• Title, Summary, Keyword: early dose prediction

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Prediction of Non-Genotoxic Carcinogenicity Based on Genetic Profiles of Short Term Exposure Assays

  • Perez, Luis Orlando;Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando;Garcia, Pilar Peral
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.289-300
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    • 2016
  • Non-genotoxic carcinogens are substances that induce tumorigenesis by non-mutagenic mechanisms and long term rodent bioassays are required to identify them. Recent studies have shown that transcription profiling can be applied to develop early identifiers for long term phenotypes. In this study, we used rat liver expression profiles from the NTP (National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, USA) DrugMatrix Database to construct a gene classifier that can distinguish between non-genotoxic carcinogens and other chemicals. The model was based on short term exposure assays (3 days) and the training was limited to oxidative stressors, peroxisome proliferators and hormone modulators. Validation of the predictor was performed on independent toxicogenomic data (TG-GATEs, Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System, Osaka, Japan). To build our model we performed Random Forests together with a recursive elimination algorithm (VarSelRF). Gene set enrichment analysis was employed for functional interpretation. A total of 770 microarrays comprising 96 different compounds were analyzed and a predictor of 54 genes was built. Prediction accuracy was 0.85 in the training set, 0.87 in the test set and increased with increasing concentration in the validation set: 0.6 at low dose, 0.7 at medium doses and 0.81 at high doses. Pathway analysis revealed gene prominence of cellular respiration, energy production and lipoprotein metabolism. The biggest target of toxicogenomics is accurately predict the toxicity of unknown drugs. In this analysis, we presented a classifier that can predict non-genotoxic carcinogenicity by using short term exposure assays. In this approach, dose level is critical when evaluating chemicals at early time points.

Mouse model system based on apoptosis induction to crypt cells after exposure to ionizing radiation (방사선에 전신 조사된 마우스 음와 세포의 아포토시스 유도를 이용한 생물학적 선량 측정 모델 개발 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.571-578
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    • 2001
  • To evaluate if the apoptotic fragment assay could be used to estimate the dose prediction after radiation exposure, we examined apoptotic mouse crypt cells per 1,000 cells after whole body $^{60}Co$ $\gamma$-rays and 50MeV ($p{\rightarrow}Be^+$) cyclotron fast neutron irradiation in the range of 0.25 to 1 Gy, respectively. The incidence of apoptotic cell death rose steeply at very low doses up to 1 Gy, and radiation at all doses tigger rapid changes in crypt cells in stem cell region. These data suggest that apoptosis may play an important role in homeostasis of damaged radiosensitive target organ by removing damaged cells. The curve of dose-effect relationship for the data of apoptotic fragments was obtained by the linear-quadratic model $y=0.18+(9.728{\pm}0.887)D+(-4.727{\pm}1.033)D^2$ ($r^2=0.984$) after $\gamma$-rays irradiation, while $y=0.18+(5.125{\pm}0.601)D+(-2.652{\pm}0.7000)D^2$ ($r^2=0.970$) after neutrons in mice. The dose-response curves were linear-quadratic, and a significant dose-response relationship was found between the frequency of apoptotic cell and dose. These data show a trend towards increase of the numbers of apoptotic crypt cells with increasing dose. Both the time course and the radiation dose-response curve for high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation modalities were similar. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value for crypt cells was 2.072. In addition, there were significant peaks on apoptosis induction at 4 and 6h after irradiation, and the morpholoigcal findings of the irradiated groups were typical apoptotic fragments in crypt cells that were hardly observed in the control group. Thus, apoptosis in crypt cells could be a useful in vivo model for studying radio-protective drug sensitivity or screening test, microdosimetric indicator and radiation-induced target organ injury. Since the apoptotic fragment assay is simple, rapid and reproducible in the range of 0.25 to 1 Gy, it will also be a good tool for evaluating the dose response of radiation-induced organ damage in vivo and provide a potentially valuable biodosimetry for the early dose prediction after accidental exposure.

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Mechanistic ligand-receptor interaction model: operational model of agonism

  • Kim, Hyungsub;Lim, Hyeong-Seok
    • Translational and Clinical Pharmacology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.115-117
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    • 2018
  • This tutorial explains the basic principles of mechanistic ligand-receptor interaction model, which is an operational model of agonism. A growing number of agonist drugs, especially immune oncology drugs, is currently being developed. In this tutorial, time-dependent ordinary differential equation for simple $E_{max}$ operational model of agonism was derived step by step. The differential equation could be applied in a pharmacodynamic modeling software, such as NONMEM, for use in non-steady state experiments, in which experimental data are generated while the interaction between ligand and receptor changes over time. Making the most of the non-steady state experimental data would simplify the experimental processes, and furthermore allow us to identify more detailed kinetics of a potential drug. The operational model of agonism could be useful to predict the optimal dose for agonistic drugs from in vitro and in vivo animal pharmacology experiments at the very early phase of drug development.

Dose-Rate Effects Generated from Repair and Regeneration (재생과 증식에 기인하는 선량률 효과)

  • Yi Pon Nyong;Cho Kwan Ho;Marks Richard D.;Kim Jae Ho
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.171-183
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    • 1989
  • A general effect for cell proliferation has been incorporated into Roesch's survival equation (Accumulation Model). From this an isoeffect formula for the low dose-rate regimen is obtained. The prediction for total doses equivalent to 60Gy delivered at the constant dose-rate over 7 days agrees well with the dose-time data of Paterson and of Green, when the parameter ratio A/B (${\approx}{\alpha{\mu}}/2{\beta}\;where\;{\mu}$ is the repair rate) is chosen to be 0.7Gy/h. When a constant proliferation rate and known facts of division delay are assumed, an isoeffect relation between low dose-rate treatment and acute dose-rate treatment can be derived. This formula in the regimens where proliferation is negligible predicts exactly the data of Ellis that 8 fractions of 5 Gy/day for 7 days are equivalent to continuously applied 60Gy over 7days, provided the A/B ratio is 0.7 Gy/h and the $\alpha/\beta$ ratio is 4Gy. Overall agreement between the clinical data and the predictions made by the formula at the above parameter values suggests that the biologcal end points used as the tolerance level in the studies by Paterson, Green, and Ellis all agree and they are not entirely the early effects as generally assumed. The absence of dose-rate effects observed in the mouse KHT sarcoma can better be explained in terms of a large value for the A/B ratio. Similarly, the same total dose used independently of the dose-rate to treat head and neck tumors by Pierquin can be justified.

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Dose-response Relationship between Serum Metabolomics and the Risk of Stroke (혈청 대사체와 뇌졸중 발생위험의 용량반응 분석)

  • Jee, Yon Ho;Jung, Keum Ji;Lim, Youn-Hee;Lee, Yeseung;Park, Youngja;Jee, Sun Ha
    • Journal of health informatics and statistics
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    • pp.318-323
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: Except the known risk factors for stroke, few studies have identified novel metabolic markers that could effectively detect stroke at an early stage. In this study, we explored the dose-response relationship between serum metabolites and the incidence of stroke. Methods: We studied 213 adults in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) biobank and estimated dose-response relationship between serum metabolites and stroke (42 cases and 171 controls). Three serum metabolites (Acetylcholine, HexadecylAcetylGlycerol, and 1-acetyl-2-formyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) were used in this study. The analysis included (1) exploratory nonlinear analysis, (2) estimation of flexion points and slopes at below and above the points. In the model to estimate risk of incidence of stroke, we controlled for conventional risk factors such as age, sex, systolic blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, triglyceride, and smoking status. Results: The relationship between incidence of stroke and log-transformed 1-acetyl-2-formyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was non-linear with flexion point around intensity score of 8.8, whereas other metabolites, log-transformed Acetylcholine and HexadecylAcetylGlycerol, showed negative linear patterns. Conclusions: The study suggests that metabolic markers are associated with incidence of stroke, particularly, at or above the flexion point. The study result may contribute to developing a novel system for precise stroke prediction.

Novel Application of Quantitative Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography to Predict Early Response to Methimazole in Graves' Disease

  • Kim, Hyun Joo;Bang, Ji-In;Kim, Ji-Young;Moon, Jae Hoon;So, Young;Lee, Won Woo
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.543-550
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Since Graves' disease (GD) is resistant to antithyroid drugs (ATDs), an accurate quantitative thyroid function measurement is required for the prediction of early responses to ATD. Quantitative parameters derived from the novel technology, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), were investigated for the prediction of achievement of euthyroidism after methimazole (MMI) treatment in GD. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 GD patients (10 males, 26 females; mean age, $45.3{\pm}13.8years$) were enrolled for this study, from April 2015 to January 2016. They underwent quantitative thyroid SPECT/CT 20 minutes post-injection of $^{99m}Tc$-pertechnetate (5 mCi). Association between the time to biochemical euthyroidism after MMI treatment and %uptake, standardized uptake value (SUV), functional thyroid mass (SUVmean ${\times}$ thyroid volume) from the SPECT/CT, and clinical/biochemical variables, were investigated. Results: GD patients had a significantly greater %uptake ($6.9{\pm}6.4%$) than historical control euthyroid patients (n = 20, $0.8{\pm}0.5%$, p < 0.001) from the same quantitative SPECT/CT protocol. Euthyroidism was achieved in 14 patients at $156{\pm}62days$ post-MMI treatment, but 22 patients had still not achieved euthyroidism by the last follow-up time-point ($208{\pm}80days$). In the univariate Cox regression analysis, the initial MMI dose (p = 0.014), %uptake (p = 0.015), and functional thyroid mass (p = 0.016) were significant predictors of euthyroidism in response to MMI treatment. However, only %uptake remained significant in a multivariate Cox regression analysis (p = 0.034). A %uptake cutoff of 5.0% dichotomized the faster responding versus the slower responding GD patients (p = 0.006). Conclusion: A novel parameter of thyroid %uptake from quantitative SPECT/CT is a predictive indicator of an early response to MMI in GD patients.

Breast Radiotherapy with Mixed Energy Photons; a Model for Optimal Beam Weighting

  • Birgani, Mohammadjavad Tahmasebi;Fatahiasl, Jafar;Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad;Bagheri, Ali;Behrooz, Mohammad Ali;Zabiehzadeh, Mansour;meskani, Reza;Gomari, Maryam Talaei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7785-7788
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    • 2015
  • Utilization of high energy photons (>10MV) with an optimal weight using a mixed energy technique is a practical way to generate a homogenous dose distribution while maintaining adequate target coverage in intact breast radiotherapy. This study represents a model for estimation of this optimal weight for day to day clinical usage. For this purpose, treatment planning computed tomography scans of thirty-three consecutive early stage breast cancer patients following breast conservation surgery were analyzed. After delineation of the breast clinical target volume (CTV) and placing opposed wedge paired isocenteric tangential portals, dosimeteric calculations were conducted and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were generated, first with pure 6MV photons and then these calculations were repeated ten times with incorporating 18MV photons (ten percent increase in weight per step) in each individual patient. For each calculation two indexes including maximum dose in the breast CTV ($D_{max}$) and the volume of CTV which covered with 95% Isodose line ($V_{CTV,95%IDL}$) were measured according to the DVH data and then normalized values were plotted in a graph. The optimal weight of 18MV photons was defined as the intersection point of $D_{max}$ and $V_{CTV,95%IDL}$ graphs. For creating a model to predict this optimal weight multiple linear regression analysis was used based on some of the breast and tangential field parameters. The best fitting model for prediction of 18MV photons optimal weight in breast radiotherapy using mixed energy technique, incorporated chest wall separation plus central lung distance (Adjusted R2=0.776). In conclusion, this study represents a model for the estimation of optimal beam weighting in breast radiotherapy using mixed photon energy technique for routine day to day clinical usage.

Optimum Radiotherapy Schedule for Uterine Cervical Cancer based-on the Detailed Information of Dose Fractionation and Radiotherapy Technique (처방선량 및 치료기법별 치료성적 분석 결과에 기반한 자궁경부암 환자의 최적 방사선치료 스케줄)

  • Cho, Jae-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Chang;Suh, Chang-Ok;Lee, Chang-Geol;Keum, Ki-Chang;Cho, Nam-Hoon;Lee, Ik-Jae;Shim, Su-Jung;Suh, Yang-Kwon;Seong, Jinsil;Kim, Gwi-Eon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.143-156
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    • 2005
  • Background: The best dose-fractionation regimen of the definitive radiotherapy for cervix cancer remains to be clearly determined. It seems to be partially attributed to the complexity of the affecting factors and the lack of detailed information on external and intra-cavitary fractionation. To find optimal practice guidelines, our experiences of the combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) were reviewed with detailed information of the various treatment parameters obtained from a large cohort of women treated homogeneously at a single institute. Materials and Methods: The subjects were 743 cervical cancer patients (Stage IB 198, IIA 77, IIB 364, IIIA 7, IIIB 89 and IVA 8) treated by radiotherapy alone, between 1990 and 1996. A total external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose of $23.4\~59.4$ Gy (Median 45.0) was delivered to the whole pelvis. High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-IBT) was also peformed using various fractionation schemes. A Midline block (MLB) was initiated after the delivery of $14.4\~43.2$ Gy (Median 36.0) of EBRT in 495 patients, while In the other 248 patients EBRT could not be used due to slow tumor regression or the huge initial bulk of tumor. The point A, actual bladder & rectal doses were individually assessed in all patients. The biologically effective dose (BED) to the tumor ($\alpha/\beta$=10) and late-responding tissues ($\alpha/\beta$=3) for both EBRT and HDR-ICBT were calculated. The total BED values to point A, the actual bladder and rectal reference points were the summation of the EBRT and HDR-ICBT. In addition to all the details on dose-fractionation, the other factors (i.e. the overall treatment time, physicians preference) that can affect the schedule of the definitive radiotherapy were also thoroughly analyzed. The association between MD-BED $Gy_3$ and the risk of complication was assessed using serial multiple logistic regression models. The associations between R-BED $Gy_3$ and rectal complications and between V-BED $Gy_3$ and bladder complications were assessed using multiple logistic regression models after adjustment for age, stage, tumor size and treatment duration. Serial Coxs proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the relative risks of recurrence due to MD-BED $Gy_{10}$, and the treatment duration. Results: The overall complication rate for RTOG Grades $1\~4$ toxicities was $33.1\%$. The 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate for ail 743 patients was $83\%$. The midline cumulative BED dose, which is the sum of external midline BED and HDR-ICBT point A BED, ranged from 62.0 to 121.9 $Gy_{10}$ (median 93.0) for tumors and from 93.6 to 187.3 $Gy_3$ (median 137.6) for late responding tissues. The median cumulative values of actual rectal (R-BED $Gy_3$) and bladder Point BED (V-BED $Gy_3$) were 118.7 $Gy_3$ (range $48.8\~265.2$) and 126.1 $Gy_3$ (range: $54.9\~267.5$), respectively. MD-BED $Gy_3$ showed a good correlation with rectal (p=0.003), but not with bladder complications (p=0.095). R-BED $Gy_3$ had a very strong association (p=<0.0001), and was more predictive of rectal complications than A-BED $Gy_3$. B-BED $Gy_3$ also showed significance in the prediction of bladder complications in a trend test (p=0.0298). No statistically significant dose-response relationship for pelvic control was observed. The Sandwich and Continuous techniques, which differ according to when the ICR was inserted during the EBRT and due to the physicians preference, showed no differences in the local control and complication rates; there were also no differences in the 3 vs. 5 Gy fraction size of HDR-ICBT. Conclusion: The main reasons optimal dose-fractionation guidelines are not easily established is due to the absence of a dose-response relationship for tumor control as a result of the high-dose gradient of HDR-ICBT, individual differences In tumor responses to radiation therapy and the complexity of affecting factors. Therefore, in our opinion, there is a necessity for individualized tailored therapy, along with general guidelines, in the definitive radiation treatment for cervix cancer. This study also demonstrated the strong predictive value of actual rectal and bladder reference dosing therefore, vaginal gauze packing might be very Important. To maintain the BED dose to less than the threshold resulting in complication, early midline shielding, the HDR-ICBT total dose and fractional dose reduction should be considered.