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The Effect of Dogmeat Eating on Sanitation and Food Waste Consumption (개고기 식용이 위생과 음식물 쓰레기 처리에 미치는 영향)

  • Ann, Yong-Geun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.124-133
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    • 2010
  • The total number of the dogs bred in Korea as of 2007 was 1,917,709, and among them, 77%, 1,476,776 dogs were edible dogs. Dogmeat has been legalized edible as food from Choseon dynasty, Daehan imperial state, Japan-occupied era till the present Korea. Dogs had been included in the article 2, Enforcement Ordinance of Processing and Disposal Rule of Livestock and Its Products until the end of Jan. 1979, but it was crossed out by the Notification No 3,005(Feb. 1 1979 effective) of the Minister of Agriculture and Marine Products, and as a result, the obligation that dogs should be slaughtered at the slaughtering ground was defunct. Thus, the arbitrarily dog slaughtering was empowered. As a matter of fact, the new law was not legalized in order to ban dogs from being slaughtered. The waste amount of slaughtered edible dogs amounts to 7,282 tons annually, and most of its waste from the arbitrarily-slaughtered dog is being illegally dumped without proper management and supervision. Edible dogs defecate 292,509 tons(calculates urine as dung) annually, but it is sanitarily disposed according to the Law of Management and Use of Livestock's Dung and Urine which took effective from Sep. 2009. Annual sales amount of edible dogs comes to 590 billion won on the basis of the shipment at breeding ground, but after passing through various level of marketing, and being processed as Gaesoju, and Boshintang, it forms 4 trillion won market when it reaches customers. The amount of food waste in Korea in 2007 came to 5,274,944 tons, and 633 billion won was spent for its disposal cost. Korean edible dogs of 1,476,776 heads consumed 1,266,705 tons, the 24% of total food waste. Edible dogs are the most effective means to convert food waste into food for man, not entailing the cost of disposal. On the other hand, pet dog culture brought about disposal cost, and the 51,188 dogs were abandoned at 2007, while 7 billion won was spent for the protection, euthanasia of them and the disposal of their dead bodies.

Embryo transfer in the dog in natural or induced estrus (자연발정견(發情犬) 및 인공발정유도견(人工發情誘導犬)에서 수정란이식(受精卵移植))

  • Kim, Yong-jun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.395-406
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    • 1994
  • To study the conditions to enhance success of embryo transfer in the dog, 20 mixed-breed bitches were used for the experiment along with 4 male dogs for mating. The bitches were paired according to synchronism of natural estrus, or the counterpart as donor or recipient was treated with gonadotropin as FSH (follicular stimulating hormone) or PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin) for induction of estrus to be synchronized with estrus of the other bitch in natural estrus. Embryo recovery was performed in two ways for comparison, either by flushing each uterine horn after ovariohysterectomy or by flushing each horn in the state of non-ovariohysterectomy. In addition, the result of pregnancy according to the embryo stage and the repeatability of the experimental animals as donor or recipient were also investigated. FSH or PMSG was administered to the bitches which had passed over 4 months from last estrus, resulting in estrus-positive in 3 dogs of 6 FSH-treated dogs (50.0%), and in 5 dogs of 9 PMSG-treated dogs (55.6%), determined by proestrus signs and vaginal smear test. Estrus-positive bitches induced with gonadotropin were used as donor or recipient resulting in one embryo-recovered bitch as donor and one offspring-delivered bitch as recipient in 5 PMSG-treated dogs, whereas no result was obtained from 3 FSH-treated dogs. The rate of embryo recovery to be compared with number of corpus luteum was 68.2% in ovariohysterectomized dogs and 55.2% in non-ovariohysterectomized dogs, respectively. The number of dogs from which embryo was collected were 4 dogs of 6 ovariohysterectomized dogs (66.7%) and 6 dogs of 7 non-ovariohysterectomized dogs (85.7%), respectively. The result of parturition was obtained from one dog of 5 estrus-induced recipients, whereas no result was obtained from 3 natural-estrus recipients. The only dog which delivered a male puppy had been transferred 3 morulae and 2 blastocysts. Of 6 repeat-used bitches in canine embryo transfer, 3 dogs showed repeatability either as donor or recipient. These results indicated that inducing estrus of a dog with gonadotropin is feasible in canine embryo transfer to be synchronized with that of a natural-estrus dog, that embryo recovery is also possible in non-hysterectomized dogs, that the estrus-induced dog is also usable as recipient to result in parturition, and that repeat-use of a bitch as donor or(and) recipient is possible in canine embryo transfer.

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Comparison of Simple Interrupted Approximating Suture with Single Layer Continuous Connell Suture in End-to-end Intestinal Anastomosis of Dogs (개의 단단장문합술에서 단순결절접합봉합과 단층연속코넬봉합의 비교)

  • 이충헌;신영규;정순옥;이채용
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.124-132
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to know whether single layer continuous connell suture is an acceptable alternative to simple interrupted approximating suture for end-to-end intestinal anastomosis in dogs. Fourteen mixed-breed dogs weighing 2 to 5 kg were allotted to group treated with simple interrupted approximating suture (Group I) and group treated with single layer continuous Connell suture (Group II), each of 7 dogs. All dogs in each suture pattern were compared with time for total operation ad suture elapsed for intestines to anastomose, clinical signs, changing of pre-and postoperative luminal size, status of feces, adhesion at anastomotic site for 14 days after operation. Time for total operation and suture time for intestinal anastomosis were none significant between Group I and Group II, although those in Group II was about 3 minutes shorter than those in Group I, respectively. Group I spent average 47.08${\pm}$11.10 minutes on total operation, 20.97${\pm}$5.54 minutes on suture time for intestinal anastomosis and Group II spent average 44.74${\pm}$7.77 minutes, 17.73${\pm}$3.05 minutes, respectively. All dogs were no special differences in vitality, vomiting, appetite between Group I and Group II for 14 days after operation. All dogs, except one dog in Group I, had showed normal vitality and appetite since 6~8 days after operation. Initial return of fecal passage showed in all dogs before 6 days after operation and thereafter most dogs showed normal feces. According to results, it was thought that all dogs with normal vitality and appetite before 8 days had showed good prognosis. There were no changes of intestinal luminal size in 2 dogs performed Group In and one dog performed Group II between at operation and 14 days after operation. Narrowing rate of intestinal lumen in Group I was average 9.3% of the normal diameter, whereas in Group II, 9.5% of normal diameter. In complications after operation, only one dog in Group I showed intestinal intussusception but the others didn't. Length of adhesion was measured between intestinal anastomotic site and omental graft. Length of adhesion in dogs performed Group II was mostly shorter than that of Group I. Adhesion with proximate intestines occurred in five dogs, which consisted of 3 dogs performed Group I and 2 dogs performed Group II. Concurrently, they had a great length of adhesion between anastomotic site and omental graft. There were no great differences between Group I and Group II about speed of operation, clinical signs, complications such as leakage and stricture. And all dogs performed intestinal anastomosis showed good clinical condition and prognosis. In conclusion, Single layer continuous Connell suture can safely perform an intestinal anastomosis and be an alternative of simple interrupted approximating suture in aspect of speed clinically.

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Age-related digestibility of nutrients depending on the moisture content in aged dogs

  • Kim, Ki Hyun;Seo, Kangmin;Cho, Hyun-Woo;Jeon, Jung-Hwan;Kim, Chan Ho;Jung, Jiyeon;Chun, Ju Lan
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.63 no.6
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    • pp.1355-1361
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    • 2021
  • Digestibility of pet food can affect the health of dog, especially of aged animals. To maintain the health of dogs in an overall good status it is necessary to provide nutritionally balanced food. For example, the digestibility of dogs was known to be decreased along aging. In addition, losing teethes is an often event in aged dogs that could induce a problem to eat a large size dry pet food. Nonetheless, few detailed information is available on the most suited feeding for aged dogs. As part of the nutritional study of food for aged dogs, in this study, we tested whether food type impacts on digestibility on adult versus senior dogs. The methodology to measure the digestibility of nutrients was chosen the index method using chromium oxide. Dogs were fed the same commercial dry or wet diets, which were supplemented with 0.5% chromium oxide. The wet food was prepared by adding twice volume of water in the dry food prior to incubated overnight (14-16 hours) at room temperature. After five days, their feces were collected up to a total weight of > 200 g which was the amount to analyze undigested nutrients in feces as 3 repeats. In the apparent total tract digestibility analysis of the experimental breed, no difference in the digestibility of crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, and energy was observed regarding the moisture content of the food. Noteworthy, the digestibility of nitrogen free extract was significantly increased in senior dogs fed dry dog food compared with adult dogs fed the same diet, whereas no difference was observed between senior and adult dogs fed wet food. The small breed dogs showed similar results to the experimental breed dogs. However, the digestibility of crude fat was additionally affected by age and food type unlike the experimental breed dogs. This finding suggests that the food moisture content affects the digestibility of nutrients in dogs with aging. Hence, it may be helpful to determine the nutrient contents in foods for senior dogs depending on the food type.

Survey on the prevalence of internal parasites from outside rearing dogs in Kyungbuk province (경북지방 야외 사육견의 내부기생충 감염실태 조사)

  • 도재철;박노찬;장성준;조광현;박인화;손재권;김수웅
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to identify the infection rate of common internal parasites according to the age and the incidence of single or mixed parasitic infections from outside rearing dog in Kyungbuk province. Fifty-one dogs in 4 dog rearing farms were examined, and fece samples of dog's were freshly collected from farm ground and rectum swabs. The results obtained from this study were summarized as follows ; 1. Out of 51 dogs examined, 9 dogs were infected with some helminths, and mean infection rate was 17.6%. 2. The frequently encountered helminths were Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis (32.3%), Toxascaris leonina(16.7%), Dipylidium caninum(8.3%) and Isospora sp(8.3%), in order. Specially the prevalence of Toxascaris leonina was relatively high in this study than other reports, and its significance was discussed. 3. The infection rate in younger dogs was higher than that of older dogs, especially that of the dogs under 6 months old was 31.3%, 6 months to 1 year old dogs was 0.8%, and over 1 year old dogs was 18.2%, respectively. 4. Single infection rates with Ancylostoma cantnum, Trichuris vulpis, Toxascaris leonina, Dipylidium caninum and Isospora sp were 11.8%. But double infection rates with the Ancylostoma caninun plus Trichuris vulpis and Toxascars leonina was 5.8%.

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Evaluation of Autoligation Technique for Castration in Small Breed Dogs

  • Kim, Jong-In;Jeong, Soon-Wuk
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2020
  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of autoligation techniques for castrating healthy male small breed dogs. Forty dogs were divided into four groups, with 10 in each group, based on maturity and the surgical technique used: 1) immature dogs aged less than 1 year, with autoligation of the spermatic cord via a scrotal approach (SAL) as the surgical technique (SAL-IM); 2) mature dogs aged 1 year or older, with the same SAL surgical technique (SAL-M); 3) immature dogs aged less than 1 year, with double ligation of the spermatic cord with an absorbable suture via a prescrotal approach (PDL) as the surgical technique (PDL-IM); and 4) mature dogs aged 1 year or older, with the same PDL surgical technique (PDL-M). The effectiveness of the surgical technique was evaluated by comparing the operating time and complications between these four groups. The significant decreases in operating times were found in SAL-IM and SAL-M compared with those of PDL-IM and PDL-M (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01). Regardless of maturity, the SAL surgical technique reduced operating time by approximately 69.5% compared with the PDL surgical technique. When the complication severities were scored, the results showed no significant differences among the four group. The autoligation technique for castration in healthy male small breed dogs is considered to be effective because the operating time consuming is less than conventional techniques.

Microfloras of otitis externa and normal external ear canals in dogs (개에서 외이도염 및 정상외이도에서 분리한 세균총에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Ki-hyang;Choi, Won-phil
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.566-574
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to examine the outbreak rate and the causative agents of otitis externa in 26 dogs (49 ears ; 23 dogs = bilateral, 3 dogs = unilateral), and the normal microfloras of external ear canal in 68 dogs(133 ears ; 65 dogs = bilateral, 3 dogs = unilateral ) in Taegu, 1997. The breed, living environment, sex, age and season distribution of otitic dogs were as follows : Dogs with erect and hairy ears(42.3%), pendulous and hairy ears(38.5%), indoor(92.3%), female(65.4%) and below one year old(38.5%) were more prevalent. According to season, otitis externa was mainly occurred between July and October. The major causative agents of canine otitis externa were Malassezia pachydermatis (32.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (26.5%) and S intermedius (16.3%). In the microorganism isolated 39 otitic ear canals, single infection was 53.8% and mixed infection was 46.2%. The normal microfloras of canine external ear canal were fungi including M pachydermatis, Aspergillus spp, Microsporum canis, Alternaria spp, Verticillium spp and Yeast, and bacteria including Staphylococcus spp(10 species including S xylosus), Bacillus spp, Corynebacterium spp, Listeria spp, Actinomyces pyogenes and Escherichia coli. No growth was 34.6%.

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Virtual computed tomographic bronchoscopy: normal bronchial anatomy in six dogs

  • Oh, Dayoung;Choi, Mincheol;Yoon, Junghee
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.113-116
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to examine normal bronchi in dogs by using virtual bronchoscopy (VB) and to evaluate the utility of VB in clinical practice. The bronchi of six dogs without tracheobronchial disease were visualized by VB. Airways from the tracheal bifurcation to the lobar bronchi were well visualized in all dogs. Segmental and subsegmental bronchi were also well identified, but the degree and number of those varied with dog size. The mean numbers of segmental and subsegmental bronchi identified in the six dogs were 41.83 and 50.17, respectively, whereas, the mean numbers in medium- and large-sized dogs were 55.00 and 82.67, respectively, and in small-sized dogs, the means were 28.67 and 17.67, respectively. Although there were size-dependent differences in VB visualization of the bronchi, it was possible to identify peripheral airways to the subsegmental bronchi level, which can rarely be accomplished via conventional bronchoscopy. VB is the noninvasive method that can be used to examine bronchial anatomy, and our results suggest that VB can be useful for evaluating bronchi, including segmental and subsegmental ones that cannot be examined routinely by conventional bronchoscopy. Thus, VB has potential as an alternative to conventional bronchoscopy in the examination of bronchi in dogs.

Diagnostic imaging of portosystemic shunts in 43 dogs (개 문맥전신순환단락의 진단영상 43례)

  • Choi, Jihye;Kim, Hyunwook;Jang, Jaeyoung;Kim, Junyoung;Yoon, Junghee
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2008
  • Portosystemic shunt (PSS) was diagnosed in 43 dogs by mesenteric portogram from January, 2002 to June 2007 in Haemaru referral animal hospital. PSS was found in various breeds including Maltese, Miniature Schnauzer and Yorkshire Terrier and there was no predisposition in gender. In laboratory parameters, mean cell volume was lower than normal value in single shunt and alanine aminotransferase was higher than normal range in multiple shunts with clinical significance. Cystic calculi were found in over 50% dogs with PSS and even in 70.8% dogs with single shunt. In 81% dogs with PSS, extrahepatic single shunt such as portocarval type and portoazygous type was identified. Extrahepatic multiple shunt and intrahepatic single shunt were observed in 4 dogs, respectively. Gradual attenuation using ameroid constrictor was applied to 35 dogs with extrahepatic single shunt and the prognosis of these dogs were good except two dogs, which showed poor prognosis because of acquired multiple PSS and renal disease unrelated with PSS, respectively.

Prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 among Jindo dogs (진돗개에서 개적혈구항원(dog erythrocyte antigen) 1 혈액형 조사)

  • Lee, Jeong-Chi
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.271-276
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 with DEA 1.1 and DEA 1.2 on 122 Jindo dogs (29 males, 93 females) from 2014 to 2015 using a monoclonal antibody card kit (blood typing card kit, Korea Animal Blood Bank Inc., South Korea). Among the tested dogs, 14.8% (18/122) were positive for the DEA 1.1 antigen and 85.2% (104/122) were positive for the DEA 1.2 antigen. The prevalence of positive types for the DEA 1.2 antigen was significantly higher than the DEA 1.1 antigen (P<0.01). The prevalence of positive types for the DEA 1.1 antigen was higher in white-haired Jindo dogs than yellow-haired dogs (P<0.05). However, there was no gender difference in the prevalence of the DEA 1.1 antigen (P=0.665). The incidence of sensitization after the first transfusion without blood group test was 12.6% and the incidence of acute hemolytic transfusion reaction after the second transfusion in the same immunized dogs was 1.6%. Therefore, the blood group test for the DEA 1 antigen should be performed for Jindo dogs to ensure safe and effective transfusion therapy and further studies remain to be conducted for other DEAs among Jindo dogs.