• 제목, 요약, 키워드: drying

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농산물의 유동층 건조특성 연구 - 파 및 앙파의 유동층 건조특성 - (Study on the Drying Characteristics of Agricultural Products During Fluidized Bed Drying - Drying Characteristics of Green Onion and Onion During Fluidized Bed Drying -)

  • 이귀현
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.416-422
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    • 2006
  • Drying characteristics of green onion and onion during fluidized and fixed bed drying were investigated and compared. Sliced peen onion and onion were dried at drying air temperature of 45, 55, and $65^{\circ}C$. Drying air velocity during fluidized bed drying was adjusted with drying time at each drying temperature. Drying time to reach a given final moisture content was shorten in fluidized bed drying than in fixed bed drying - for drying temperature of 45, 55, and $65^{\circ}C$, the differences were 60, 60, and 50 min for green onion and 360, 180, and 60 min for onion. Drying constant (K) was greatly affected by drying method and drying temperature. Terminal velocity under fluidized bed drying was decreased exponentially for green onion and linearly (or onion with increase of drying temperature. Also, terminal velocity had linear relationship with moisture content for both green onion and onion.

A Study for the Use of Solar Energy for Agricultural Industry - Solar Drying System Using Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector and Auxiliary Heater -

  • Lee, Gwi Hyun
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The objectives of this study were to construct the solar drying system with evacuated tubular solar collector and to investigate its performance in comparison with indoor and outdoor dryings. Methods: Solar drying system was constructed with using CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) evacuated tubular solar collector. Solar drying system is mainly composed of evacuated tubular solar collector with CPC reflector, storage tank, water-to-air heat exchanger, auxiliary heater, and drying chamber. Performance test of solar drying system was conducted with drying of agricultural products such as sliced radish, potato, carrot, and oyster mushroom. Drying characteristics of agricultural products in solar drying system were compared with those of indoor and outdoor ones. Results: Solar drying system showed considerable effect on reducing the half drying time for all drying samples. However, outdoor drying was more effective than indoor drying on shortening the half drying time for all of drying samples. Solar drying system and outdoor drying for oyster mushroom showed the same half drying time. Conclusions: Oyster mushroom could be dried easily under outdoor drying until MR (Moisture Ratio) was reached to about 0.2. However, solar drying system showed great effect on drying for most samples compared with indoor and outdoor dryings, when MR was less than 0.5.

Drying characteristics and quality of red ginseng using far-infrared rays

  • Ning, Xiaofeng;Lee, Junsoo;Han, Chungsu
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.371-375
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    • 2015
  • Background: The current typical drying methods for red ginseng are sun drying and hot-air drying. The purpose of this study was to investigate drying characteristics of red ginseng by using far-infrared drying. Methods: The far-infrared drying tests on red ginseng were conducted at two drying stages: (1) high temperature for 24 h drying and (2) low temperature drying until the final moisture content was $13{\pm}0.5%$ (wet basis). The high temperature drying stage included three drying chamber temperature conditions of $60^{\circ}C$, $65^{\circ}C$, and $70^{\circ}C$. The low temperature drying stage was conducted at temperatures of $45^{\circ}C$ and $50^{\circ}C$. Drying characteristics were analyzed based on factors such as drying rate, color changes, energy consumption, and saponin content. The results were compared with those of the hot-air and sun drying methods. Results: The results revealed that increases in drying temperature caused a decrease in drying time and energy consumption for far-infrared drying. The saponin content decreased under all drying conditions after drying, the highest value (11.34 mg/g) was observed at drying conditions of $60{\sim}50^{\circ}C$. The sun drying condition showed the lowest color difference value when compared with far-infrared and hot-air drying. Conclusion: The far-infrared drying showed a faster drying rate, higher saponin content, lower color difference value, and a decrease in energy consumption than seen in hot-air drying.

Drying Characteristics of Carrot and Green Pumpkin Slices in Waste Heat Dryer

  • Lee, Gwi-Hyun
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.36-43
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: Drying characteristics of the sliced carrot and green pumpkin were investigated by using the waste heat dryer. Methods: The effects of drying temperature ($T$) and slice thickness affecting drying time were analyzed. Mathematical models for the drying curves were determined with statistical analysis of drying data. Effective diffusivity was determined for the slices of carrot and green pumpkin under various drying conditions. Results: Drying time was reduced at the drying conditions of thinner slice and higher drying temperature. Moisture ratio ($MR$) according to drying time ($t$) was well presented as an exponential function at all of drying conditions for the slices of carrot and green pumpkin with the determination coefficient ($r^2$) of >0.99. The values of effective diffusivity ($D_{ff}$) of the slices for carrot and green pumpkin were increased with increasing the drying temperature. The relationship between Ln($D_{ff}$) and $1/T$ was linear with the determination coefficient ($r^2$) of >0.97. Conclusions: Drying model was well established as an exponential function at all of drying conditions for drying samples.

고추의 건조특성(乾燥特性)과 건조모델에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) (Drying Characteristics and Drying Model of Red Pepper)

  • 조용진;고학균
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.52-63
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    • 1986
  • This study was performed to find out drying characteristics and develop drying model for the design of an efficient dryer or drying system of red peper. The basic model which describes drying phenomenon of red pepper was firstly established, and drying tests were conducted at 14-different drying conditions. In this test, the effects of drying air temperature and relative humidity on the rate of drying were undertaken. Finally, a new drying model based on these experimental results was developed to describe the drying characteristics of red pepper. The results from this study may be summarized as follows. 1. Drying constant of the basic model established from Lewis' experimental model and diffusion equation was theoretically deduced as a function of moisture content and inner-temperature of red pepper. 2. From the results of drying tests, drying air temperature was found to have the greatest effect on the rate of drying. However, the effect of temperature was small for the condition of high relative humidity, and for low temperature, the effect of relative humidity was found to be large even though the range of relative humidity was low. 3. Modified Henderson equation was found to be better than Chung equation as the EMC model for the estimation of the equilibrium moisture content of red Pepper. 4. Constant-rate drying period did not exist in the red pepper drying test. And falling-rate drying period was divided into three distinct phases. Drying rate was dependent on the moisture content, the inner-temperature of red pepper and the change of physical property due to drying. 5. Drying constant increased with decrease of free moisture content, but it decreased at the end of the drying period. Also, drying constant was dependent on the drying air temperature and relative humidity. 6. The new drying model developed in this study was found to be most suitable in describing the drying characteristics of red pepper. Therefore, it may be concluded that drying time could be accurately estimated by the new drying model.

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물참나무 판재(板材)두께와 건조(乾燥)스케쥴별 건조(乾燥) 속도(速度), 응력과(應力)과 결함(缺陷)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) (Studies on drying rate, stress and defect with board thicknesses and drying schedules of Quercus grosseserrata B1.)

  • 이상정;정희석
    • 목재공학
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.39-51
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    • 1990
  • This research was carried out to offer the basis data for development of optimum drying schedule for a domestic oak species (Quercus grosseserrata B1.) by investigating drying rate. stress, defect, and moisuture gradient with board thicknesses and drying schedules (code number T4-C2 and T3-B1). The results were obtained as follows: 1. Average drying rate and total drying time from 52.2% to 5.8% were 0.105%/hr and 486 hours for drying schedule T4-C2 and those from 62.1% to 8.3% were 0.070%/hr. and 811 hours for drying schedule T3-B1. 2. Drying rates for 28mm- and 31mm-thick boards showed similar tendency, but were significantly different from 25mm- thick board in drying schedule T4-C2 and those for 22mm-, 25mm- 28mm- and 31mm-thick boards showed similar tendency but were significantly different from 19mm- thick boards in drying schedule T3-B1. 3. The moisture gradients for drying schedule T4-C2 were steeper than those for drying schedule T3-B1 during drying period. and especially in early drying stage slow slope of moisture gradients of drying schedule T3-B1 was effective in preventing serious problem of surface checks. 4. Drying stresses were lower in drying schedule T3-B1 than in drying schedule T4-C2 during drying period. 5. Drying schedule T4-C2 was appropriate for 25mm-thick board but not for 28mm- and 31mm-thick board because of strong drying condition. Drying schedule T3-B1 was appropriate for 28mm- and 31 mm-thick board but not for 19mm-, 22mm-, and 25mm-thick board because of weak drying condition.

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생체 건조용 대형 저온진공건조기의 열적 특성에 관한 연구 (A Study on the Thermal Characteristics of the Large Low Temperature Vacuum Dryer for Biological Drying)

  • 김경근;성부용;정한식;최순열;문수범
    • 한국마린엔지니어링학회지
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.427-434
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    • 2000
  • In tradition, there have been two kinds of drying methods, which are sun drying and artificial drying. The sun drying method which has been adopted traditionally has been replaced by the hot-air drying method which is one of the most general methods of artificial drying, with its simple drying system, low initial cost of drying plant, and easy operating method. But the hot-air drying method has some defects; (1) much energy loss happens due to the discharge of hot air during the drying process, (2) control of drying rate is not easy on account of changing relative humidity of inlet air for uniform hot air temperature, (3) high temperature of foods in drying process brings about the production of low-grade drying products. Vacuum drying takes advantage of energy saving and mass production because it reduces the drying time by increasing the drying rate under low temperature condition. The aim of this paper is to develop the low temperature vacum dryer, with low initial investments and operating costs, easy operating method and trouble-free operation.

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Drying Characteristics of Agricultural Products under Different Drying Methods: A Review

  • Lee, Seung Hyun;Park, Jeong Gil;Lee, Dong Young;Kandpal, Lalit Mohan;Cho, Byoung-Kwan;Hong, Soon-jung;Jun, Soojin
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.389-395
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Drying is one of the most widely used methods for preserving agricultural products or food. The main purpose of drying agricultural products is to reduce their water content for minimizing microbial spoilage and deterioration reaction during storage. Methods: Although numerous drying methods are successfully applied to dehydrate various agricultural products with little drying time, the final quality of dried samples in terms of appearance and shape cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, based on published literature, this review was conducted to study the drying characteristics of various agricultural products when different drying methods were applied. Results: An increase in the drying power of sources-for example, increase in hot air temperature or velocity, infrared or microwave power-and the combination of drying power levels can reduce the drying time of various agricultural products. In addition, energy efficiency in drying significantly relies on the compositions of the dried samples and drying conditions. Conclusions: The drying power source is the key factor to control entire drying process of different samples and final product quality. In addition, an appropriate drying method should be selected depending on the compositions of the agricultural products.

Thin Layer Drying Model of Sorghum

  • Kim, Hong-Sik;Kim, Oui-Woung;Kim, Hoon;Lee, Hyo-Jai;Han, Jae-Woong
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.357-364
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was performed to define the drying characteristics of sorghum by developing thin layer drying equations and evaluating various grain drying equations. Thin layer drying equations lay the foundation characteristics to establish the thick layer drying equations, which can be adopted to determine the design conditions for an agricultural dryer. Methods: The drying rate of sorghum was measured under three levels of drying temperature ($40^{\circ}C$, $50^{\circ}C$, and $60^{\circ}C$) and relative humidity (30%, 40%, and 50%) to analyze the drying process and investigate the drying conditions. The drying experiment was performed until the weight of sorghum became constant. The experimental constants of four thin layer drying models were determined by developing a non-linear regression model along with the drying experiment results. Result: The half response time (moisture ratio = 0.5) of drying, which is an index of the drying rate, was increased as the drying temperature was high and relative humidity was low. When the drying temperature was $40^{\circ}C$ at a relative humidity (RH) of 50%, the maximum half response time of drying was 2.8 h. Contrastingly, the maximum half response time of drying was 1.2 h when the drying temperature was $60^{\circ}C$ at 30% RH. The coefficient of determination for the Lewis model, simplified diffusion model, Page model, and Thompson model was respectively 0.9976, 0.9977, 0.9340, and 0.9783. The Lewis model and the simplified diffusion model satisfied the drying conditions by showing the average coefficient of determination of the experimental constants and predicted values of the model as 0.9976 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.0236. Conclusion: The simplified diffusion model was the most suitable for every drying condition of drying temperature and relative humidity, and the model for the thin layer drying is expected to be useful to develop the thick layer drying model.

마늘의 열풍건조 특성 (The Convective Drying Characteristics of garlic(Allium sativum L.))

  • 정신교;강준수;최종욱
    • 한국식품저장유통학회지
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.155-161
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    • 1995
  • We examined the drying characteristics and the drying rate model equation of garlic(allium sativum L.) using computer aided convective drying. The drying chanacteristic curve of garlic divided into constant rate drying period and 2 stage of falling rate drying period. The drying rate was fairly affected by hot air temperatures during the total drying period, but air flow rates has nearly no effect on the drying rate except initial drying period. Of the several model equation, r2 values of page model equation was the highest, and the estimated drying profiles were comparatively coincided with the observed drying profiles. Page model equation was suitable to predict the drying rate and moisture content during drying of sliced garlic.

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