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A Experimental Study on the Effect of Evening primrose on Hyperlipidemia (월견초(月見草)가 고지혈증(高脂血症)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Eun-Ju;Park, Chi-Sang;Park, Chang-Gook
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.139-158
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    • 1998
  • In order to study the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Evening primrose, the changes of body weight, serum total cholesterol, serum HDL-cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum LDL-cholesterol, serum total lipid and organ weight were observed after the liquid extracts of Single-dosage Evening primrose and Double-dosage Evening primrose were administered p.o to the hypercholestemic and hypertriglyceremic rats induced by 1% cholesterol diet during 10, 20, 30 days. The result were summarized as follows ; 1. The contents of body weight compared with control group was significantly decreased in single-dosage Evening primrose group during 10, 30 days and in double-dosage Evening primrose group did not show significant value. 2. The contents of serum total cholesterol with control group tend to be decreased in single-dosage Evening primrose group, but did not show significant value. Double-dosage Evening primrose group showed significant value during 20, 30 days. 3. The contents of serum HDL-cholesterol compared with control group was significantly increased in single-dosage Evening primrose group during 10, 20, 30 days. Double-dosage Evening primrose group showed significantly value during 30 days. 4. The contents of serum triglyceride compared with control group was significantly decreased in single-dosage Evening primrose group during 10, 30 days. Double-dosage Evening primrose group showed significant value during 20 days. 5. The contents of serum LDL-cholesterol compared with control group was significantly decreased in single-dosage Evening primrose group during 10 days. Double-dosage Evening primrose group showed significant value during 10, 20, 30 days. 6. The contents of serum total lipid compared with control group was significantly decreased in single-dosage Evening primrose group during 20 days. Double-dosage Evening primrose group showed significant value during 20, 30 days. 7. The contents of liver weight compared with control group was significantly decreased in single-dosage Evening primrose group and double-dosage Evening primrose group. The contents of kidney weight compared with control group was significantly decreased in single-dosage Evening primrose group. The contents of spleen weight compared with control group was significantly decreased in single-dosage Evening primrose group and double-dosage Evening primrose group. The contents of testis weight compared with control group tend to decreased in single-dosage Evening primrose group and double-dosage Evening primrose group, put did not show a significant value. From the above results, it was thought that Evening primrose could be applied effectively to the Hyperlipidemia.

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The Experimental Study on the Effects of Dansamyeum on Hyperlipidemia (단삼음(丹蔘飮)이 고지혈증(高脂血症)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Byeung-Chul;Park, Chi-Sang;Park, Chang-Gook;Lee, Eun-Ju
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.126-134
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    • 2000
  • Objectives : In order to study effects of Dansamyeum on Hyperlipidemia which causes Hypertension, Arteriosclerosis, Cerebral vascular disease and Ischemic heart disease Methods : The changes of serum total lipid, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, body weight and organ weight were observed after the liquid extracts of Single-dosage Dansamyeum and Double-dosage Dansamyeum were administered p.o to the Hyperlipidemic rats induced by 1% cholesterol diet for 10, 20 and 30 days. Results : The body weight was significantly decreased in Double-dosage Dansamyeum group for 20 and 30 days compared with control group. The contents of total lipid were significantly decreased in Single-dosage Dansamyeum group for 20 days, but Double-dosage Dansamyeum group did not show any significant change compared with control group. The contents of total cholesterol were significantly decreased in Single-dosage Dansamyeum group for 20 days, and Double-dosage Dansamyeum group showed significant changes for 10 and 20 days compared with control group. The contents of triglyceride were significantly decreased in Single-dosage Dansamyeum group for 30 days, and Double-dosage Dansamyeum group showed significant changes for 10 days compared with control group. The contents of HDL-cholesterol were significantly increased in Single-dosage Dansamyeum group and Double-dosage Dansamyeum group for 10 days compared with control group. The contents of LDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased in Single-dosage Dansamyeum group for 10, 20 and 30 days, and Double-dosage Dansamyeum group showed significant changes for 10, 20 and 30 days compared with control group. The liver weight was significantly decreased in Single-dosage Dansamyeum group and Double-dosage Dansamyeum group compared with control group. The kidney and testis weight was significantly decreased in Single-dosage Dansamyeum group compared with control group. The spleen weight was significantly decreased in Double-dosage Dansamyeum group compared with control group. Conclusions : It was thought that Single-dosage Dansamyeum and Double-dosage Dansamyeum could be applied effectively to the Hyperlipidemia.

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A Experimental Study on the Effect of Kami-Daesihotang on Hyperlipidemia & Hypertension (대시호탕가미방(大柴胡湯加味方)이 고혈압(高血壓) 및 고지혈증(高脂血症)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Chi-Sang;Park, Chang-Gook;Han, Seung-Dong;Park, Soon-Dal
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.159-184
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    • 1998
  • The aim of the study was the experiment of the effect that Kami-Daesihotang had on the essential hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Rats were orally administered with Kami-Daesihotang for 30days and the constituent of the plasma and serum were analysed at the 10th, 20th and 30th day from the first day of experiment, respectively. The heart rate, blood pressure, plasma renin activity, plasma level of aldosterone, catecholamine, sodium and angiotensin II were measured after an oral administration of Kami-Daesihotang in SHR. In addition, serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and total lipid were measured with cholesterol-fed rats. The results were summarized as following ; 1. Single-dosage Kami-Daesihotang & double-dosage Kami-Daesihotang remarkably decreased the blood pressure in SHR. 2. Double-dosage Kami-Daesihotang were recognized as having the effect on the decreased of the pulse rate in SHR. 3. Plasma renin activity was significantly decreasd in SHR after single-dosage Kami-Daesihotang & double-dosage Kami-Daesihotang treatment. 4. Double-dosage Kami-Daesihotang considerably reduced the plasma angiotensin level in SHR. 5. Noticeable decreased of plasma norepinephrine level was showed in SHR, after single-dosage Kami-Daesihotang & double-dosage Kami-Daesihotang treatment. 6. Single-dosage Kami-Daesihotang & double-dosage Kami-Daesihotang noticeable reduced body weight in hyperlipidemia rats which had fed with 1% cholesterol. 7. Single-dosage Kami-Daesihotang & double-dosage Kami-Daesihotang had a significantly decreasing effect on serum total cholesterol in hyperlipidemia rats which had fed with 1% cholesterol. 8. Serum triglyceride level was importantly decreased in hyperlipidemia rats which had fed with 1% cholesterol, after single-dosage Kami-Daesihotang & double-dosage Kami-Daesihotang treatment. 9. Remarkable decreased of serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol level was found in hyperlipidemia rats which had fed with 1% cholesterol, after single-dosage Kami-Daesihotang & double-dosage Kami-Daesihotang treatment. 10. Double-dosage Kami-Daesihotang was showed a significantly decreasing effect on serum total lipid level in hyperlipidemia rats which had fed with 1% cholesterol. 11. Single-dosage Kami-Daesihotang noticeably reduced organ weight of liver, kidney, spleen and testis in hyperlipidemia rats which had fed with 1% cholesterol. Double-dosage Kami-Daesihotang significantly decreased organ weight of liver, kidney and spleen in hyperlipidemia rats. These Findings suggest a possible anti-hypertensive and hyperlipidemic effect of Kami-Daesihotang.

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Effects of Polyelectrolyte Dosage, Kaoline Particles and pH on Flocculation of Humic Acid by Catonic Polyelectrolytes

  • Kam, Sang-Kyu;Kim, Dae-Kyoung;Lee, Min-Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.861-870
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    • 2003
  • Using a simple continuous optical technique, coupled with measurements of zeta potential, the effects of polyelectrolyte dosage, kaoline particles and pH on flocculation of humic acid by several cationic polyelectrolytes, have been examined. The charge density of a polyelectolyte is important in determining the optimum dosage and in the removal of humic acid. The optimum dosage is less for the polyelectrolytes of higher charge density and is the same regardless of the presence of kaoline particles of different turbidity. At the dosage, the removal of humic acid is higher for the polyelectrolytes of higher charge density and the zeta potential of humic acid approaches to near zero, With increasing pH of humic acid, the optimum dosage increases and the flocculation index value obtained at the dosage decreases in the following pH 7 > pH 5 > pH 9, regardless of polyelectrolytes.

Development of Vancomycin Initial Dosage Guidelines to Achieve New Target Ranges (Vancomycin 초기 투여 용량 개선 방안)

  • Yoo, Jae-Young;Kim, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Yong-Won;Kim, Eun-Yeong;Sohn, Kie-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.221-228
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    • 2010
  • In 2009, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (AJHP) recommended that targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 10 mg/L or more because of therapeutic failure and potential risk of developing vancomycin resistance. Therefore, new dosage guidelines that could achieve to these higher target were needed. The aims of this study were to develop dosage guidelines targeting new vancomycin trough concentration and to evaluate the performance of these new guidelines. All data analysis were performed using NONMEM(R). Population pharmacokinetic model was first developed from vancomycin dosage and concentration data collected retrospectively during routine therapeutic drug monitoring in 441 patients, then new vancomycin dosage guidelines were developed by using the model to predict vancomycin trough and peak concentrations in a simulated dataset. The estimates, such as, vancomycin concentration trough level, time to achieve target level, mean error were performed to evaluate and compare difference between conventional dosage and new dosage guidelines. The proposed dosage guidelines were predicted to achieve 43.5% of vancomycin trough level within 10~20 mg/L, which is significantly higher than current guidelines (26.3%). Time to achieve target trough level was 19.4 hours in new guidelines comparing to 93.1 hours in the conventional dosage. Thus, new vancomycin dosage guidelines have been developed to achieve new target trough concentrations earlier and more consistently than conventional guidelines.

The Experimental Study on the Effect of Chungsanggyuntong-tang on Hyperlipidemia (청상견통탕(淸上甄痛湯))이 고지혈증에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Sang-Yeol;Kwon, Hyung-Su;Keum, Hyun-Soo;Kang, Seoung-Jun;Park, Chi-Sang;Park, Chang-Gook;Lee, Eun-Ju
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.409-416
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    • 2000
  • Objective : In order to study effects of Chungsanggyuntong-tang on Hyperlipidemia which causes Hypertension, Arteriosclerosis, Cerebral vascular disease and Ischemic heart disease Methods : The changes of serum total lipid, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, body weight and organ weight were observed after the liquid extracts of Single-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang and Double-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang were administered p.o to the Hyperlipidemic rats induced by 1% cholesterol diet for 10, 20 and 30 days. Results : The food consumption and the body weight were significantly decreased in both Chungsanggyuntong-tang group compared with control group, except Double-dosage 30days. The contents of total lipid were significantly decreased in Double-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang group for 20, 30 days, but Single-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang group did not show any significant change compared with control group. The contents of total cholesterol were decreased in Single-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang group and Double-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang group, but did not show any significant changes compared with control group. The contents of triglyceride were significantly decreased in Double-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang group for 10, 30 days, but Single-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang group did not show significant changes compared with control group. The contents of HDL-cholesterol were significantly increased in Single-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang group for 10 days compared with control group. The contents of LDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased in both Chungsanggyuntong-tang group for 10 and 30 days compared with control group. The liver and spleen weight were significantly increased in control group compared with normal group. The liver weight was significantly decreased in Single-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang group compared with control group. The liver, spleen and kidney weight were significantly decreased in Double-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang group compared with control group. Conclusions : It was thought that Single-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang and Double-dosage Chungsanggyuntong-tang could be applied effectively to the Hyperlipidemia.

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Assessment of Inappropriate Medication Use and Dosage in Elderly Patients (입원 노인환자의 부적절 약물사용현황 및 용량적절성 평가)

  • Hong, Yu-Rhee;Lee, Suk-Hyang
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.205-214
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    • 2010
  • This study aimed to evaluate the patterns of inappropriate medication use and inappropriate dosage in elderly patients in Korea. A retrospective study was performed for the elderly 65 years or older admitted from January 2007 to December 2007 in a medical center, Seoul, Korea. Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use in the elderly was evaluated using Beers criteria. Eighteen drugs out of Beers criteria were included in the formulary of the institute. Inappropriate dosage was set using Beers criteria, CMS (the Centers for Medicare& Medicaid Services) guideline, Geriatric Dosage Handbook. As results, the patients with PIM were 2,172 during the study period. The commonly used inappropriate medications were drugs for the nervous system (n=1237, 44.78%), the alimentary System (n=663, 24.54%) and the cardiovascular system (n=494, 18.28%). The elderly patients with prescription of inappropriate dosage were 10% out of patients with PIMs. The commonly inappropriate dosage drugs were digoxin (n=75, 27.27%), diazepam (n=70, 22.55%) and ferrous sulfate (n=66, 24.00%). Logistic regression analysis showed the number of PIM, days of hospital stay as predictors related to inappropriate dosage use. In conclusion, CNS drugs were frequently prescribed as PIM and inappropriate dosages were identified. It is needed to develop a means of decreasing adverse drug events in elderly.

Survey on the Preference for the New Dosage Form of Onchung-eum in Children (소아의 온청음(溫淸飮) 신제형 선호도 조사)

  • Cho, Won-Joon;Lee, Jae-Geun;Kim, Sang-Chan;Jee, Seon-Young;Hwang, Sun-Yi
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : Medication is important in treatment for children, but prescribing traditional herbal medicine for them is very difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preference for new and traditional dosage form of Onchung-eum. Methods : A total of 24 children who visited Oriental Medical Center of Daegu Hanny University during one month since March 2008 were included in this study. They compared new dosage form of Onchung-eum with traditional thing and evaluated items such as taste, perfume, color, sensation of chewing and texture. Results : As a whole they prefered new dosage form more than traditional thing in a sensory test. And 13(54%) children choose new dosage form as the better one. Conclusions : Considering the above results, the new dosage form might be efficacious to be taken by children. Further studies in other methods and new dosage forms are needed to make prescribing it for children easily.

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Development of Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Enhancing the Bioavailability of Atorvastatin

  • Jin, Shun-Ji;Cho, Won-Kyung;Park, Hee-Jun;Cha, Kwang-Ho;Park, Jun-Sung;Koo, Ja-Seong;Wang, Hun-Sik;Kim, Jeong-Soo;Kim, Min-Soo;Hwang, Sung-Joo
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2011
  • The objective of the study was to prepare self-microeulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) incorporating atorvastatin calcium and evaluate its properties and oral bioavailability. Solubility of atorvastatin in various vehicles was determined. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the good self-emulsification region. The droplet size distributions of the resultant emulsions were determined by dynamic light scattering measurement. The mean droplet size of chosen formulation (20% ethyl oleate, 40% tween-80, 40% Carbitol$^{(R)}$) was $23.4{\pm}1.3$ nm. The SMEDDS incorporating atorvastatin calcium appeared to be associated with better performance in dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies, compared with raw atorvastatin calcium. In dissolution test, the release percentage of atorvastatin from SMEDDS mixture could rapidly reach more than 95% within 3 min. Oral $AUC_{0{\rightarrow}8hr}$ values in SD rats was $1994{\pm}335\;ng{\cdot}hr/mL$, which significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with raw atorvastatin calcium. The SMEDDS formulation was relatively stable when stored at $4^{\circ}C$ during 3 months. Our studies illustrated the potential use of SMEDDS for the delivery of hydrophobic compounds, such as atorvastatin, by the oral route.

Optimization of coagulant dosage using response surface methodology with central composite design (반응표면분석법-중심합성계획을 이용한 최적 응집제 주입량 산정 연구)

  • Kim, Yeseul;Oh, Jeill
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.193-202
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    • 2015
  • The determining the appropriate dosage of coagulant is very important, because dosage of coagulant in the coagulation process for wastewater affects removing the amount of pollutants, cost, and producing sludge amount. Accordingly, in this study, in order to determine the optimal PAC dosage in the coagulation process, CCD (Central composite design) was used to proceed experimental design, and the quadratic regression models were constructed between independent variables (pH, influent turbidity, PAC dosage) and each response variable (Total coliform, E.coli, PSD (Particle size distribution) (< $10{\mu}m$), TP, $PO_4$-P, and $COD_{cr}$) by the RSM (Response surface methodology). Also, Considering the various response variables, the optimum PAC dosage and range were derived. As a result, in order to maximize the removal rate of total coliform and E.coli, the values of independent variables are the pH 6-7, the influent turbidity 100-200 NTU, and the PAC dosage 0.07-0.09 ml/L. For maximizing the removal rate of TP, $PO_4$-P, $COD_{cr}$, and PSD(< $10{\mu}m$), it is required for the pH 9, the influent turbidity 200-250 NTU, and the PAC dosage 0.05-0.065 ml/L. In the case of multiple independent variables, when the desirable removal rate for total coliform, E.coli, TP, and $PO_4$-P is 90-100 % and that for $COD_{cr}$ and PSD(< $10{\mu}m$) is 50-100 %, the required PAC dosage is 0.05-0.07 ml/L in the pH 9 and influent turbidity 200-250 NTU. Thus, if the influent turbidity is high, adjusting pH is more effective way in terms of cost since a small amount of PAC dosage is required.