• Title, Summary, Keyword: drying

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Low Temperature Thin Layer Drying Model of Rough Rice (벼의 저온 박층건조모델)

  • Kim H.;Keum D. H.;Kim O. W.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.495-500
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    • 2004
  • This study was performed to develop thin layer drying equations for low temperature. Thin layer drying tests of short grain rough rice were conducted at three low temperature levels of 15, 25, $35^{\circ}C$ and two relative humidity levels of 30, $50\%$, respectively. The measured moisture ratios were fitted to the selected four drying models (Page, Thompson, Simplified diffusion and Lewis model) using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The overall drying rate increased as the drying air temperature was increased and as relative humidity was decreased, but the effect of temperature increase was dominant. Half response time (Moisture ratio=0.5) of drying was affected by both drying temperature and relative humidity at drying temperature of below $25^{\circ}C$, but at $35^{\circ}C$ was mainly affected by drying temperature. The results of comparing coefficients of determination and root mean square error of moisture ratio for low drying models showed that Page model was found to fit adequately to all drying test data.

Review on the Use of Solar Energy for Grain Drying (태양열을 이용한 곡물건조에 관한 연구)

  • 금동혁;고학균;최재갑
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.64-76
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    • 1978
  • A dimensional supply of petroleum fuels and increased competition for petroleum products has made the conservation of energy in grain drying an important cost and management factor. Research on solar grain drying is directed toward utilization of a renewable energy source as an alternative to petroleum fuels for drying. There are many technical and economic problems in accepting and adopting solor energy as a new energy source for grain drying. The purpose of this study are to assess the state of the art of solar grain drying and to find out the problems by reviewing literatures available. The results obtained may be summarized as follows; 1.It may be considered that the weather conditions in October of Korea was satisfactory for the forced natural air and solar heated air drying. 2. Solar energy is considered more applicable to low-temperature, In-storage drying systems than to high-temperature, high-speed drying systems. In-storage drying systems require low levels of heat input. The costs of collector systems to provide low temperature are considerably cheaper than for high-temperature systems. 3. Tubular type collector made of polyvinyle film seems to be the most practical at this stage of development and black-painted bare-plate collectors mounted on the outside of a typical, round, low-temperature drying bin can supply an appreciable amount of the energy efficiently needed for low-temperature grain drying at a lower cost. 4. All of the grains in solar drying tests was successfully dried up to safe storaged moisture levels without significant spoilage. Drying rates with solar system were faster than natural air drying systems, and usually a little slower than similar low-temperature electric drying systems. 5. Final grain moisture levels were lower in solar tests than in natural air tests, and generally higher than in tests with continuous heated air. 6. Savings of energy by use of solar collectors ranged from 23% to 55%, compared to the natural and electric ileated air drying systems. However, total drying cost effectiteness tvas not significant. Therefore, it is desirable that solar grain dry-ing sIFstems tvhich could be suitable for multiple heating purposes on farms shouldbe developed. 7. Supplemental heat with solar radiation did little to reduce air flow requirementsbut refuced drying time and increased the p\ulcornerobability of successful drying duringdrying poriod.

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Effects of Drying Temperature on Internal Temperature, Drying Rate and Drying Defects for Japanese Larch in High-Temperature Drying (일본잎갈나무 정각재(正角材)의 고온건조(高溫乾燥) 온도(溫度)가 내부온도(內部溫度), 건조속도(乾燥速度) 및 건조결함(乾燥缺陷)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, June-Ho;Jung, Hee-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.99-107
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    • 1997
  • This study was executed to test the possibility of replacement for domestic Japanese larch(Larix leptolepis) for hardwoods and to acquire the information about the effects of drying temperature on internal temperature, moisture content and drying defects. In high-temperature drying, internal temperature increased rapidly to boiling point, immediately after that point the internal temperature rising rate was reduced. In the case of drying at temperature of $125^{\circ}C$, internal temperature could reach at boiling point in a very short time. Moisture content in high-temperature drying showed constant drying rate period and first period of falling rate drying together in 4 hours since experiment begun. There was no strong correlation between initial moisture content and final moisture content. Average drying rate at $115^{\circ}C$, $120^{\circ}C$ and $125^{\circ}C$ was 1.42%/hr, 1.88%/hr and 2.02%/hr, respectively; the case of drying temperature of $125^{\circ}C$ showed most rapid drying rate. Drying rate of $125^{\circ}C$ was so rapid that it showed more severe shrinkage, bow, collapse, end check, and internal check development than in other drying conditions. The result of this study showed the strong possibility of high-temperature drying for Japanese larch, and to dry Japanese larch optimally, dry bulb temperature should not exceed $120^{\circ}C$.

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Study on Seombody Drying (섬바디의 건조에 관한 연구)

  • 박경규
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.56-63
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    • 1976
  • An experimental work was conducted to develop an optimum operating system of various hay drying systems ; sun-drying with long hay, sun-drying after chopping, sun-drying after crushing, heated air drying after chopping using batch-type dryer and heated air drying after crushing using tunnel-type dryer. Seombody having 60 cm long and initial moisture content of approximately 79 % in wet basis was used for the experiment. The criteria selected for determining the optimum operating condition were the drying performance rate, the production cost and quality of dried matter of each drying systems. The result of this study are summarized as follows : 1. Drying characteristics of leaves of long stem hay, chopped seombody and crushed one were obtained by maintaining the oven temperature at 70 degrees centigrade. The required drying times for various samples to approximately 15% moisture content in wet basis were about 50 min .for leaves ; 160 min. for crushed hay ; 250 min. for chopped hay ; 340min. for ling hay and more than 360 min .for stems. The drying time of crushed hay was required about 50 % of that for the uncrushed long hay. Such a significant difference of drying of time between the leaf and long stem may indicate that an effective drying of seombody may not be achieved unless any kind of special process treatment for the whole hay is undertaken. 2. In each individual drying system, the following conclusions were drawn: a. After 8 days sun-drying on concrete floor under good days with average tempe\ulcornerrature at $256{\circ}C$ and relative humidity at 55% at 2 P.M., the moisture content of long hay was still above 25 5'~ and the leaf loss during drying caused by wind and rough handling was more than 50 ~G. b. It was possible to dry the chopped seombody by sun-drying down to about 10 % moisture content within 5 days, however, a stock of heat and discolouration phenomena were observed during the drying, which may be due to the increased deposit-density by chopping, resulting in lowering the quality of the dried product. c. Sun-drying for the crushed material by hay-conditioner was required about 4 days to reduce the moisture content to about 10 %, keeping the quality of dried product at good grade. o. The optimum deposit-depth of the chopped seombody in the batch-type dryer used was about 28cm with about 42kg/hr of drying performance rate. However, it was necessary to overturn the materials between the upper and lower layers in order to obtain a good quality of dried product. d. The drying performance rate by the tunnel-type drier was highest among those of drying systems tested, giving the rate of approximately 400kg/day. 3. On reviewing the individual drying system for seombody, it was possible to draw conclusion that the best system was tunnel drying with the crushed seombody as far as the performance rate was concerned. However, the methods gives the highest operational cost. The system for the lowest operational cost with good quality of dried product was the sun-drying with the crushed material. Accordingly, it may be recommended that the system of sun-drying for the crushed seombody may be the most feasible system presently applicable to farm-level operation.

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Effects of Drying Methods Based on Exhaust Cycle and Time on the Quality and Drying of Red Peppers

  • Nam, Sang Heon;Ha, Yu Shin;Kim, Tae Wook
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.101-110
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a system to optimize drying potential energy of the exhausted hot air by changing relative humidity of the air. This study modified the conventional drying method into a drying method changing exhaust cycle and time in order to control the relative humidity of the exhausted hot air during drying process. Method: A valve on the vent was controlled according to a preset time to change the exhaust cycle and time. This study analyzed the influence of the two different types of drying method on the drying characteristics, required energy, and quality of the dried peppers: conventional drying method exhausting hot air continuously and new drying method controlling exhaust cycle and time. Results: Drying characteristics based on exhaust time showed that drying time increased with exhaust time, and specific energy consumption was reduced by 28% from 18.39 MJ/kg (conventional method) to 13.24 MJ/kg when exhaust time was set to one minute. Drying characteristics based on heating time showed that drying time increased with heating time and specific energy consumption was reduced by 30% from 18.39 MJ/kg (conventional method) to 12.87 MJ/kg when exhaust time was set to 22 minutes. Drying characteristics based on exhaust cycle showed that drying time increased with exhaust cycle, and specific energy consumption was reduced by 31% from 18.39 MJ/kg (conventional method) to 12.69 MJ/kg when exhaust time was set to one minute and exhaust cycle was set to 22 minutes before drying and 40 minutes after drying. The quality of the dried red peppers showed that capsaicin, color, and sugar content were high as 34.87 mg/100g, 66.33, and 11.87%, respectively, when exhaust time was set to one minute and exhaust cycle was set to 22 minutes before drying and 40 minutes after drying. Conclusions: In order to utilize the drying potential energy of the exhausted air during drying process, the conventional drying method was modified into the drying method controlling exhaust cycle and time. The results showed that drying with exhaust cycle of one minute was more efficient in terms of drying time, required energy, and quality of the dried peppers than the one with exhaust cycle of 20~40 minutes.

Drying Characteristics of Mushroom (버섯의 건조특성(乾燥特性)에 관한 연구)

  • Shong, S.K.;Koh, H.K.;Lee, J.H.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.112-123
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    • 1994
  • At present, no appropriate drying conditions can be found for the heated-air drying of mushroom in Korea. Usually, mushroom is being dried at the temperature range of 40 to $50^{\circ}C$ until the moisture content reaches 10~13% (wb). However, drying characteristics of the mushroom should be investigated for quality improvement and efficient drying operation of the mushroom. The results of this study may be summarized as follows ; 1. The effect of air temperature on the rate of drying was greater than that of relative humidity for drying of mushroom, and the rate of drying was increased with increase in the air temperature. 2. Drying rate for Shiitake mushroom showed falling-rate period of drying without constant-rate period of drying. Drying rate for Oyster mushroom showed a short constant-rate period at the initial stage of drying process, and followed by falling-rate period of drying. 3. Exponential and App.-Diffusion models were found to describe well the drying process of Shiitake mushroom. Exponential and Thompson models for Oyster mushroom in which Thompson model was the most suitable for Oyster mushroom. 4. The equilibrium moisture content of the mushroom decreased with decrease in the air temperature and increase in the relative humidity. In room condition($20^{\circ}C$, 54% RH), the calculated values of the equilibrium moisture content showed 11.17% for Shiitake mushroom and 13.19% for Oyster mushroom, respectively.

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Determination of Boxthorn Drying conditions and using Agricultural Dryer (구기자 품질향상을 위한 적정 건조조건 구명)

  • Lee, Seung-Ki;Kim, Woong;Kim, Hoon;Lee, Hyo-Jae;Han, Jae-Woong
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to define the optimum drying conditions for Lycium chinense Miller as a useful healthy food, because recently the cultivation area and yield of this fruit are increased. The experiments of two varieties were performed at the temperature of $45^{\circ}C$, $50^{\circ}C$, $55^{\circ}C$ and $60^{\circ}C$. The drying ratio was the slowest and quality was the best at the drying temperature of $45^{\circ}C$. The drying temperature was higher, drying ratio was more faster and the quality became worse. The difference of drying ratios between the varieties was insignificant. The energy consumption per hour was the minimum at the drying temperature of $45^{\circ}C$, but the total energy consumption was the maximum for the long drying time. Also, the energy consumption at the drying temperature $50^{\circ}C$, $55^{\circ}C$ and $60^{\circ}C$ was not very different from others. Considering the drying ratio, quality and energy consumption, the drying time of 36 hours at the drying temperature of $50^{\circ}C$ was the most optimum condition.

Drying Characteristics of Oak Mushroom Using Stationary Far-infrared Dryer (정치식 원적외선 건조기를 이용한 표고버섯의 건조특성)

  • Kim, Chang-Fu;Li, He;Han, Chung-Su;Park, Jong-Soo;Lee, Hae-Cheol;Cho, Sung-Chan
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.6-12
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate the drying characteristics of oak mushroom using stationary far-infrared dryer. Drying characteristics was measured at drying air velocity 0.4 to 0.6 m/s and drying temperature 50, 60, and 70$^{\circ}C$, respectively. With high temperature of far-infrared heater and fast air velocity, the far-infrared drying rate of double air flow system was better than conventional heated-air drying as much as 39%. The value of color difference (E) of oak mushroom before and after drying was 8.95 by using heated air drying and was in the range of 3.76$\sim$6.98 by the far-infrared drying. The shrinkage rate of oak mushroom after heated air drying was higher than that of air velocity, 0.6 m/s of far-infrared drying conditions, and was lower than that of air velocity, 0.4 m/s of far-infrared drying conditions. The content of free amino acid was higher in far-infrared drying than heated air drying.

Drying Characteristics of Squids According to Far Infrared and Heated Air Drying Conditions (원적외선과 열풍 건조조건에 따른 오징어의 건조특성)

  • Kang, Tae-Hwann;Hong, Hyun-Gi;Jeon, Hong-Young;Han, Chung-Su
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2011
  • Drying characteristics of squids under two dry conditions were investigated using far infrared and heated air. Dry temperatures of 40, 50 and $60^{\circ}C$ with air speed of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.2 m/s were used for evaluating far infrared squid drying. Heated air squid drying at 40 and $50^{\circ}C$ with air speed of 0.8 m/s was used as a control treatment. The two drying were evaluated in terms of drying rate, color, TBA value, aerobic bacteria, cutting shear, penetration strength, and energy consumption. The drying rate of far infrared drying was relatively faster than that of heated air drying. The drying time of far infrared drying was reduced as the drying temperature increased. The color difference of far infrared dried squids was from 18.81 to 22.85, and heated air dried squid had the color different from 23.94 to 24.09. Far infrared dried squid had relatively smaller TBA values that indicate a level of rancidity. The aerobic bacteria of heated air dried squid increased from $970{\times}10^3$ to $40,000{\times}10^3$ CFU/g before and after drying, respectively. Far infrared dried squid had relatively smaller increase (from $970{\times}10^3$ to $40,000{\times}10^3$ CFU/g). The cutting shear and penetration strength for far infrared dried squids was relatively lower. In addition, far infrared squid drying consumed relatively less energy compared to heated air drying.

Drying Characteristics of Sea Tangle Using Combination of Microwave and Far-Infrared Dryer

  • Han, Chung-Su;Kang, Tae-Hwan;Lee, Jeong-Hyeon;Won, Jin-Ho;Cho, Byeong-Hyo;Cho, Sung-Chan
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The present study is aimed at examining the drying characteristics of sea tangle through a combination of microwave and far-infrared drying experiment and finding the optimal drying conditions. Methods: Sea tangle was cleaned and cut into fine pieces (5mm) before they were subjected to combinational drying by microwave and far-infrared ray. The amount of specimen per drying is 2 kg. The finely cut pieces of sea tangle were preheated in a microwave dryer for three different lengths of time (10, 15, and 20 min). Subsequently, they were dried using a far-infrared dryer at tow temperatures ($90^{\circ}C$ and $100^{\circ}C$) at an air velocity of 0.8 m/s until the final moisture content reduced to 10%. Results: Sea tangle dried under the condition of 20 min of preheating in the microwave dryer and drying at $100^{\circ}C$ by the far-infrared dryer. Of the drying models verified in this study, the logarithmic model showed high accuracy with the coefficient of determination $R^2>0.7825$ and RMSE<0.1095. The rehydration ratio of sea tangle was the highest (12.87 g water/g dry matter) under the condition of 15 min of preheating in the microwave dryer and drying at $100^{\circ}C$ by the far-infrared dryer. The energy consumption for the combination of microwave and far-infrared drying was the lowest (4.78 kJ/kg water) under the condition of 20 min of preheating in the microwave dryer and drying at $100^{\circ}C$ by the far-infrared dryer. Conclusions: Considering the drying time, discoloration during drying, rehydration ratio, and energy consumption for the drying of sea tangle, the optimal drying conditions for high-quality sea tangle are 15 min of preheating in a microwave dryer and drying at $100^{\circ}C$ by a far-infrared dryer.