L-type stiffener is the most effective in delaying the breaching of embankment and reducing the soil erosion when compared with others. The reinforced embankment breaching showed that time delay was occurred about 1.73 to 2.29 times and the peak flowrate was reduced compared to non-stiffener embankments due to energy dissipation by collision and less soil erosion. The embankment breaching mostly leads to major damages because of the lack of repair time. Thus, since these stiffeners can resist the rapid breach, it would be possible to earn the time to emergency repair and lifesaving, as well as reduction of damages of embankment in downward region with decreasing peak flowrate. Results from this study would be used for the basis when establishing the emergency action plan for the reservoirs on the verge of hazard.