• Title, Summary, Keyword: duckweed bioassay

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Biological activities of Fusarium isolates from soil and plants (토양 및 식물체로부터 분리한 Fusarium속 균주들의 생물활성)

  • Park, Joong-Hyeop;Choi, Gyung-Ja;Kim, Heung-Tae;Hong, Kyung-Sik;Song, Cheol;Kim, Jin-Seog;Kim, Jeong-Gyu;Cho, Kwang-Yun;Kim, Jin-Cheol
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2000
  • In order to select potent bioactive isolates, 70 Fusarium isolates obtained from soil and 21 plant species were screened by antifungal, insecticidal, herbicidal, and duckweed bioassays after culturing in potato dextrose broth and rice solid media. Eight (11.4%) of the 70 liquid broth cultures showed disease-controlling activities more than 80% against at least one of the 6 plant diseases tested. Fusarium sp. FO-68 isolate exhibited the most potent antifungal activity; it controlled rice blast, wheat leaf rust, and barley powdery mildew with control values more than 95%. Out of 70 solid cultures, 21 (30.0%) controlled at least one plant disease more than 80% and F. equiseti FO-68 isolate showed disease-controlling activities more than 95% against 3 plant diseases such as rice blast, tomato late blight, and wheat leaf rust. As for tile insecticidal activities, 2 liquid and 1 solid cultures showed potent insecticidal activities against pest insects more than 80%, Liquid cultures of F. oxysporum FO-61 and Fusarium sp. FO-80 isolates exhibited insecticidal activities more than 80% against green peach aphid and diamondback moth, respectively. The solid culture of Fusarium sp. FO-510 isolate had 80% insecticidal activity against green peach aphid. However, none of liquid and solid cultures of the 70 Fusarium isolates showed potent herbicidal activities against 10 upland weeds. As the results of duckweed assay, 3 liquid cultures showed 70% growth inhibitory activity at concentrations less than 1.25% of culture supernatants and 9 solid cultures had a potent inhibitory activity against duckweed growth. On the other hand, there was a significant correlation between antifungal activities and herbicidal activities against duckweed of both liquid and solid cultures of tile 70 Fusarium isolates.

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Phytotoxicity of Endophytic Fungi and Characterization of a Phytotoxin Isolated from Gliocladium catenulatum from Pinus densiflora (식물내생곰팡이의 제초활성 검정 및 소나무에서 분리한 Gliocladium catenulatum이 생산하는 제초활성 물질의 특성 규명)

  • Choi, Gyung-Ja;Park, Joong-Hyeop;Kim, Heung-Tae;Lee, Seon-Woo;Choi, Jung-Sup;Hong, Kyung-Sik;Cho, Kwang-Yun;Kim, Jin-Cheol
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to discover new phytotoxins which may be used as lead molecules for the development of new herbicides. A total of 187 endophytic fungi were isolated from 11 plant species, which were collected from 8 locations in Korea. Their herbicidal activities were screened in vivo by herbicidal and duckweed bioassays after they were cultured in potato dextrose broth and rice solid media. Both fermentation broth and solid culture extract of Gliocladium catenulatum F0006 isolated from red pine (Pinus densiflora) showed 70% herbicidal activity only against cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) out of the 10 weeds tested. Solid culture extract of F0034 isolated from arrowroot (Pueraria thunbergiana) exhibited 20 to 100% herbicidal activities against all of the weeds. Especially, shattercane (Sorghum bicolor), barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), and fall pauicum (Panicum dichtomiflorum) were sensitive to the solid culture extract of F0034. In addition, solid culture extract of F0043 isolated from red pine displayed 20% to 70% herbicidal activities only against 5 grass species, but not against 5 broad-leaf plant species. On the other hand, as the results of duckweed assay, 8 fermentation broths showed 100% growth inhibitory activity at concentrations less than 5.0% of culture supernatants and 12 solid cultures had a potent inhibitory activity against duckweed growth. A toxic metabolite was purified from the solid cultures of G. catenulatum F0006 by repeated column chromatography and bioassay. It caused a phytotoxic syndrome only on cocklebur out of the 10 weeds tested; it completely killed cocklebur seedlings at $500\;{\mu}g/ml$ and showed 85% herbicidal activity against cocklebur at $100\;{\mu}g/ml$. The molecular weight of the toxic metabolite is 238 daltons and its structure determination is underway.