• Title, Summary, Keyword: effective inoculum potential

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Sporulation of Pyricularia grisea at Different Growth Stages of Rice in the Field

  • Kim, Chang-Kyu;Reiich Yoshino
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.147-150
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    • 2000
  • Sporulation patterns of rice blast fungus were studied at relatively later stages of leaf blast and neck blast seasons in Icheon, Korea. This experiment was done by detaching lesion-bearing leaves and panicle bases. The number of conidia remaining on the leaf blast lesions of different cultivars from Jul 20 to Jul 23 ranged from 3,640 to 82,740 spores. More conidia were observed on the adaxial surface because they were released from abaxial surface. After heading, sporulation was observed from the lesions on the flag leaves but the number of spores was less than in the late July. Detached panicle bases or uppermost internodes infected by Pyricularia grisea produced abundant amount of conidia. Among these panicle bases, 30.1 mm size lesion recorded the highest count of 244,560 spores. When we compared the sporulation amount using the KY-type spore trap, more conidia were recorded from intact lesions than from the lesions which removed conidia and conidiophore The ratio of conidia release against total sporulation ranged from 20.5%-25.0% for leaf blast and 8.2%-25.3% in the neck blast. Effective inoculum potential was also discussed.

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Biocontrol Efficacies of Bacillus Species Against Cylindrocarpon destructans Causing Ginseng Root Rot

  • Jang, Ye-Lim;Kim, Sang-Gyu;Kim, Young-Ho
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.333-341
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    • 2011
  • Two antifungal bacteria were selected from forest soils during the screening of microorganisms antagonistic to Cylindrocarpon destructans, a cause of ginseng root rot. The antifungal bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis (I4) and B. amyloliquefaciens (yD16) based on physiological and cultural characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses. Antagonistic activity of both bacterial isolates to C. destructans increased with increasing temperature. More rapid starch hydrolytic activity of the bacteria was seen on starch agar at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures, and in the higher density inoculum treatment than in the lower density inoculum treatment. The bacterial isolates failed to colonize ginseng root the root tissues inoculated with the bacteria alone at an inoculum density of $1{\times}10^6$ cfu/ml, but succeeded in colonizing the root tissues co-inoculated with the bacteria and C. destructans. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the pathogen was damaged by the low-density inoculum treatment with the bacterial isolates as much as by the high-density inoculum treatment. Both bacterial isolates were more effective in reducing root rot when they were treated at a concentration of $1{\times}10^6$ cfu/ml than at $1{\times}10^8$ cfu/ml. Also, only the former treatment induced prominent wound periderm formation, related to structural defense against pathogen infection. The results suggest that the bacterial antagonists may have high potential as biocontrol agents against ginseng root rot at relatively low-inoculum concentrations.

Climate change and resilience of biocontrol agents for mycotoxin control

  • Magan, Naresh;Medina, Angel
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.41-41
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    • 2018
  • There has been an impetus in the development of biocontrol agents (BCAs) with the removal of a number of chemical compounds in the market, especially in the European Union. This has been a major driver in the development of Integrated Pest Management systems (IPM) for both pest and disease control. For control of mycotoxigenic fungi, there is interest in both control of colonization and more importantly toxin contamination of staple food commodities. Thus the relative inoculum potential of biocontrol agent vs the toxigenic specie sis important. The major bottlenecks in the production and development of formulations of biocontrol agents are the resilience of the strains, inoculum quality and formulation with effective field efficacy. It was recently been shown for mycotoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, under extreme climate change conditions, growth is not affected although there may be a stimulation of aflatoxin production. Thus, the development of resilient biocontrol strains which can may have conserved control efficacy but have the necessary resilience becomes critical form a food security point of view. Indeed, under predicted climate change scenarios the diversity of pests and fungal diseases are expected to have profound impacts on food security. Thus, when examining the identification of potential biocontrol strains, production and formulation it is critical that the resilience to CC environmental factors are included and quantified. The problems in relation to the physiological competence and the relative humidity range over which efficacy can occur, especially pre-harvest may be increase under climate change conditions. We have examined the efficacy of atoxigenic strains of A. flavus and Clanostachys rosea and other candidates for control of A. flavus and aflatoxin contamination of maize, and for Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin toxin control. We have also examined the potential use of fluidized-bed drying, nanoparticles/nanospheres and encapsulation approaches to enhance the potential for the production of resilient biocontrol formulations. The objective being the delivery of biocontrol efficacy under extreme interacting climatic conditions. The potential impact of climate change factors on the efficacy of biocontrol of fungal diseases and mycotoxins are discussed.

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Screening Procedure of Tobacco Cultivars for Resistant to Bacterial Wilt Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (담배세균성마름병[립고병(立枯病)]에 대한 담배품종의 저항성 검정법)

  • Jeon, Yong-Ho;Kang, Yue-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2008
  • Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum has become a severe problem on tobacco in Korea. No effective single control measure is available at present time. One of the most potential way for controlling the bacterial wilt on tobacco is growing tobacco cultivars resistant to the bacterial wilt. In this study, optimal conditions for screening tobacco cultivars resistant to the bacterial wilt were examined to provide reproducible and efficient methods in growth chamber testing and field experiments for evaluating plant disease resistance. For this, already-known inoculation methods, inoculum densities, and incubation temperature, and plant growth stages at the time of inoculation were compared using tobacco cultivars resistant (Nicotiana tabacum cv, NC95), moderately resistant (N. tabacum cv. SPG70), and susceptible (N. tabacum BY4) to the bacterial disease. It was determined that root-dipping of tobacco seedlings at six true leaf stage into the bacterial suspension with inoculum level of $10^8$ colony-forming units (CFU)/ml for 20 min before transplanting was simple and most efficient in testing for resistance to the bacterial wilt of tobacco caused by R. solanacearum, for which disease incidences and severities were examined at 2 weeks of plant growth after inoculation at $20{\sim}25^{\circ}C$ in a growth chamber. These experimental conditions could discriminate one tobacco cultivar from the others by disease severity better than any other experimental conditions. In field testing, the optimum time for examining the disease occurrence was late June through early July. These results can be applied to establishing a technical manual for the screening of resistant tobacco cultivars against the bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum.

Control Efficacy of a New Fungicide Fludioxonil on Lettuce Gray Mold According to Several Conditions (발병 조건에 따른 fludioxonil의 상추 잿빛곰팡이병 방제효과)

  • Choi, Gyung-Ja;Jang, Kyoung-Soo;Choi, Yong-Ho;Kim, Jin-Cheol
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.217-221
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    • 2009
  • Fludioxonil is derived from the antifungal compound pyrrolnitrin produced by Pseudomonas pyrrocinia and classified as a reduced-risk fungicide by the US EPA. The efficacy of fludioxonil for the control of lettuce gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated under several conditions such as growth stages of host, inoculum concentrations, and amounts of potato dextrose broth (PDB) included in spore suspension of B. cinerea. At 4-leaf stage of lettuce plants, fludioxonil applied at 2 ${\mu}g$/ml was more effective for the control of gray mold than at 5- and 6-leaf stages. However, fludioxonil at more than 10 ${\mu}g$/ml provided similar control activity in all growth stages of lettuce tested. The fungicide (10 and 50 ${\mu}g$/ml) also gave excellent control of gray mold on lettuce seedlings inoculated with spore suspensions of B. cinerea ($2.5{\times}10^5$ to $2{\times}10^6$ spores/ml). But, control efficacy of fludioxonil (2 ${\mu}g$/ml) was negatively correlated with inoculum concentration. Addition of PDB in spore suspension of B. cinerea resulted in higher disease severity than non-treated control. By inoculating spore suspension including 0.5% PDB, the fungicide gave the most control activity on the disease, followed by 1% and 2% PDB. The results suggest that fludioxonil has potential to control gray mold of lettuce, but the fungicide at a concentration having moderate activity may represent low control efficacy on the disease under some conditions.

Potential Appilication of Epicoccosorus nematosporus for the Control of Water chestnut (올방개 지문무늬병균의 효과적 처리방법에 의한 올방개 제초효과)

  • Hong, Yeon-Kyu;Cho, Jae-Min;Uhm, Jae-Youl;Ryu, Kil-Rim;,
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.167-171
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    • 1997
  • To find optimum application methods of Epicoccosorus nematosporus for control of water chestnut, five different concentration of conidial suspensions ($10^[3}$ conidia/ml to $10^[7}$ conidia/ml) fo the fungus were applied 1 to 4 times on 10~40 days old seedlings of water chestnut in greenhouse. Inoculum levels equal to or greater than $10^[5}$ conidia/ml killed significantly more shoots (82.6%~92.1%) and suppressed significantly underground tuber formation compared to inoculum concentration less than $10^[4}$ conidia/ml. When the conidial suspension of ($6.3 {\times} 10^{5}$conidia/ml of E. nematosporus was sprayed 2 times in 7 days interval, percentage of the killed plants was up to 98.7%. Numbers of reshoots and tubers were alsosuppressed significantly compared to one time application. The percents of killed shoots were similar between 10-day-old and 20-day-old seedlings, and significantly higher than those treated on 30- or 40-day-old seedlings. The fungus treated on 20-day-old seedlings was the most effective because there was high number of reshoots from 10-day-old seedlings. Therefore, optimal application conditions for E. nematosporus is 2~3 times of application in 7 days interval with $10^[5}$ conidia/ml on 20-day-old seedling age.

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Spore Inoculum Effectiveness of Korean and American Strains of Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus tinctorius under Nursery Conditions (한국산(韓國産)과 미국산(美國産) 모래밭버섯 균근균(菌根菌)의 리기테다 소나무 파종균(播種苗)에 대한 포자접종효과(胞子接種効果) 비교(比較))

  • Lee, Kyung Joon;Koo, Chang Duck
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.65 no.1
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    • pp.43-47
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    • 1984
  • Pinus rigida ${\times}$ P. taeda seedlings in a nursery was inoculated with basidiospores of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) either collected from Suweon, Korea or introduced from U.S.A. to compare the effectiveness of the spores from two different origins as mycorrhizal inocula. Nursery beds were fumigated with methyl bromide and 1g of spores was used to inoculate $1m^2$ of soil surface just before seed sowing. Seedlings inoculated with American Pt (#250 strain from Georgia, U.S.A.) were 15% taller than Korean Pt at the end of the first growing season. The seedlings from fumigation treatment only (no inoculation involved) was slightly taller (statistically unsignificant) than those with Korean Pt, but slightly smaller than those with American Pt. In a subsequent year experiment, the seedlings inoculated with American and Korean Pt after soil fumigation were 66% and 60% taller, respectively, than seedlings infected by natural fungi without soil fumigation, suggesting the dual effects of Pt and fumigation on the seedling growth. Therefore potential of Pt spores for an effective inoculum exists and selection of Pt strains which have adapted to specific local environments is needed to develop better sources of mycorrhizal inocula.

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Suppression of Bacterial Wilt with Bacillus subtilis SKU48-2 Strain (Bacillus subtilis SKU48-2에 의한 풋마름병 발병 억제)

  • Kim, Ji-Tae;Kim, Shin-Duk
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2008
  • Bacterial populations from the rhizosphere were obtained and the efficacy of the bacterial wilt suppression, root colonizing ability and resistance to three kinds of chemical pesticides were assayed. According to these results, SKU48-2 was selected as a potential biological agent to control the bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. SKU48-2 strain at $10^8CFU/ml$ inoculum was able to suppress the bacterial wilt up to 60% in greenhouse trials. Also, the resistance of SKU48-2 to chemical pesticides make possible to use in combination with chemical pesticides for the control of bacterial wilt. Three different powder formulations of SKU48-2 were developed. The shelf-life of powder formulations was effective up to 6 months of storage. Unformulated bacterial suspension could not be stored for 2 weeks, at which time cell viability was completely lost. According to 16S rDNA sequence data, the SKU48-2 stain was identified as Bacillus subtilis.

Anaerobic Biodegradability of Leachates Generated at Landfill Age (매립년한에 따른 침출수의 혐기성 생분해 특성)

  • Shin, Hang-Sik;Lee, Chae-young;Kang, Ki-hoon
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 2000
  • The composition of leachates varies depending on the waste characteristics, landfill age and landfilling method. Generally, leachates contain high dissolved organic substance and ammonia nitrogen whereas phosphorus concentration was very low. Leachate A produced from young landfill is characterized by high BOD5/COD ratio (0.8) whereas leachate C produced from old landfill has lower BOD5/COD ratio (0.1). Maximum biochemical methane potential of leachate A, B (from medium landfill) and C were 271,106 and 4 ml CH4/g-COD, respectively. On the other hand, the maximum biodegradability of leachate A, B, and C were 75,30, and 1%, respectively. These results indicated that anaerobic treatment of leachate from young landfill was effective in removing organic pollutants. In case of leachate C, carbon might reside in the form of large molecular weight organic compounds such as lignins, humic acids and other polymerized compounds of soils, which are resistant to biodegradation. The lag-phase period increased with the increasing organic concentration in leachate. In case of leachate A of concentration greater than 25%, the lag-phase period increased sharply. This implied that the start-up period of anaerobic process using an unacclimated inoculum could be extended due to the higher concentration of leachate. This relatively long lag-phase is probably related to the fact that most of the inhibitory compounds have been diluted beyond their inhibitory concentrations of less than 50%. Furthermore, the ultimate methane yield and methane production rate decreased as leachate concentration increased. It was anticipated the potential inhibition was related with the steady-state inhibition as well as the initial shock load.

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Studies on Neck Blast Infection of Rice Plant (벼 이삭목도열병(病)의 감염(感染)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Hong Gi;Park, Jong Seong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.206-241
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    • 1985
  • Attempts to search infection period, infection speed in the tissue of neck blast of rice plant, location of inoculum source and effects of several conditions about the leaf sheath of rice plants for neck blast incidence have been made. 1. The most infectious period for neck blast incidence was the booting stage just before heading date, and most of necks have been infected during the booting stage and on heading date. But $Indica{\times}Japonica$ hybrid varieties had shown always high possibility for infection after booting stage. 2. Incubation period for neck blast of rice plants under natural conditions had rather a long period ranging from 10 to 22 days. Under artificial inoculation condition incubation period in the young panicle was shorter than in the old panicle. Panicles that emerged from the sheath of flag leaf had long incubation period, with a low infection rate and they also shown slow infection speed in the tissue. 3. Considering the incubation period of neck blast of rice plant, we assumed that the most effective application periods of chemicals are 5-10 days for immediate effective chemicals and 10-15 days for slow effective chemicals before heading. 4. Infiltration of conidia into the leaf sheath of rice plant carried out by saturation effect with water through the suture of the upper three leaves. The number of conidia observed in the leaf sheath during the booting stage were higher than those in the leaf sheath during other stages. Ligule had protected to infiltrate of conidia into the leaf sheath. 5. When conidia were infiltrated into the leaf sheath, the highest number of attached conidia was observed on the panicle base and panicle axis with hairs and degenerated panicle, which seemed to promote the infection of neck blast. 6. The lowest spore concentration for neck blast incidence was variable with rice varietal groups. $Indica{\times}Japonica$ hybrid varieties were infected easily compared to the Japonica type varieties, especially. The number of spores for neck blast incidence in $Indica{\times}Japonica$ hybrid varieties was less than 100 and disease index was higher also in $Indica{\times}Japonica$ hybrid than in Japonica type varieties. 7. Nitrogen content and silicate content were related with blast incidence in necks of rice plants in the different growing stage changed during growing period. Nitrogen content increased from booting stage to heading date and then decreased gradually as time passes. Silicate content increased from booting stage after heading with time. Change of these content promoted to increase neck blast infection. 8. Conidia moved to rice plant by ascending and desending dispersal and then attached on the rice plant. Conidia transfered horizontally was found very negligible. So we presumed that infection rate of neck blast was very low after emergence of panicle base from the leaf sheath. Also ascending air current by temperature difference between upper and lower side of rice plant seemed to increase the liberation of spores. 9. Conidial number of the blast fungus collected just before and after heading date was closely related with neck blast incidence. Lesions on three leaves from the top were closely related with neck blast incidence, because they had high potential for conidia formation of rice blast fungus and they were direct inoculum sources for neck blast. 10. The condition inside the leaf sheath was very favorable for the incidence of neck blast and the neck blast incidence in the leaf sheath increased as the level of fertilizer applied increased. Therefore, the infection rate of neck blast on the all panicle parts such as panicle base, panicle branches, spikelets, nodes, and internodes inside the leaf sheath didn't show differences due to varietal resistance or fertilizers applied. 11. Except for others among dominant species of fungi in the leaf sheath, only Gerlachia oryzae appeared to promote incidence of neck blast. It was assumed that days for heading of varieties were related with neck blast incidence.

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