• Title, Summary, Keyword: distribution system of training cost

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A Study on Standard Unit Price Analysis of e-learning & Postal Distance Learning (인터넷 및 우편 원격 기관 훈련비용 기준단가 분석 연구 공학교육에 관한 연구)

  • Rha, Hyeon-Mi
    • Journal of Engineering Education Research
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.61-71
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    • 2011
  • Korea has introduced the levy-grand system in the vocational learning finance. The standard unit price system of training cost was utilized in the distribution of training budget and the reimbursement system including total or partial training cost return has been operated in the corporate training after completing the learning course particularly. The standard unit price was calculated in the base of analyzing on supporting budget by the government per training institutions and corporate payment decision to learning institutions. The proposing standard unit price system of training cost was analyzed in the current standard price unit of training cost and then an improvement policy and the implication are derived from it. At the result of this study, the current government supporting level to e-learning and postal distance learning indicates good status.

Development of a Foot Pressure Distribution Measuring Device for Lower Limb Rehabilitaion

  • Choi, Junghyeon;Seo, Jaeyong;Park, Jun Mo
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2017
  • It is important to train lower limb muscle strength using a tilting table to recover the lower extremity function of hemiplegia patients. It is known that the foot deformity and poor posture of hemiplegia patients can reduce the effectiveness of lower limb rehabilitation training. In this study, we developed a sensor system that can measure the foot pressure distribution of the patients for the load control of the lower extremity during lower limb rehabilitation training and it can be substituted for conventional high-cost technologies.

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A study on the improvement of distribution system by overseas agricultural investment (해외농업투자에 따른 유통체계 개선방안에 관한 연구)

  • Sun, Il-Suck;Lee, Dong-Ok
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2010
  • Recently concerns have been raised due to the unbalanced supply of crops: the price of crops has been unstable and at one point the price went up so high that the word Agflation(agriculture+ inflation) was coined. Korea, in particular, is a small-sized country and needs to secure the stable supply of crops by investing in the produce importation at a national level. Investment in foreign produce importation is becoming more important as a measure for sufficient supply of crops, limited supply of domestic crops, weakened farming conditions worldwide, as well as recent changes in the use of crops due to the development of bio-fuels, influence of carbon emission on crops, the price increase in crops, and influx of foreign hot money. However, there are many problems with investing in foreign produce importation: lack of support from the government; lack of farming information and technology; difficulty in securing the capital; no immediate pay-off from the investment and insufficient management. Although foreign produce is originally more price-competitive than domestic produce, it loses its competiveness in the process of importation (due to high tariffs) and poor distribution system, which makes it difficult to sell in Korea. Therefore, investment in foreign produce importation is being questioned for feasibility; to make it possible, foreign produce must maintain the price-competitiveness. Especially, harvest of agricultural products depends on natural and geographical conditions of each country and those products have indigenous properties, so distribution system according to import and export of agricultural products should be treated more carefully than that of other industries. Distribution costs are differentiated into each item and include cost of sorting and wrapping, cost of wrapping materials, cost of domestic transport, cost of international transport and cost of clearing customs for import and export. So transporting and storing agricultural products generates considerable costs compared with other products. Also, due to upgrade of dietary life, needs for stability, taste and visible quality toward food including agricultural products are being raised and wrong way of storage causes decomposition of food and loss of freshness, making the storage more difficult than that in room temperature, so storage and transport in distribution of agricultural products needs specialty. In addition, because lack of specialty in distribution and circulation such as storage and wrapping does not solve limit factors in distance, the distribution and circulation has been limited to a form of import and export within short-distant region. Therefore, need for distribution out-sourcing which can satisfy specialty in managing distribution and circulation and it is needed to establish more effective distribution system. However, existing distribution system of agricultural products is exposed to various problems including problems in distribution channel, making distribution and strategy for distribution and those problems are as follows. First, in case of investment in overseas agricultural industry, stable supply of the products is difficult because areas of production are dispersed widely and influenced by outer factors due to including overseas distribution channels. Also, at the aspect of quality, standardization of products is difficult, distribution system is quite complicated and unreasonable due to long distribution channels according to international trade and financial and institutional support is not enough. Especially, there are quite a lot of ineffective factors including multi level distribution process, dramatic gap between production cost and customer's cost, lack of physical distribution facilities and difficulties in storage and transport due to lack of wrapping containers. Besides, because import and export of agricultural products has been manages under the company's own distribution according to transaction contract between manufacturers and exporting company, efficiency is low due to excessive investment in fixed costs and lack of specialty in dealing with agricultural products causes fall of value of products, showing the limit to lose price-competitiveness. Especially, because lack of specialty in distribution and circulation such as storage and wrapping does not solve limit factors in distance, the distribution and circulation has been limited to a form of import and export within short-distant region. Therefore, need for distribution out-sourcing which can satisfy specialty in managing distribution and circulation and it is needed to establish more effective distribution system. Second, among tangible and intangible services which promote the efficiency of the whole distribution, a function building distribution environment which includes distribution information, system for standard and inspection, distribution finance, system for diversification of risks, education and training, distribution administration and tax system is wanted. In general, such a function building distribution environment is difficult to be changed and supplement innovatively because its effect compared with investment does not appear immediately despite of its necessity. Especially, in case of distribution of agricultural products, as a function of collecting and distributing is performed individually through various channels, the importance of distribution information and standardization is getting more focus due to the problem of repetition of work and lack of specialty. Also, efficient management of distribution is quite difficult due to lack of professionals in distribution, so support to professional education is needed. Third, though effort to keep self-sufficiency ratio of staple food, rice is regarded as important at the government level, level of dependency on overseas of others crops is high. Therefore, plan for stable securing food resources aside from staple food is also necessary. Especially, governmental organizations of agricultural products distribution in Korea are production-centered and have unreasonable structure whose function at the aspect of distribution and consumption is quite insufficient. And development of new distribution channels which can deal with changes in distribution environment and they do not achieve actual results of strategy for distribution due to non-positive strategy for price distribution. That is, it implies the possibility that base for supply will become vulnerable because it does not mediate appropriate interests on total distribution channels such as manufacturers, wholesale dealers and vendors by emphasizing consumer protection excessively in the distribution of agricultural products. Therefore, this study examined fundamental concept and actual situation for our investment to overseas agriculture, drew necessities, considerations, problems, etc. of overseas agricultural investment and suggested improvements at the level of distribution for price competitiveness of agricultural products cultivated in overseas under five aspects; government's indirect support, distribution's modernization and distribution information function's strengthening, government's political support for distribution facility, transportation route, load and unloading works' improvement, price competitiveness' securing, professional manpower's cultivation by education and training, etc. Here are some suggestions for foreign produce importation. First, the government should conduct a survey on the current distribution channels and analyze the situation to establish a measure for long-term development plans. By providing each agricultural area with a guideline for planning appropriate production of crops, the government can help farmers be ready for importation, and prevent them from producing same crops all at the same time. Government can sign an MOU with the foreign government and promote the importation so that the development of agricultural resources can be stable and steady. Second, the government can establish a strategy for an effective distribution system by providing farmers and agriculture-related workers with the distribution information such as price, production, demand, market structure and location, feature of each crop, and etc. In order for such distribution system to become feasible, the government needs to reconstruct the current distribution system, designate a public organization for providing distribution information and set the criteria for level of produce quality, trade units, and package units. Third, the government should provide financial support and a policy to seek an efficient distribution channel for foreign produce to be delivered fresh: the government should expand distribution facilities (for selecting, packaging, storing, and processing) and transportation vehicles while modernizing old facilities. There should be another policy to improve the efficiency of unloading, and to lower the cost of distribution. Fourth, it is necessary to enact a new law covering exceptional cases for importing produce in order to maintain the price competitiveness; currently the high tariffs is keeping the imported produce from being distributed domestically. However, the new adjustment should be made carefully within the WTO regulations since it can create a problem from giving preferential tariffs. The government can also simplify the distribution channels in order to reduce the cost in the distribution process. Fifth, the government should educate distributors to raise the efficiency and to modernize the distribution system. It is necessary to develop human resources by educating people regarding the foreign agricultural environment, the produce quality, management skills, and by introducing some successful cases in advanced countries.

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A Stochastic Bilevel Scheduling Model for the Determination of the Load Shifting and Curtailment in Demand Response Programs

  • Rad, Ali Shayegan;Zangeneh, Ali
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.1069-1078
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    • 2018
  • Demand response (DR) programs give opportunity to consumers to manage their electricity bills. Besides, distribution system operator (DSO) is interested in using DR programs to obtain technical and economic benefits for distribution network. Since small consumers have difficulties to individually take part in the electricity market, an entity named demand response provider (DRP) has been recently defined to aggregate the DR of small consumers. However, implementing DR programs face challenges to fairly allocate benefits and payments between DRP and DSO. This paper presents a procedure for modeling the interaction between DRP and DSO based on a bilevel programming model. Both DSO and DRP behave from their own viewpoint with different objective functions. On the one hand, DRP bids the potential of DR programs, which are load shifting and load curtailment, to maximize its expected profit and on the other hand, DSO purchases electric power from either the electricity market or DRP to supply its consumers by minimizing its overall cost. In the proposed bilevel programming approach, the upper level problem represents the DRP decisions, while the lower level problem represents the DSO behavior. The obtained bilevel programming problem (BPP) is converted into a single level optimizing problem using its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions. Furthermore, point estimate method (PEM) is employed to model the uncertainties of the power demands and the electricity market prices. The efficiency of the presented model is verified through the case studies and analysis of the obtained results.

A Study on Strategies to Improve the Hospital House-staff Training Systems - In the Perspective of the Training Directors of the Hospital - (전공의 수련교육제도의 발전 방안에 관한 연구 - 수련부장의 인식도 조사결과를 기초로 -)

  • Kim, Gi-Chul;Ha, Ho-Wook;Hwang, In-Kyoung
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.120-146
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to provide the essential information in improving the graduate medical education in Korea. For the study, a survey targeting the directors of GME of nationwide teaching hospitals was performed with a questionnaire asking the questions such as the director's perception on the quality of GME, trainees' salary level, trainees' specialty selection tendency, training system and its duration. The collected data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and $x^2$-test. The results were as follows: 1. The survey were executed on 240 teaching hospitals in Korea and the response rate was 66.2% (159 hospitals replied). 2. The bigger a hospitals is the better in Quality of education. Larger hospitals tend to have better status in all items including medical specialists' experience, contents of medical curriculum, general environment for medical education and medical trainees's salary level. The result supported the general perception on the positive relationship between hospital size and Quality of GMA. 3. Providing convenience for medical trainees who prepares for the medical specialist Qualifying examination didn't affect the results of the examination. 4. The directions of GME have a perception that the trainees give positive impact on financial performance of their hospitals. This seems to be one of the reasons that hospitals try to retain as many trainees as possible. 5. The directors of GME considered medical trainees as an educate, and most of them responded positively on the need of governmental supports for the education cost and the trainee's salary. Considering above results, it seems that GME would get more social attention and the trainees' impact on hospitals operation would be increased more than before. In response to these trends, hospitals would find out the ways to lower dependency on trainees, and this change of attitude of hospitals on the GME would cause problems in operation of hospitals and GME itself. In order to prevent these problems the policy on GME should be directed in following ways. 1. The contents of Qualifying examination for specialist should be improved. 2. The curriculum of GME should be strictly followed. 3. The status of trainee in a hospital has to be defined as eductee. 4. Government has to support a half of the education cost and salary of trainee. 5. The distribution of the trainee among the hospital group have to be based on total available. 6. The financial support and welfare of trainee should be improved gradually and systematically.

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The Effect of Franchisor's On-going Support Services on Franchisee's Relationship Quality and Business Performance in the Foodservice Industry (외식 프랜차이즈 가맹본부의 사후 지원서비스가 가맹점의 관계품질과 경영성과에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Han;Lee, Yong-Ki;Han, Kyu-Chul
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.1-34
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    • 2010
  • Introduction The purpose of this research is to develop overall model which involves the effect of ongoing support services by franchisor on franchisee's relationship quality(trust, satisfaction, and commitment) and business performance(financial and non-financial performance), and to investigate the relationships among trust, satisfaction, commitment, financial and non-financial performance. This study also suggests franchise business or franchise system should be based on long-term orientation between franchisor and franchisee rather than short-term orientation, or transactional relationship, and proposes the most effective way of providing on-going support services by franchisor with franchisee thru symbiotic relationship among franchisor and franchisee Research Model and Hypothesis The research model as Figure 1 shows the variables on-going support services which affect the relationship quality between franchisor and franchisee such as trust, satisfaction, and commitment, and also analyze the effects of relationship quality on business performance including financial and non-financial performance We established 12 hypotheses to test as follows; Relationship between on-going support services and trust H1: On-going support services factors (product category & price, logistics service, promotion, information providing & problem solving capability, supervisor's support, and education & training support) have positive effect on franchisee's trust. Relationship between on-going support services and satisfaction H2: On-going support services factors (product category & price, logistics service, promotion, information providing & problem solving capability, supervisor's support, and education & training support) have positive effect on franchisee's satisfaction. Relationship between on-going support services and commitment H3: On-going support services factors (product category & price, logistics service, promotion, information providing & problem solving capability, supervisor's support, and education & training support) have positive effect on franchisee's commitment. Relationship among relationship quality: trust, satisfaction, and commitment H4: Franchisee's trust has positive effect on franchisee's satisfaction. H5: Franchisee's trust has positive effect on franchisee's commitment. H6: Franchisee's satisfaction has positive effect on franchisee's commitment. Relationship between relationship quality and business performance H7: Franchisee's trust has positive effect on franchisee's financial performance. H8: Franchisee's trust has positive effect on franchisee's non-financial performance. H9: Franchisee's satisfaction has positive effect on franchisee's financial performance. H10: Franchisee's satisfaction has positive effect on franchisee's non-financial performance. H11: Franchisee's commitment has positive effect on franchisee's financial performance. H12: Franchisee's commitment has positive effect on franchisee's non-financial performance. Method The on-going support services were defined as an organized system of continuous supporting services by franchisor for the purpose of satisfying the expectation of franchisee based on long-term orientation and classified into six constructs such as product category & price, logistics service, promotion, providing information & problem solving capability, supervisor's support, and education & training support. The six constructs were measured agreement using a 7-point Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree)as follows. The product category & price was measured by four items: menu variety, price of food material provided by franchisor, and support for developing new menu. The logistics service was measured by six items: distribution system of franchisor, return policy for provided food materials, timeliness, inventory control level of franchisor, accuracy of order, and flexibility of emergency order. The promotion was measured by five items: differentiated promotion activities, brand image of franchisor, promotion effect such as customer increase, long-term plan of promotion, and micro-marketing concept in promotion. The providing information & problem solving capability was measured by information providing of new products, information of competitors, information of cost reduction, and efforts for solving problems in franchisee's operations. The supervisor's support was measured by supervisor operations, frequency of visiting franchisee, support by data analysis, processing the suggestions by franchisee, diagnosis and solutions for the franchisee's operations, and support for increasing sales in franchisee. Finally, the of education & training support was measured by recipe training by specialist, service training for store people, systemized training program, and tax & human resources support services. Analysis and results The data were analyzed using Amos. Figure 2 and Table 1 present the result of the structural equation model. Implications The results of this research are as follows: Firstly, the factors of product category, information providing and problem solving capacity influence only franchisee's satisfaction and commitment. Secondly, logistic services and supervising factors influence only trust and satisfaction. Thirdly, continuing education and training factors influence only franchisee's trust and commitment. Fourthly, sales promotion factor influences all the relationship quality representing trust, satisfaction, and commitment. Fifthly, regarding relationship among relationship quality, trust positively influences satisfaction, however, does not directly influence commitment, but satisfaction positively affects commitment. Therefore, satisfaction plays a mediating role between trust and commitment. Sixthly, trust positively influence only financial performance, and satisfaction and commitment influence positively both financial and non-financial performance.

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Implementation of a Face Authentication Embedded System Using High-dimensional Local Binary Pattern Descriptor and Joint Bayesian Algorithm (고차원 국부이진패턴과 결합베이시안 알고리즘을 이용한 얼굴인증 임베디드 시스템 구현)

  • Kim, Dongju;Lee, Seungik;Kang, Seog Geun
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.1674-1680
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, an embedded system for face authentication, which exploits high-dimensional local binary pattern (LBP) descriptor and joint Bayesian algorithm, is proposed. We also present a feasible embedded system for the proposed algorithm implemented with a Raspberry Pi 3 model B. Computer simulation for performance evaluation of the presented face authentication algorithm is carried out using a face database of 500 persons. The face data of a person consist of 2 images, one for training and the other for test. As performance measures, we exploit score distribution and face authentication time with respect to the dimensions of principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, it is confirmed that an embedded system having a good face authentication performance can be implemented with a relatively low cost under an optimized embedded environment.

The Present Status and Future Prospect on Education of Fisheries High Schools in Japan -II. Outer Apperance and Substantiality of Education (일본(日本) 수산계(水産系) 고등학교교육(高等學校敎育)의 현황(現況)과 전망(展望) -II. 교육(敎育)의 외형(外形)과 내실성(內實性))

  • Lee, Byoung-Gee
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.109-120
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    • 1992
  • The auther reported the distribution of fisheries high schools and arrangement of curriculum in Japan in the forward report, and describes on the outer apparance and substantiality of education of fisheries high schools in Japan in the present report. 1. The rate of population to the number of fisheries high school shows 2,350 thousands in Japan, compared with 3,250 thousands in Korea. Then the rate in Korea is 1.4 times as high as that in Japan. 2. The rate of pupil to the whole regular instructors for fundamental subjects and for vocational subjects in the fisheries high schools, and also the rate to the instructors for vocational subjects show 10.4 and 16.3 in Japan, compared with 18.2 and 30.2 in Korea. Then the rate in Korea is 1.8 times as high as that in Japan. In addition to the instructors for vocational subjects. trainer and assistants for technical training-are employed in Japan compared with no such instructors or assistants in Korea. Then the rate of pupil to the whole instructing staffs in Korea is 2.4 times as high as that in Japan. 3. 81 percents of training ships in Japan are larger than 400 gross tons, which is extremely higher to that in Korea. The rate of gross tonnage of the ships to the number of trainees shows 6.2 tons in Japan compared with 1.1 tons in Korea. Also such large dimensioned training ships are newly built every other 12 years. the construction cost per 1 gross ton of such ships are said as 2.5 to 3 million yen, which corresponds to 15 to 18 million wons, and is over 3 times as much as that in Korea. 4. The basic education on the marine field is widely diffused in Japan. For an example, swimming pools are prepared not only in fisheries high schools but also in primary schools although it is rate even in fisheries high schools or colleges in Korea. 5. Almost all provinces which locate on the seashore have at least one fisheries high school and the curriculum is arranged to match the needs of local districts, then the management of school is tightly linked to the local government. 6. Entrance system is also flexible and recommended entrance system for successors of fishermen is settled. 7. Re-education of instructors for the new subjects which should be prepared to match the demands of ages are supported by local government in the aspect of time and budget. 8. The special two-year course for advanced seamen' s education is attached to some fisheries high schools and the graduates are qualified to get the third grade marine officer's or engineer's liscence.

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A Study on Factors Affecting the Acceptance of E-Learning Class Using Technology Acceptance Model (기술수용모델을 이용한 사이버강의 수용의 영향요인)

  • Chang, Chung-Moo;Kim, Tae-Ung;Lee, Won-Jun
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 2004
  • E-Learning is another way of teaching and learning. E-learning is a networked phenomenon allowing for instant revisions and distribution, and goes beyond training and instruction to the delivery of information and tools to improve performance. The benefits of e-learning are many, including cost-effectiveness, enhanced responsiveness to change, consistency, timely content, flexible accessibility, and providing customer value. The proponents of e-learning stress the importance of using communities of interest to support and enhance the learning process. They also emphasizes that people learn more effectively when they interact and are involved with other people participating in similar endeavors. Although the role of e-learning in higher education has significantly increased, the resistance to new technology by professors and lecturers in university and colleges worldwide remains high. The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of attitude and planned behavior toward e-learning class in universities. A survey methodology was used to investigate a proposed model of influence, and structural equation modeling was used to analyze the results. The hypothesized model was largely supported by this analysis, and the overall results indicate that attitude toward e-learning systems is mostly influenced by the perceived ease of use as well as the level of perceived usefulness, where both factors are influenced by years of experiences in using cyber system and the technical support level. As in other TAM related research, it can be concluded that the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness contribute to the future use of e-learning system.

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Determinants of the Ownership Structure of Franchise Systems: Theory and Evidence (프랜차이즈 시스템의 소유구조 결정요인: 이론과 증거)

  • Lim, Young-Kyun;Byun, Sook-Eun;Oh, Seung-Su
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.33-75
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    • 2011
  • The ownership structure of a franchise system is determined by the franchisor's strategic choice. A close look at the extant theories and perspectives in economics and management such as resource scarcity theory, agency theory, transaction cost analysis, and mixed ownership theory reveals that firms choose their ownership structure for the sake of economic efficiency, profit potentials, the chance of survival, and other strategic concerns. The present study, on the basis of strategic choice perspective, reviews the divergent theories of a franchise system's ownership structure and its determinants, thus providing a theoretical framework for comparing the contradictory arguments along the several critical dimensions. We also developed and tested the conflicting hypotheses regarding key determinants of ownership structure including firm's age, size, transaction-specific investments, uncertainty, and risk-sharing propensity. Using a FDD (Franchise Disclosure Document) data set of 543 Korean franchisors, we found that the years in business, the total number of employees, days of training, the inverse of the years of franchising, and the requirement of royalty payment have positive relationships with the proportion of company-owned outlets to total number of outlets. On the other hand, the proportion of company-owned outlets was found to have negative relationships with the total number of outlets and the extent of geographic dispersion of outlets, but to have no significant relationships with the initial investment required and the inverse of contract length. Based on the findings, we provide several theoretical and managerial implications for studying ownership structure of franchise systems.

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