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Effect of Sample Preparation on Predicting Chemical Composition and Fermentation Parameters in Italian ryegrass Silages by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (시료 전처리 방법이 근적외선분광법을 이용한 이탈리안 라이그라스 사일리지의 화학적 조성분 및 발효품질 평가에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyung Soo;Lee, Sang Hoon;Choi, Ki Choon;Lim, Young Chul;Kim, Jong Gun;Seo, Sung;Jo, Kyu Chea
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.257-266
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    • 2012
  • Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has become increasingly used as a rapid, accurate method of evaluating some chemical constituents in cereal and dired animal forages. Analysis of forage quality by NIRS usually involves dry grinding samples. Costs might be reduced if samples could be analyzed without drying or grinding. The objective of this study was to investigate effect of sample preparations on prediction ability of chemical composition and fermentation parameter for Italian ryegrass silages by NIRS. A population of 147 Italian ryegrass silages representing a wide range in chemical parameters were used in this investigation. Samples were scanned at 1nm intervals over the wavelength range 680-2500 nm and the optical data recorded as log 1/Reflectance (log 1/R) and scanned in oven-dried grinding and fresh ungrinding condition. The spectral data were regressed against a range of chemical parameters using partial least squares (PLS) multivariate analysis in conjunction with four spectral math treatments to reduced the effect of extraneous noise. The optimum calibrations were selected on the basis of minimizing the standard error of cross validation (SECV) and maximizing the correlation coefficient of cross validation (${R^2}_{CV}$). The results of this study show that NIRS predicted the chemical parameters with high degree of accuracy in oven-dried grinding treatment except for moisture contents. Prediction accuracy of the moisture contents was better for fresh ungrinding treatment (SECV 1.37%, $R^2$ 0.96) than for oven-dried grinding treatments (SECV 4.31%, $R^2$ 0.68). Although the statistical indexes for accuracy of the prediction were the lower in fresh ungrinding treatment, fresh treatment may be acceptable when processing is costly or when some changes in component due to the processing are expected. Results of this experiment showed the possibility of NIRS method to predict the chemical composition and fermentation parameter of Italian ryegrass silages as routine analysis method in feeding value evaluation and for farmer advice.

Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Rehmanniae radix Powder (지황 및 숙지황 분말의 품질 및 항산화 특성)

  • Oh, Hye Lim;Kim, Cho Rong;Kim, Na Yeon;Jeon, Hye Lyun;Doh, Eun Soo;Kim, Mee Ree
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.62-67
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of Rehmanniae radix (Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. var. purpurea Makino) freeze-dried powder (RRP) and Rehmanniae radix preparata powder (RRPP). Under the Hunter color system, redness was higher and lightness/yellowness lower in RRPP, compared to RRP. The reducing sugar contents of RRP and RRPP were 0.8% and 6.0%, respectively (p<0.05). The pH was lower in the RRPP (RRP: 6.71, RRPP: 4.23). The amount of catalpol amount in RRPP (47.20 mg/mL) was lower than RRP (144.90 mg/mL). RRPP contained high amounts of 5-HMF (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 47,231 mg/mL), but 5-HMF was not detected in RRP. Total phenol contents of RRP and RRPP were 2.10 mg/mL and 3.66 mg/mL, respectively. FRAP values of RRP and RRPP were 0.51 mg/mL and 1.99 mg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activities by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of RRPP were much higher than RRP. Based on these results, RRPP is a good candidate for food processing in terms for its physicochemical and antioxidative activities.

Phytochemical compounds and quality characteristics of spray-dried powders with the blanching condition and selected forming agents from pressed extracts of Ligularia fischeri leaves (블랜칭 처리 및 부형제 종류에 따른 곰취 착즙액 분무건조 분말의 phytochemical 성분 및 품질특성)

  • Kim, Jae-Won;Park, In-Kyung;Youn, Kwang-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.659-667
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    • 2013
  • This study was performed to determine the effects of the blanching condition (immersion ratio 1:15 (w/v) for 3 min at $95^{\circ}C$, and solution containing 1% sodium chloride) and selected forming agents (dextrin DE=10, dextrin DE=20, ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin; each forming agents added 5%) on the phytochemical compounds and quality characteristics of Ligularia fischeri leaves. The moisture was not affected by the forming agent. The color of a, b and chroma values were low in the blanching treatment groups and were significantly lowest with ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin (CD). The polyphenol and flavonoid contents in the blanching treatment groups were higher than those in the non-blanching-treatment group. The ascorbic acid content was higher in the non-blanching-treatment group and was significantly highest in the group treated with dextrin (DE=10) whereas the blanching treatment groups showed lower dehydroascorbic acid content than the non-blanching-treatment group. The water absorption was higher in the non-blanching-treatment group and was significantly highest in the group treated with CD. The water solubility in the blanching treatment groups treated with dextrin (DE=20) and CD was higher than that in the blanching treatment group treated with DE=10. The total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b contents were high in the blanching treatment group treated with CD, and for the total carotenoid contents, the same tendency as that seen with the chlorophyll content was observed. With regard to the particle diameter, those in the blanching treatment groups were lower than that in the non-blanching-treatment group and was significantly lowest in the blanching treatment groups treated with DE=20 and CD. The result of SEM observation showed that the spray-dried powders in blanching treatment groups treated with the DE=20 and CD forming agents had uniform particle distribution.

Establishment of Food Processing Methods for Larvae of Allomyrina dichotoma, Korean Horn Beetle (식약용으로의 장수풍뎅이 유충 전처리 방법에 대한 연구)

  • Chung, Mi Yeon;Kwon, Eun-Young;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Goo, Tae-Won;Yun, Eun-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.426-431
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    • 2013
  • With the objective of developing a functional food source, we established optimal processing conditions for the larvae of Allomyrina dichotoma, which have been used in traditional medicine to treat hepatic disorders in Korea. Without suitable processing, the larvae are difficult to consume as a food because of their disgusting taste and smell; moreover, in this form they might be a potential microbial hazard. In this study, we investigated the effect of feeding material, sterilization, and powdering after freeze-drying on the food quality of the larvae of A. dichotoma and on cytotoxicity against Raw 264.7 cells. Three to five days feeding with the sawdust from discarded oak-trees is sufficient for the breeding process. The sawdust was sterilized by vapor for five minutes. Sterilization of the larvae at a high temperature ($115^{\circ}C$ for 5 min, 0.9 $kgf/cm^2$) is necessary to eliminate pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results of the cytotoxicity assay showed no toxicity in the prepared extract from larvae of A. dichotoma. In addition, to prepare the larvae for human consumption, various feeds were used and the smell, color, and taste were evaluated. Our results suggested that larvae of A. dichotoma could be developed as food source when a suitable processing method is established.

Effect of Diet Containing Whole Wheat Bread with Capsosiphon fulvescens and Lindera obtusiloba Ethanol Extracts on Plasma Glucose and Lipid Levels in Rats (매생이와 생강나무잎 에탄올 추출물이 첨가된 통밀빵을 섭취한 랫트의 혈당과 지질수준에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Ah-Ram;Kim, Se-Wook;Chun, Su-Hyun;Nam, Mi-Hyun;Hong, Chung-Oui;Kim, Bok Hee;Kim, Tae Cheol;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2016
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of whole wheat bread with added Lindera obtusiloba (LO) and Capsosiphon fulvescens (CF) ethanol extracts on serum glucose and lipid levels in Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were divided into five groups depending on the diet administered: normal bread (NC), whole wheat bread (W), whole wheat bread with LO leaves extract (WL), whole wheat bread with CF extract (WC), and whole wheat bread with freeze-drying CF (WDC). After 4 weeks of consuming the experimental diet, the blood glucose level and hemoglobin A1c contents were found to be significantly lower in the W, WL, WC, and WDC groups than in the NC group. The high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels increased in the WL group when compared to those in the NC group and triglycerides levels decreased in all wheat groups compared to those in the NC group. These results suggest that wheat breads containing LO and CF extracts are effective for preventing hypercholesterolemia and obesity.

Meta-Analytic Approach to the Effects of Food Processing Treatment on Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Products (식품가공처리가 농산물 잔류농약에 미치는 영향에 대한 메타분석)

  • Kim, Nam Hoon;Park, Kyung Ai;Jung, So Young;Jo, Sung Ae;Kim, Yun Hee;Park, Hae Won;Lee, Jeong Mi;Lee, Sang Mi;Yu, In Sil;Jung, Kweon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.14-22
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    • 2016
  • A trial of combining and quantifying the effects of food processing on various pesticides was carried out using a meta-analysis. In this study, weighted mean response ratios and confidence intervals about the reduction of pesticide residue levels in fruits and vegetables treated with various food processing techniques were calculated using a statistical tool of meta-analysis. The weighted mean response ratios for tap water washing, peeling, blanching (boiling) and oven drying were 0.52, 0.14, 0.34 and 0.46, respectively. Among the food processing methods, peeling showed the greatest effect on the reduction of pesticide residues. Pearsons's correlation coefficient (r=0.624) between weighted mean response ratios and octanolwater partition coefficients ($logP_{ow}$) for twelve pesticides processed with tap water washing was confirmed as having a positive correlation in the range of significance level of 0.05 (p=0.03). This means that a pesticide having the higher value of $logP_{ow}$ was observed as showing a higher weighted mean response ratio. These results could be used effectively as a reference data for processing factor in risk assessment and as an information for consumers on how to reduce pesticide residues in agricultural products.

A Synthesis of LiCoO2 using the CoSO4 Recovered from Cathode Material Scrap and its Electrochemical Properties (폐 리튬 이차전지로부터 회수된 황산코발트 제조 및 이를 이용해 합성된 산화리튬코발트 양극활물질의 전기화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Mi-So;Ha, Jong-Keun;Park, Se-Bin;Ahn, Jou-Hyeon;Choi, Im-Sic;Cho, Kwon-Koo
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2014
  • The electrochemical properties using the cells assembled with the synthesized $LiCoO_2$(LCO) were evaluated in this study. The LCO was synthesized from high-purity cobalt sulfate($CoSO_4$) which is recovered from the cathode scrap in the wastes lithium ion secondary battery(LIB). The leaching process for dissolving the metallic elements from the LCO scrap was controlled by the quantities of the sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The metal precipitation to remove the impurities was controlled by the pH value using the caustic soda. And also, D2EHPA and $CYANEX^{(R)}272$ were used in the solvent extraction process in order to remove the impurities again. The high-purity $CoSO_4$ solution was recovered by the processes mentioned above. We made the 6 wt.% $CoSO_4$ solution mixed with distilled water. And the 6 wt.% $CoSO_4$ solution was mixed with oxalic acid by the stirring method and dried in oven. $LiCoO_2$ as a cathode material for LIB was formed by the calcination after the drying and synthesis with the $Li_2CO_3$ powder. We assembled the cells using the $LiCoO_2$ powders and evaluated the electrochemical properties. And then, we confirmed possibility of the recyclability about the cathode materials for LIBs.

Quality characteristics and preparing of solid starter using fungal strains for Takju (탁주용 곰팡이 고체종국 제조 및 품질 특성)

  • Baek, Chang-Ho;Baek, Seong Yeol;Mun, Ji-Young;Choi, Han-Seok;Kang, Ji-Eun;Jung, Seok-Tae;Yeo, Soo-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.797-803
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of fermentation conditions on the amylolytic and proteolytic activities of Aspergillus luchuensis strain 74-5 and Aspergillus oryzae strain 75-2, which are used in the preparation of the starter culture, for Takju (Korean traditional rice wine). The starter culture was optimized using different conditions, such as inoculum size, inoculation temperature, and incubation time. The enzyme activities under each condition were measured. In the A. luchuensis strain 74-5 starter culture, the ${\alpha}-amylase$ and glucoamylase activities increased, however the activity of acidic protease decreased as the diluent to starter culture ratio increased. In the A. oryzae 75-2 starter culture, all enzyme activities were maintained at a higher level even at 5% inoculation ratio. Higher enzyme activities were observed in the middle range of inoculation temperature (35, $40^{\circ}C$), than in the lower range (20, $30^{\circ}C$). Enzyme activity in the starter culture varied with incubation time, however it was the highest at 144 and 120 hr, respectively, for A. luchuensis strain 74-5 and A. oryzae strain 75-2. The spore count of the starter culture was approximately $2{\times}10^7$ during fermentation, out of which contamination by aerobic bacteria was about $3{\times}10^3$. The results suggested that the starter culture of each strain could be used as an inoculum for fermentation. However, we needs to conduct further research for the selection of suitable diluting agents as well as drying methods to reduce the contamination by aerobic bacteria, while retaining the enzyme activity.

Characteristics of Ammonia in Alkaline Stabilization Facility of Sludge from Sewage Treatment Plant (하수처리오니 알칼리 안정화 처리시설에서의 암모니아 발생특성)

  • Kim, Yong-Jun;Chung, David;Jeong, Mi-Jeong;Yoo, Hye-Young;Yoon, Cheol-Woo;Shin, Sun-Kyoung
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.23-33
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    • 2016
  • The characteristics of ammonia generated from alkaline stabilization facilities was investigated which are for organic sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants. The highest concentration of ammonia was found in mixing and curing process in alkaline stabilization facility and ammonia mainly showed a range of 87.78 ppm($66.62mg/m^3$) to 1,933 ppm($1,467.01mg/m^3$) by detection tube. This is presumed to occur because nitrogen oxides are converted into ammonia as the sewage sludge is mixed with lime. In some facilities, hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan were detected in relatively high concentrations, but odor materials except ammonia were not detected in most of the facilities. The concentration of ammonia caused by process was generally high in the order of "mixing > curing > output > storage > drying > input." It was found that odor compounds are removed by wet absorption using sulfuric acid and sodium hypochlorite in the 5 alkaline stabilization facilities currently in operation. Each facility was designed to meet the concentration of after-treatment emission in 1 ppm($0.76mg/m^3$), 50 ppm($37.95mg/m^3$) or 100 ppm($75.89mg/m^3$), but no facility satisfied the design standard for their emssion limit. In case of ammonia, some workplaces in alkaline stabilization facilities exceeded the exposure limits established by the Ministry of Labor. It appears that proper ventilation should be provided for the safety of workers in future. No odor compound including ammonia was found by detection tubes in the border of the facilities, but trace amounts of odor compounds are expected to exist, given the current operational status of facilities.

Quality characteristics of Nabak kimchi with freeze-dried ingredients during storage (동결건조한 원부재료를 이용하여 제조한 나박김치의 저장 중 품질 특성)

  • Cheon, Seon-Hwa;Kang, Mi-Ran;Seo, Hye-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.145-154
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the possibility of usage of freeze-dried ingredients for the preparation of Nabak kimchi. The quality characteristics of Nabak kimchi using freeze-dried ingredients (radish, kimchi cabbage, green onion, garlic and ginger) were monitored during storage at $4^{\circ}C$. The initial pH of Nabak kimchi was 5.76~5.93, however, it decreased significantly over increasing storage periods (p<0.05). The titratable acidity of Nabak kimchi increased during storage, reaching 0.43~1.08%. Among the freeze-dried samples, those treated with freeze-dried radish and minor ingredients showed lower titratable acidity than that of the control. The initial number of total aerobic and lactic acid bacteria were 5.57~6.25, and 5.52~6.24 log CFU/g, respectively. After 28 days, the population of total aerobic and lactic acid bacteria in the raw ingredients and freeze-dried minor ingredients was less than 8.0 log CFU/g, but more than 9.0 log CFU/g in other samples. Yeasts and molds in Nabak kimchi were detected up to 2~3 log CFU/g, but coliforms were not detected in all samples during storage. The score of firmness and overall acceptability in the control, raw ingredients and freeze-dried minor ingredients were significantly higher than others (p<0.05). These results indicated that freeze-dried ingredients, such as green onion, garlic, and ginger, can be used in kimchi and would delay microbial growth and extend the shelf-life of kimchi without any deduction of sensory quality.