• Title, Summary, Keyword: drying

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Quality Change of Cinnamon Extract Prepared with Various Drying Methods (건조 방법에 따른 계피 Extract의 품질 변화)

  • 김나미;김동희
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.152-157
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    • 2000
  • In order to select the optimum drying method for the production of cinnamon extract, water extract and 70% ethanol extract of cinnamon were prepared. And then several drying method of oven drying, vacuum evaporation, spray drying and freeze drying were performed. Content of cinnamic acid, cinnamic aldehyde, eugenol, tannin and free sugar, and antioxidant activity, degree of browning, pH, color value, turbity and solubility were compared. In water extract, contents of cinnamic acid, cinnamic aldehyde, eugenol were 29.45mg/100g, 94.86mg/100g, 120.75mg/100g and decreased to 4.76%∼44.21%, 5.30%∼48.05%, 3.66%∼21.83% by oven dyring, vaccum drying, spray drying respectively, but freeze drying showed a little decrease of those components. In 70% ethanol extract, effectual components decreased to 76.05%∼88.38% and 26.86%∼78.76% by freeze drying and vacuum evaporation respectively. Antioxidant activity decreased by drying and decreasing rate in 70% ethanol extract was lower than water extract. Degree of browning increased as the drying temperature increased. Tannin and free sugars were little affected by drying temperature. Solubility decreased in oven drying and 70% ethanol extract. Overall data suggested that optimum drying methods of cinnamon extract were freeze drying in case of water extract and freeze drying and vaccum drying in case of 70% ethanol extract.

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Simulation Model for Drying Characteristics of Batch-type Tunnel Dryer (배치식 터널 건조기의 고추 건조 시뮬레이션 모델 연구)

  • 황규준;고학균;홍지향;김종순
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2000
  • In this study, experiments were performed for various drying air temperatures, air flow rates tray distance to analyze drying characteristics of batch type tunnel dryer. In comparison of tunnel drying with cabinet drying which is currently used in the farm, the results of drying simulation model of cabinet dryer was used and then the possibility of applying the drying simulation model of cabinet dryer to batch type tunnel dryer was investigated. The results showed that as the drying temperature increased, the drying rte and moisture difference in the direction of air flow increased and as the air flow rate increased, the drying rate increased and moisture differences decreased. In tunnel dryer, drying through bottom of the tray had large effect on drying rate and the effect was more significant when the drying temperature increased. As air flow rate increased, the difference of drying rates between tunnel and cabinet drying increased and drying rate of tunnel of drying was higher. The drying simulation model could estimate moisture content in tunnel more precisely by using modified effective moisture diffusion coefficient for air flow rate.

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Drying methods for municipal solid waste quality improvement in the developed and developing countries: A review

  • Tun, Maw Maw;Juchelkova, Dagmar
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.529-542
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    • 2019
  • Nowadays, drying methods for municipal solid waste quality improvement have been adopted in the developed and developing countries to valorize wastes for a renewable energy source, reduce dependency on fossil fuel and keep safer disposal at landfills. Among them, biodrying, biostabilization, thermal drying and solar drying are the most common. Drying of municipal solid waste could offer several environmental and economic benefits. Therefore, this review highlighted the drying methods for municipal solid waste quality improvement around the world and compared them based on the reduction of moisture, weight and volume of municipal solid wastes against drying temperature and time by using statistical analysis. It was observed that the drying temperature of different drying methods accounted for 115 ± 40℃ for thermal drying, 59 ± 37℃ for solar drying, 55 ± 15℃ for biodrying and 58 ± 11℃ for biostabilization. Among the drying methods, thermal drying provided the shortest drying time. The moisture reduction, weight reduction, volume reduction and heating value increase of municipal solid waste could vary with drying temperature and time. Finally, the benefits and drawbacks of different drying methods were specified, and recommendations were made for the future efficient drying.

Drying Characteristics of Garlic (마늘의 건조특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이정호;고학균
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.72-83
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to find out drying characteristics and develop drying model for the design of an efficient dryer or drying system of garlic. The basic model which describes drying phenomenon of garlic was first established. A series of drying test were conducted with two varieties of garlic(Uiseong, Namdo) at 9-different drying conditions (drying temperatures ; $40^{\circ}C$, $50^{\circ}C$, $60^{\circ}C$, relative humidities ; 20%, 35%, 50%) and statistical analysis was made to fit the data with exponential equation, approximated diffusion equation, page equation, thompson equation and wang equation, respectively. In this test, the effects of drying air temperature and relative humidity on the drying rate were undertaken. Finally, new drying model based on these experimental results was developed to describe the drying characteristics of garlic. Also, the volatile components of garlic extracts were investigated. For experiment both Uisoeng and Namdo garlic were dried by heated-air-drying, followed by ether extraction. The extracts were analysed by Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometer.

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Comparison of Dried Hot Pepper Quality and Production Efficiency by Drying Methods (건조방법에 따른 건고추의 품질특성과 생산효율 비교)

  • Jo, Myeoung Hee;Shin, Jong Hwa
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.356-362
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    • 2018
  • Hot pepper is a kind of seasoning vegetables, which is a major item in the Korean vegetable market. Since the use of hot pepper is processed into pepper powder, which is a powder form of dried hot pepper, improvement of quality and productivity of dried hot pepper is important. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to suggest proper drying method by comparing the changes of hot pepper powder ingredients considering production cost according to the drying method. As a drying method, we used sun drying and heat drying which are widely used in practice. We also compared the productivity and quality of dried hot pepper by applying a dehumidifying drying method using a dehumidifier. Drying rate of hot pepper was highest of 85.1% at heat drying. Accordingly moisture content of hot pepper powder was lowest of 13.5% at heat drying. The American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) color value, which influenced the coloring of red pepper, showed higher in heat drying and dehumidified drying treatment than the sun drying treatment. The content of capsaicinoids was higher at sun drying treatment than that of at both heat drying and dehumidified drying treatments. The content of sugar was higher at heat drying and dehumidified drying treatment where drying time was relatively short than that of sun drying treatment. Also, there was no significant difference in sugar content between the two treatments. The production cost of dried hot pepper with dehumidified drying was 9.9% more efficient than heat drying. Through this study, it was found that heat and dehumidified drying method were effective in increasing sugar content and coloring of hot pepper powder. In order to improve the capsaicinoid content of red pepper, it is considered that appropriate drying temperature and drying time should be added in the process of heat drying and dehumidified drying.

Effects of Drying Methods on Content of Active Components, Antioxidant Activity, and Color Values of Saururus chinensis Bail (건조방법에 따른 삼백초의 유효성분 함량, 항산화능 및 색도)

  • Kim, Min-Ja;Kim, In-Jae;Nam, Sang-Young;Lee, Cheol-Hee;Yun, Tae;Song, Beom-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.8-13
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate drying methods for keeping freshness and active components of aerial part of Saururus chinensis. Chopped samples were prepared using hot air drying, hot air drying + roasting, presteamed + hot air drying, freeze drying, and sun drying. Drying time was shorter $88{\sim}93%$ in hot air drying and freeze drying than in sun drying. Percentage of dry matter was higher in the order of freeze drying > sun drying > hot air drying, and moisture content in the order of sun drying > hot air drying > freeze drying. The contents of total phenolics and quercetin related substances were greater in the order of freeze drying > hot air drying > sun drying, while were decreased due to treatments before or after hot air drying. Electron donating ability (EDA) was highest in freeze drying, and showed a little difference between hot air drying and sun drying, but was increased because of treatments before or after hot air drying. In color values, the a value was lower in the order of freeze drying < hot air drying < sun drying. The contents of active components of plant parts of hot air dried were higher in the order of flower >leaf > chopped sample > stem. EDA showed similar tendency with those. The a value was lower in the order of leaf < chopped sample < flower < stem. As a result, freeze drying of chopped samples or hot air drying of leaf and flower were effective to maintain qualities of aerial part of Saururus chinensis.

A Study on the Thermal Characteristics of the Low Temperature Vacuum Dryer by Material Layers (시료 두께에 의한 저온진공건조기의 열적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 최순열;문수범
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.226-232
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    • 2002
  • In tradition, there have been two kinds of drying methods, which are sun drying and artificial drying. The sun drying method which has been adopted traditionally has been replaced by the hot-air drying method which is one of the most general methods of artificial drying, with its simple drying system, low initial cost of drying plant, and easy operating method. But the hot-air drying method has some defects ; (1)much energy loss happens due to the discharge of hot air during the drying process, (2)control of drying rate is not easy on account of changing relative humidity of inlet air for uniform hot air temperature, (3)high temperature of floods in drying process brings about the production of low-grade drying products. Also, the hot-air drying method is inducing environmental and sanitary problems which are resulting from the emission of high temperature and high humidity air, including stick on the drying progress. Vacuum drying technique, whose drying time and 7uantity of exhausting energy is about 1/3 ~1/4 of hot air drying, is very excellent in the drying efficiency. As the results, it took about 20 hours for material to reach about 18% of the final moisture content in order to store products for a long time, from about 470% of the early moisture content at the beginning of drying, and maximum drying rate comes to about $0.35 kg/m^2hr$ at about 350% of the moisture content.

Shrinkages of Prefrozen or Presteamed Wood (전처리(前處理) 목재(木材)의 수축율(收縮率) 변화(變化))

  • Kang, Ho-Yang
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.66-71
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    • 1994
  • To increase drying rate and reduce drying degradation, pretreatments such as prefreezing and presteaming have been widely used in wood industries. Presteaming lumbers prior to kiln drying is known positively to improve its permeability, to increase diffusion coefficient and to reduce discoloration, but negatively to increase collapse. Prefreezing lumbers prior to kiln drying is also known to reduce significantly its drying defects and its shrinkages. Thus it is no doubt that the pretreated lumbers shrink diversely from the untreated. In this study the shrinkage behaviors of the pretreated specimens are investigated by drying two tropical hardwoods (Apitong and Taun) in three different dying conditions: high temperature and slow drying rate (drying in a closed cylinder), high temperature and rapid drying rate (drying in an oven) and low temperature and slow drying rate(drying at room temperature). The prefrozen specimens show the least volumetric shrinkages in most drying conditions. The specimens dried in cylinders shrink most among all drying conditions. In general the pretreated specimens reached the 30 % moisture content faster than the untreated by about 30 %.

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Far-Infrared Ray Drying Characteristics of Rough Rice (I) -Thin layer drying equation- (벼의 원적외선 건조특성 (I) -박층건조방정식-)

  • Keum, D. H.;Kim, H.;Hong, S. J.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to develop thin layer drying equations fur short grain rough rice using far-infrared ray. Thin layer drying tests was conducted at four far-infrared ray temperature levels of 30, 40, 50, 60$^{\circ}C$ and two initial moisture content levels of 20.7, 26.2%(w.b.). The measured moisture ratios were fitted to Lewis and Page drying models by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Half response time of drying was affected by both drying temperature and initial moisture content at drying temperature of below 40$^{\circ}C$, but at above 40$^{\circ}C$ was mainly affected by drying temperature. Experimental constant(k) in Lewis model was a function of drying temperature, but K and N in Page model were function of drying temperature and initial moisture content. Moisture ratios predicted by two drying models agreed well with experimental values. But in the actual range of drying temperature above 30$^{\circ}C$ Page model was more suitable for predicting of drying rates.

The Characteristics of Vacuum Drying Heated by Hot Plates for the Thinned Logs and Pillars of Korean Pine (잣나무 간벌(間伐)통나무와 수심재(髓心材)의 가열판식(加熱板式) 진공건조(眞空乾燥) 특성)

  • Jung, Hee-Suk;Lee, Nam-Ho;Park, Jung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 1997
  • We investigated the characteristics of air-and vacuum-drying heated by hot plates for 8~14cm-diameter logs or 6~12cm-thick pillars of Pinus koraiensis. And we evaluated the effects of longitudinal kerf and vacuum drying heated by hot plates. The vacuum drying times from green to 10.9~18.6% MC were 15 days, and these times were one-fifth compared to the air-drying times. The longitudinal kerfing had no significant, effect on drying rates during both air-drying and vacuum drying. But drying defects such as surface checks and V-shaped cracks were effectively prevented during air-drying and vacuum drying by longitudinal kerfing. The vacuum drying was more advantageous than air-drying for preventing of surface checks, end checks and V-shaped cracks, and especially, the vacuum dried pillars with longitudinal kerf were almost free from drying defects. In accelerated weathering conditions the resin did not exude for all specimens.

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