• Title/Summary/Keyword: dry heating

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Improvement of Functional Properties of Ovotransferrin by Phosphorylation through Dry-heating in the Presence of Pyrophosphate

  • Hayashi, Yoko;Li, Can-Peng;Enomoto, Hirofumi;Ibrahim, Hisham R.;Sugimoto, Yasushi;Aoki, Takayoshi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.596-602
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    • 2008
  • Ovotransferrin (OTf) was phosphorylated by dry-heating in the presence of pyrophosphate at pH 4.0 and $85^{\circ}C$ for 1 and 5 d, and the functional properties of phosphorylated OTf (PP-OTf) were investigated. The phosphorus content of OTf increased to 0.91% as a result of phosphorylation and the electrophoretic mobility of PP-OTf also increased. Although the solubility of dry-heated OTf slightly decreased, the decrease was reduced by phosphorylation. The stability against heat-induced insolubilization of OTf was somewhat improved by phosphorylation, but more than 70% of PP-OTf was insolubilized when it was heated at $70^{\circ}C$ for 10 min at pH 7.0. However, heat-induced insolubilization of PP-OTf was reduced when it was heated in the presence of phosphorylated ovalbumin. This may explain the excellent stability of phosphorylated egg white protein against heat-induced insolubilization which was reported previously. The emulsifying property of OTf was also somewhat improved by phosphorylation. The calcium phosphate-solubilizing ability of PP-OTf was enhanced. Although the degree of phosphorylation of OTf by dry-heating in the presence of pyrophosphate was similar to that of ovalbumin, the improvement of properties of PP-OTf was considerably different from those of phosphorylated ovalbumin.

Improvement of Functional Properties of Egg White Protein through Glycation and Phosphorylation by Dry-heating

  • Enomoto, Hirofumi;Nagae, Shiho;Hayashi, Yoko;Li, Can-Peng;Ibrahim, Hisham R.;Sugimoto, Yasushi;Aoki, Takayoshi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.591-597
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    • 2009
  • Egg white protein (EWP) was glycated with maltopentaose (MP) through the Maillard reaction and subsequently phosphorylated by $85^{\circ}C$ dry-heating at pH 4.0 for 1 d in the presence of pyrophosphate. The functional properties of glycated, phosphorylated EWP were compared with those of native EWP and with EWP which was phosphorylated by dry-heating in the presence of pyrophosphate under the same conditions. The phosphorus content of EWP was increased to ~0.60% by phosphorylation, and to ~0.74% by glycation with MP and subsequent phosphorylation. The electrophoretic mobility of EWP increased through phosphorylation. The stability of EWP against heat-induced insolubility at pH 7.0 was considerably improved by phosphorylation alone and further by phosphorylation after glycation. The anti-ovalbumin antibody response was reduced significantly by glycation and phosphorylation, and further reduced by phosphorylation after glycation. The anti-ovomucoid antibody response was reduced significantly by glycation, phosphorylation and phosphorylation after glycation. The calcium phosphate-solubilizing ability of EWP was enhanced by both phosphorylation methods.

Comparative Analysis of the Optical Aging Patterns in Different Partitions of the Beeswax-Treated Volume during Dry Heating Aging at $105^{\circ}C$ (건식 인공열화 시 밀랍본 시제품의 제본부위별 광학적 특성변화 비교분석)

  • Choi, Kyoung-Hwa;Jeong, Hye-Young;Kang, Yeong-Seok;Cho, Jung-Hye
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 2011
  • Patterns and levels of aging vary between the book volume and sheets, even though both are made from the same paper materials. In case of book format, the outside is more easily affected than inner side by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and air. In this study, the change in optical properties after dry heating accelerated aging was comparatively analyzed to understand the difference of the optical aging characteristics between outside and inner side of the duplicated beeswax-treated volume. It is found that the cover pages of the beeswax-treated volumes were more optically deteriorated than their middle pages. This indicates that outer sides of aging book volume directly exposed to the air is more vulnerable to serious deterioration than inner sides. Also, aromatic compounds such as benzoic acid and cinnamic acid were observed in the investigation of UV/VIS absorbance of the beeswax in each aged sample.

Effect of Cooking Condition on the Enzymatic Digestibility of Meat Protein (육류단백질(肉類蛋白質)의 소화(消化)에 미치는 조리조건(調理條件)의 영향(影響) <식용우육(食用牛肉)과 오징어육(肉)의 소화흡수율(消化吸收率)>)

  • Choi, H.M.;Shin, K.S.;Youn, J.E.;Lee, B.W.
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.70-74
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    • 1974
  • The round muscle of Korean cattle and squid muscle were cooked with various methods which were followed digestibility test by use of pepsin in-vitro, determination of amino nitrogen in the course of digestion procedure by using Formol method (AOAC) and influence of ether treatment for preminary test also examined. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The order of digestibility values were demonstrated as follows: In case of beef, it was autoclaving, frying, raw, freezing, roasting, boiling and in case of squid muscle, it was raw, autoclaving, boiling, freezing, dry heating and roasting. 2. The amounts of amino nitrogen for beef and squid muscle were increased in proportion to digestibility value. 3. There were no significances in the digestibility between treating with ether and none of any treatment of beef and squid muscle in raw condition.

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Conservation Properties of Chalk Added Functional Lining Papers (기능성 배접지의 보존 특성 분석 -호분지-)

  • Choi, Kyoung-Hwa;Park, Ji-Hee;Seo, Jin-Ho
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.79-88
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    • 2010
  • Paper cultural heritages experience chemical and physical deterioration due to various factors including preservation environments and the property of paper materials1). Thus, it is important to develop optimal preservation and restoration methods for the damaged paper cultural heritages. Currently, lining is a popular treatment for the restoration of paper cultural heritages in Korea. Since lining paper is a layer of paper directly attached to the inside of cultural heritages for protection, understanding of the preservation properties of lining paper is primarily needed in order to devise the better preservation methods. The main material of lining paper is the paper mulberry, but additives such as chalk and white clay is sometimes used to enhance the preservation properties of lining paper. To date, the properties of the functional lining paper containing these additives have been not fully understood yet. In this study, dry heating aging at $105^{\circ}C$ and biological aging by the Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium polonicum for the lining paper, which is made from paper mulberry and the chalk, are carried out to evaluate changes in their preservation properties by these aging factors. As a result, it is found that the functional lining paper containing 25.1% of chalk can control the growth of fungi, while the paper containing 32.7% of chalk do not show any protection effect. However, the functional lining paper added by chalk is more aged than the lining paper made from paper mulberry by dry heating accelerated aging.

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Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Starch Phosphates Prepared by Dry Heating and Extrusion Process (건식법과 Extrusion 공정에 의해 제조한 인산전분의 이화학적 성질 비교)

  • Kim, Chong-Tai;Ryu, Gi-Hyung;Kim, Dong-Chul;Kim, Chul-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.651-658
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    • 1990
  • Starch phosphates were prepared by dry heating, gelatinizing method and extrusion process using sodium tripolyphosphote (STPP) as a substitution reagent and their physicochemical properities were compared. In the preparation of starch phosphate by dry heating method(DSP), the effect of reaction temperature was the most significant to the DS(Degree of substitution). In the phosphorylation reaction with gelatinized starch(GSP), the substitution ratio was increased with increasing the reaction temperature, but the increase was insignificant above $85^{\circ}C$. By extrusion with the corn starch containing 2.0% STPP at various moisture contents of 20, 25 and 30%, the DS values of extrudate(WESP) were within the range of between 0.0066 and 0.0083. The starch phosphate(DSP) products showed lowering the gelatinization temperature, increasing the clarity of the starch paste. However, WESP showed higher gelatinization temperature than that of raw starch. The starch phosphate prepared by extrusion process showed lower apparent viscosity of paste than that of the DSP at same condition. All of starch phosphates showed reducing the tendency of the paste retrogradation.

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Effect of Dry Heating on the Pasting/retrogradation and Textural Properties of Starch-soy Protein Mixture (건조가열이 전분과 콩단백질 혼합물의 호화 및 노화특성과 조직감에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ki-Jung;Lee, Su-Yong;Kim, Yong-Ro;Park, Jang-Woo;Shim, Jae-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.568-573
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    • 2004
  • Effects of dry heating and pH on pasting, thermal, and textural properties of corn starch containing soy protein isolate (SPI) were investigated. Samples were prepared by drying corn starch dispersions containing 3% SPI at $40^{\circ}C$ (unheated sample) or additionally heating dried mixtures at $130^{\circ}C$ (heated sample). Pasting properties of starch samples and textural properties of starch gels were measured using Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) and Texture Analyzer (TA), respectively. Effects of SPI addition and dry heating on retrogradation and microstructure of gel samples were investigated using DSC and SEM, respectively. Pasting viscosity of dry-heated samples was significantly higher than that of unheated samples, and at pH 8 compared to pH 6. Dry-heat treatment decreased fracture stress and strain of starch gels containing SPI. No significant effects of dry-heat treatment and pH were observed on retrogradation of starch gels. Addition of SPI retarded starch retrogradation and modified starch gel properties with increased nutritional value. Dry-heat treatment with SPI could be possible method for starch modification.

축산물의 저알레르기화 처리

  • Lee, Bu-Ung;Heo, Mun-Yeong;Jang, Un-Gi;Kim, Tae-Hwa
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources Conference
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    • pp.1-29
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    • 2004
  • 본 연구에서 저알레르기 처리 공정은 Autoclaving, 가열처리, micro wave, dry heating, 초음파, 효소, 인산염, 천연효소, 가용화, 복합처리 등의 처리 공정으로 하였다. 저 allergy처리에서 allergy가 완전히 억제되는 것은 가열처리를 한 것으로 쇄양 B(추출액+가열 3분), autoclave 처리, micro파 처리, dry heating처리, 복합처리를 했을 때이다. 또한 천연효소(키위)를 침지한 후 tolergen과 같이 3분간 가열했을 때 allergy가 억제되는 것으로 나타났다. 즉 가열처리로 인한 단백질 구조 변성으로 이러한 결과를 보인 것으로 보인다. 인산염의 경우도 어느 정도 억제가 되는 것으로 보이고 있다. 나머지 처리들은 거의 효과를 보이고 있지 않다. 천연효소와 tolergen(쇄양)을 그냥 처리했을 때에는 allergy 억제효과는 없는 것으로 나타났다. 우유의 저 allergy 처리는 효소, autoclave, micro 파, NaOH 처리, 복합처리에서 감소되는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 western blotting으로도 확인되었으며 그 억제율 %은 식육에서는 상당한 가열처리를 통하여 알레르기를 감소시킬 수 있는 것을 볼 수 있으며 또한 인산염, 가용화(NaOH처리)도 저 알레르기 효과가 있음을 알 수 있다. 키위, 쇄양 단독 처리 시 저 알레르기 효과가 없지만 약간의 가열을 통하여 알레르기가 감소됨을 알 수 있다. 우유는 효소나 autoclave 처리만이 저 allergy 효과가 각각 28%, 45%로 적게 나타났다. 모든 복합처리의 경우에서는 그 억제율이 41-96%로 높은 효과가 있음을 알 수 있다. 천연효소처리와 인산염 처리된 식육의 전자현미경적 관찰은 control과 비교시 조직의 변화가 없고 둘다 근육 단백질 구조를 분산시키는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 고기를 단계별 복합처리로 저 allergy 처리는 단계별로 점차적으로 allergy가 감소되었다. 즉 단계별로 억제가 안되는 것부터 억제되는 처리를 복합적으로 처리한 것으로 그 단계는 천연효소처리에 인산염 처리, 여기에 초음파 처리, 마지막 단계로 3분 끓이면 억제율이 68%까지 억제되었다. 이는 단일처리시 전혀 억제를 못하는 처리를 단계별로 한 단계씩 더해가면 allergy 억제효과가 나타난다고 할 수 있겠다. 초음파 처리도 역시 저 allergy 처리 공정에 이용될 수 있는데 이것은 그 처리로 인해 새로운 알러젠이 생성될 수도 있다. 또한 복합처리로 allergy를 감소시키면 연속적이고 동시적으로 하기 때문에 원가를 절감할 수 있다.

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Multifunctional Transdermal Diffusion Test System (다기능 경피 확산 테스트 시스템 설계 및 제작)

  • Gao, Mengyan;Jin, Hu;Piao, Xiang Fan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2020
  • The diffusion cell method is the main technique employed for the in vitro diffusion test of transdermal drug delivery preparations. Most existing transdermal diffusion devices use a water bath heating structure and direct current motor magnetic stirrer. However, these devices are confronted with problems, such as large volume, incompatible vertical and horizontal diffusion cells, few diffusion cell sets, and poor reliability. To overcome these deficiencies, the system adopts a dry heating method and uses a rotating magnetic field generated by the electromagnetic stirrer to drive the magnetic stirrer. Accordingly, the resulting device is characterized by a simple structure and small volume, convenient operation, compatible vertical and horizontal diffusion cells, and numerous diffusion cell sets. The reliability and practicability of the system is verified by the in vitro percutaneous permeability test of the bisoprolol patch.