• Title, Summary, Keyword: docosahexaenoic acid

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Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Decreases Plasma Triglycerides with Mixed Effects on the Indices of $\beta$-oxidation

  • Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1067-1072
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    • 1997
  • One known effect of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is their ability to decrease plasma triglycerides. However, identification of the specific n-3 fatty acids and the underlying mechanisms responsible for this change remains uncertain. This present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate levels of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (22 :6(n-3)) on modulating plasma triglyderides. Male CD-1 mice were maintained for 15 days on identical diets containing either docosahexahexaenoic acid ethyl ester(1.5%, w/w) or linoleic acid(18 : 2(n-6)) ethyl ester (1.5%, w/w) . Plasma triglycerides were 40% lower in the docosahexaenoic acid group than in the linoleic acid group. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity (a key regulatory enzyme for mitocondria $\beta$-oxidation) was not significantly different between the dietary groups. However, plasma acid soluble acylcarnitine levels (which increase with increasing $\beta$-oxidation )were significantly higher in the decosahexaenoic acid group. This data suggests that plasma triglyceride levels are lower in mice fed diets containing moderate levels of docosahexaenoic acid compared to linoleic acid, but this effect on plasma triglycerides is not modulated through an augmentation of mitochondrial $\beta$-oxidation.

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Effect of Culture Conditions on Characteristics of Growth and Production of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Schizochytrium mangrovei (배양조건에 따른 Schizochytrium mangrovei의 성장 및 Docosahexaenoic acid의 생산특성)

  • Jeong, U-Cheol;Choi, Byeong-Dae;Kang, Seok-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.144-153
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    • 2014
  • Both docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) have attracted increasing attention since the first epidemiological report on the importance of n-3 essential fatty acids. Lipids in microbial cells play various biological roles and, consequently, much research has been carried out on their role in cell physiology. The lipid composition of microorganisms can exhibit considerable variations depending on environment. The effects of culture conditions, temperature (15, 20, 24, 28, 32 and $36^{\circ}C$), salinity (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 psu), pH (pH5, 6, 7, 8 and 9), rotation speeds (50, 100, 150 and 200 rpm), carbon sources, nitrogen sources and C/N ratio on the production of docosahexaenoic acid, fatty-acid profiles, and acids secreted to the broth culture by the oleaginous microorganism, Schizochytrium mangrovei (KCTC 11117BP), were studied. Temperature (initially $28^{\circ}C$), salinity (20 psu), pH (pH7), rotation speeds (100 rpm), organism fatty acids, and secreted acids in the broth were varied during cultivation of S. mangrovei. At pH 7.0, S. mangrovei was able to accumulate lipids up to 40% of its biomass, with 13% (w/w) DHA content. The monosaccharides glucose and fructose, and yeast extract were suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The primary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid produced was docosahexaenoic acid.

Effect of Magnesium and Calcium on the Interconversion of ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid to Eicosapentaenoic acid and Docosahexaenoic acid ((${\alpha}$-linolenic acid가 Eicosapentaenoic acid와 Docosahexaenoic acid로 전환되는데 미치는 마그네슘과 칼슘의 영향)

  • Nam, Hyun-Keun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 1994
  • In order to investigate of the Influence of $Mg^{2+}$, $Ca^{2+}$ on ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid converted into the eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) forming in plasma lipid and in liver microsomes of rabbit, the animals were fed on the perila oil rich ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid or sardine oil rich EPA and DBA diet for 4 weeks were examined. In plasma, liver lipid, $Mg^{2+}$ was influenced on arachidonic acid(AA), EPA, DHA formative from ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid in perilla oil, but stearic acid was increased, $Ca^{2+}$ was Influenced on stearic acid increased and DHA was decreased. In phospholipid, $Mg^{2+}$, $Ca^{2+}$ was influenced on stearic acid increased and DHA was decreased in perilla oil.

A Study on the Composition of Fatty Acids of Hempseed (대마(Carnnabis sativa L.)씨의 지방산 조성에 관한 연구)

  • 고대희
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.201-206
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    • 1990
  • This investigation on the composition of fatty acids of hempseed through gas -chromatography analysis found the follwing results. Myristic acid and other ten materials were detected. And there was mainly composed of myristic acid 29.4%, Palmitoleic acid 16.2%, linoleic acid 14.9%, oleic acid 12.4%. It also showed that heptadecanoic acid 10.8%, erucic acid 0.5%, docosahexaenoic acid 0.3% and essential fatty acid were contained 11.9% between them. As stearic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid made lower cholesterol level in body, they will help prevention of senile disease with the oil d hemp seed.

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Lipid Composition of Oyster, Arkshell and Sea-mussel (굴, 피조개 및 진주담치의 지질조성에 관한 연구)

  • YOON Ho-Dong;BYUN Han-Seok;CHUN Seok-Jo;KIM Seon-Bong;PARK Yeung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.321-326
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    • 1986
  • Oyster (Crassostrea gigas), arkshell (Anadare(Scapharce) broughtonii) and sea-mussel (Mytilus edulis) were investigated as to their lipid classes. Lipid extracts from shellfishes were fractionated into neutral lipid (NL), glycolipid (GL) and phospho-lipid (PL) by column chromatography with silicic acid. The fatty acid compositions of their lipid classes and lipid fractions were determined by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipid contents of shellfishes were $3.5\%$ in the oyster, $1.4\%$ in the arkshell, $1.0\%$ in the sea-mussel. The major fatty acids of total lipids were palmitic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the oyster and the sea-mussel, palmitic acid, oleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the arkshell. The lipid composition of neutral lipid fractions in shellfishes was separated and identified as free sterol, free fatty acid, triglyceride, hydrocarbon and esterified sterol by TLC. Of these classes, triglyceride fraction was most abundant, amounting to 55.6, 77.7 and $60.4\%$ in the three samples mentioned above, respectively. The main fatty acids of glycolipid were palmitic acid, eicosaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in oyster, myristic acid, palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid in the arkshell, docosahexaenoic acid, linolenic acid and palmitic acid in the sea-mussel. The major fatty acids of phospholipid were palmitic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the oyster and sea-mussel, palmitic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and erucic acid in the arkshell.

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Effects of Cooking and Drying Methods on the Lipid Content and Neutral Lipid Composition of Shrimp (가열 및 건조방법이 새우의 지방질 함량과 중성지방질 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ku;Hawer, Woo-Derck S.;Shin, Hyo-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 1989
  • Effects of cooking and drying methods on the lipids content and neutral lipid component of shrimp, Metapenaeus joyneri, were investigated. Total lipid content of the fresh shrimp was 6.0%(dry basis), which was not changed significantly depending on the cooking and drying methods. Lipid of the fresh shrimp was composed of 36.8% of neutral lipids, 21.5% of glycolipids, and 41.7% of phospholipids. Freeze dried shrimp was substantially higher in neutral lipid contents but lower in glycolipid and phospholipid contents than hot air dried one. Main components of the neutral lipids were triglycerides, free sterols, free fatty acids and esterified sterols. Freeze dried shrimp contained higher triglycerides contents than hot air dried shrimp, whereas free fatty acids content in hot air dried shrimp was greater than that of freeze dried one due to the decomposition of triglycerides to free fatty acids during hot air drying. Major fatty acid composition of the total lipid were palmitoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and that of neutral lipid were palmitic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in fresh shrimp.

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Effects of α-Linolenic, Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids on the Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Brain Phospholipid in Rats

  • Cha, Jae-Young;Cho, Young-Su
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 1999
  • The effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids, ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid (18:3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6), on brain phospholipid content and fatty acid composition were compared in rats fed with a diet containing constant ratios of saturated fatty acid/monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-3/n-6. The dietary fat in each diet was added at the level of 10%. In each diet, n-3 PUFA comprised two-thirds of the PUFA and the remaining one-third was linoleic acid (18:2). Dietary fat containing linoleic acid as the sole source of PUFA was also given to the control group. The content of brain phospholipid in the three n-3 PUFA groups was significantly lower than that of the linoleic acid group. This reduction was greater in the EPA and DHA groups than in the ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid group. The decrease in phospholipid content in rats fed n-3 fatty acid-rich diets was largely due to the decrease in the phosphatidylethanolamine fraction. Each dietary n-3 PUFA was found to affect the fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids; the most pronounced alteration was observed in phosphatidylethanolamine fraction. Furthermore, the proportion of DHA in the phosphatidylethanolamine fraction tended to be higher in the DHA group than in other PUFA groups. In conclusion, dietary ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA can influence the phospholipid content, phospholipid subclass, and fatty acid composition in rat brain.

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Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Neurotransmission

  • Tanaka, Kazuhiro;Farooqui, Akhlaq A.;Siddiqi, Nikhat J.;Alhomida, Abdullah S.;Ong, Wei-Yi
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.152-157
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    • 2012
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the brain and a structural component of neuronal membranes. Changes in DHA content of neuronal membranes lead to functional changes in the activity of receptors and other proteins which might be associated with synaptic function. Accumulating evidence suggests the beneficial effects of dietary DHA supplementation on neurotransmission. This article reviews the beneficial effects of DHA on the brain; uptake, incorporation and release of DHA at synapses, effects of DHA on synapses, effects of DHA on neurotransmitters, DHA metabolites, and changes in DHA with age. Further studies to better understand the metabolome of DHA could result in more effective use of this molecule for treatment of neurodegenerative or neuropsychiatric diseases.

Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Culled Laying Hen (산란노계육의 지질함량 및 지방산 조성)

  • 문윤희;공양숙
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 1989
  • Culled laying hens used in this study were Arbor acres, which reared to S 35 days old on commerical formula feed for chicken. Liver, gizzard, breast and thigh muscles separated from each carcass, and total lipid was extracted and fractionated to neutral, phospho and glycolipid and then fatty acid composition were analyzed. Liver had the highest level of. total lipid, and breast tissue had the least among tissues tested. The neutral, phospho and glycolipid contents of total lipid had more thigh, breast and gizzard than other tissues, respectively. The major fatty acid in total and neutral lipid were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid. And the major fatty acid in phospholipid was palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid, and palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid in case of glycolipid. The fatty acid contents of neutral, phospho and glycolipid in total lipid had more oleic, docosahexaenoic and linoleic acid than other lipid, respectively. Contents of unsaturated fatty acid of total and neutral lipid were comparatively high in thigh, and phospho and glycolipid were high in breast and liver, respectively. Contents of Polyunsaturated fatty acids were comparatively high in phospholipids than other lipids.

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Presence of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids Content of Gull (Larus crassirostris vieillot) Eggs (괭이 갈매기(Larus crassirostris vieillot) 알의 EPA 및 DHA 함량)

  • 차재영;김성규;홍순복;최용락;조영수
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.493-495
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    • 1999
  • Eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6) acids of gull eggs were analyzed and the results are summarized as follows: 1. EPA and DHA were 2.25% and 4.35% in the total fatty acid of gull eggs. 2. Triglyceride fractions in the fatty acids had 0.56% in EPA and 1.59% DHA. 3. Diglyceride fractions contained 1.10% EPA and 1.97% DHA. 4. Phospholipid fractions had the most abundant amounts of 4.26% EPA and 8.13% DHA.

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