• Title, Summary, Keyword: efficiency

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The Effects of DO, HRT, and Media Packing Ratio on Nitrogen Removal Efficiency in BCM-ASR System (고정상 담체를 충전한 활성슬러지 공정에서 DO농도와 HRT 및 담체 충전율 변화가 질소 제거효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Whang, Gye-Dae;Han, Bong-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.659-669
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    • 2008
  • Two sets of four parallel activated sludge reactors (ASRs) maintaining an MLSS of 3000 mg/L were operated to investigate the effect of DO, HRTs and bio-contact media (BCM) packing ratios on the removal efficiency of organic matters and nitrogen. Packing ratios of BCM to BCM-ASR systems 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0% (suspended growth only), 10%, 15% and 20%, respectively. All systems were operated at an HRT of 4 hr, 6 hr, and 8 hr, respectively; DO concentration was maintained 0.5~1.0 mg/L and 1.5~2.0 mg/L for each HRT condition. In terms of TSS, TCODcr and SCODcr removal efficiency, all systems had a similar level of the removal efficiency under varied HRTs, and DO. But organic removal efficiency of systems with BCM was approximately 3~5% higher than systems without BCM at the same HRT and the DO. About the nitrification efficiency, with high DO (1.5~2.0 mg/L), as HRT (4 hr, 6 hr, 8 hr) or BCM packing ratio increased, the slight increment of nitrification efficiency was observed. However, under the low DO (0.5~1.0 mg/L), increase of BCM packing ratio and HRT resulted in large increase of the nitrification efficiency. At the same HRT and BCM packing ratio, the nitrification efficiency increased greatly with up to 15% as DO increased. When the HRT increased from 4hr to 8hr, the denitrification efficiency slightly increased by 5~10% only, under all DO conditions. Systems with BCM had higher denitrification efficiency, ranged 62.7~91.1% than systems without BCM showed 32.1~65.6%. And the increase in BCM packing ratio from 10% to 20% resulted in about 14~16% denitrification efficiency increment. BCM packing ratio showed great effect on the denitrification. The increase of the DO (from 0.5~1.0 mg/L to 1.5~2.0 mg/L) at the same HRT and BCM packing ratio resulted in slight decrease of denitrification efficiency with up to 7% for systems with BCM. But for systems without BCM, the denitrification efficiency decreased with up to 28%. In all system, the denitrification efficiency had more influence on the TN removal efficiency than nitrification efficiency. So, BCM packing ratio (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%) has greater effect on the TN removal than HRT and DO. The TN removal efficiency increased as packing ratio of BCM increased with up to 45%. As a result, the highest TN removal efficiency was observed 73.7% at the condition showed the highest denitrification efficiency that DO of 0.5~1.0 mg/L, an HRT of 8 hr, and 20% of BCM packing ratio was maintained.

Analysis of Investment in Nanotechnology Using DEA (DEA를 활용한 나노기술의 투자분석)

  • Yoon, Seung-Chul;Kim, Heung-Kyu
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.101-110
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to objectively measure the efficiency of nanotechnology R&D programs by systematically evaluating the inputs and outputs of nanotechnology R&D activities and to find implications for improving the efficiency of nanotechnology R&D programs. Data on input factors such as R&D investment, R&D manpower, R&D period, and output factors such as paper, patent, and commercialization for R&D projects which started from 2008 or afterwards and ended by 2011 are gathered through National Science and Technology Knowledge Information Service, which are used for efficiency evaluation. In this study, we analyzed R&D efficiency in detailed technology units in depth. The process taken in this study is as follows. First, the basic statistics of input and output factors to compare and analyze R&D investment, R&D manpower, R&D period, paper, patent, and commercialization status by technology unit are analyzed. Next, DEA models are utilized to derive the overall efficiency, pure technology efficiency, and scale efficiency by conducting the efficiency evaluation for each technology unit, from which implications for strategic budget allocation are derived. In addition, partial efficiency evaluation is conducted to identify advantages and disadvantages of each technology unit. In turn, cluster analysis is performed to identify similar technology units, from which implications for efficiency improvement are derived.

Experimental and Simulated Efficiency of a HPGe Detector in the Energy Range of $0.06{\sim}11$ MeV

  • Park Chang Su;Sun Gwang Min;Choi H.D.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.234-242
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    • 2003
  • The full energy peak efficiency of a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector was calibrated in a wide energy range from 0.06 to 11 MeV. Both the experimental technique and the Monte Carlo method were used for the efficiency calibration. The measurement was performed using the standard radioisotopes in the low energy region of $60{\sim}1408$ keV, which was further extended up to 11 MeV by using the $^{14}N(n,r)\;and\;^{35}Cl(n,r)$ reactions. The GEANT Monte Carlo code was used for efficiency calculation. The calculated efficiency had the same dependency on the r-ray energy with the measurement, and the discrepancy between the calculation and the measurement was minimized by fine-tuning of the detector geometry. From the calculated result, the efficiency curve of the HPGe detector was reliably determined particularly in the high energy region above several MeV, where the number of measured efficiency points is relatively small despite the wide energy region. The calculated efficiency agreed with the measurement within about $7\%$. In addition to the efficiency calculation, the origin of the local minimum near 600 keV on the efficiency curve was analyzed as a general characteristics of a HPGe detector.

The Impact of Technology Innovation Activity on Managerial Efficiency: An Inverted U shaped Model (기술혁신활동이 경영효율성에 미치는 영향 : Inverted U Shaped 모형)

  • Ha, Gui Ryong;Choi, Suk Bong
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.551-568
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study addressed the relationship between technological innovation activity and management efficiency of Korean automobile firms. We tested the hypothesis of non-liner relationship of innovation activity in relation to management efficiency. Methods: We discussed prior literature in the firm innovation strategy and management efficiency studies to provide better understanding of relationships between technological innovation activity and management efficiency. As a result, we developed develop and tested a model (Inverted-U shaped) capturing the non-linear impact of technological innovation activity. While we used R&D expenditure and patent registration data for measuring firms' innovation activity, management efficiency was evaluated by using DEA(Data Envelopment Analysis). Results: Main findings of our empirical analysis indicated that the relationships between technological innovation activity and management efficiency was inverted U shaped. This implied that the relationship between technological innovation and management efficiency is inverted U-shaped non-linear, with management efficiency increasing up to a point, beyond which higher levels of R&D and patent registration activities led to a decrease in management efficiency. Conclusion: This study empirically assessed the inconclusive findings of previous research in the area of effects of innovation activities in relation to firm performance. The paper also provided theoretical and practical implications for firms who explore efficient strategy to promote the management performance through technological innovation activities. Future research directions with the limitation of the study was discussed.

Organophosphorus Insecticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables (과실 채소중 잔류농약(유기인제)에 관한 연구)

  • 윤숙자
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.83-92
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    • 1990
  • Adapting two step aeration system to a waste water treatment of W-paper manufactory as Full-Scale Plants, we drew a following conclusion from its practical working. 1. Because BOD removal efficiency was 20% in A-Stage, 90% in B-Stage and total removal efficiency was 97%. It worked treatment plant well and was suitable for effluent water standard as well. Because COD removal efficiency was 42% in A-stage, 71% in B-stage and the total removal efficiency was 94% COD control was possible in effluent water quality. 2. Treatment efficiency according to a load capacity was average 20% in 1.401 BOD kg/m3/d load of A-Stage and average 90% in 0.273 BOD kg/$\textrm {m}^3$ / d load of B-Stage. 3. Treatment efficiency according to a ratio of F/M was 2.657--5.024 kg BOD/kg MLSS/d in A-Stage and BOD removal efficiency was 16-261 in the same stage. The ratio of F/M was 0.068-0.094 kg BOD /kg MLSS/d and BOD removal efficiency ratio was 85-94%. Therefore treatment efficiency could be kept stably and volume of aeration tank could be reduced wholly. 4. Treatment efficiency according to MLSS appeared BOD 20%. COD 42%, in A-Stage and removal efficiency appeared BOD 90%, COD 71% in B-Stage. They were suitable for plan condition. 5. Because of working of complemented treatment plant by AB-Process. 20,000,000 Won a month was saved than the ordinary working cost. Therefore, it was assumed that invested cost could be recollected in 19 months or so consequently.

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NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE CLOCKING EFFECT IN A 1.5 STAGE AXIAL TURBINE (1.5단 축류터빈에서의 Clocking 효과에 관한 수치적 연구)

  • Park, Jong-Il;Choi, Min-Suk;Baek, Je-Hyun
    • Journal of computational fluids engineering
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2006
  • Clocking effects of a stator on the performance and internal flow in an UTRC 1.5 stage axial turbine are investigated using a three-dimensional unsteady flow simulation. Six relative positions of two rows of stator are investigated by positioning the second stator being clocked in a step of 1/6 pitch. The relative efficiency benefit of about 1% is obtained depending on the clocking positions. However, internal flows have some different characteristics from that in the previous study at the best and worst efficiency positions, since the first stator wake is mixed out with the rotor wake before arriving at the leading edge of the second stator. Instead of the first stator wake, it is found that the wake interaction of the first stator and rotor has a important role on a relative efficiency variation at each clocking position. The time-averaged local efficiency along the span at the maximum efficiency is more uniform than that at the minimum efficiency. That is, the spanwise efficiency distribution at the minimum efficiency has larger values in mid-span but smaller values near the hub and casing in comparison to those at the maximum efficiency. Moreover, the difference between maximum and minimum instantaneous efficiencies during one period is found to be smaller at the maximum efficiency than at the minimum efficiency.

Analyzing the Impact of Inventory Management Performance on the Energy Efficiency in Korean Petrochemical Companies (재고관리성과가 에너지효율성에 미치는 영향에 대한 실증분석 : 국내 석유화학 기업을 대상으로)

  • Kim, Gilwhan;Lee, Jiwoong
    • Korean Management Science Review
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2017
  • This study empirically analyzes the impact of inventory management performance on the energy efficiency in Korean petrochemical companies. The concept of the distance function is used to define the energy efficiency and the estimation of the distance function is performed using the stochastic frontier analysis. The inventory turnover is selected as the variable indicating the inventory management performance of the company. The main results of this study are as follows. First, the inventory turnover has a positive impact on energy efficiency. Second, during the period over 2011~2015, while the gap in energy efficiency among the companies expanded, the average energy efficiency decreased. Third, the average energy efficiency in upstream process companies was greater than downstream process companies and the gap in energy efficiency among downstream process companies was greater than upstream process companies. Fourth, the average marginal effect of inventory turnover on energy efficiency increased gradually from 2011 to 2015. Finally, the average marginal effect of inventory turnover in downstream process companies was greater than upstream process companies, and the gap in the marginal effect of inventory turnover among downstream process companies was greater than upstream process companies. These results together imply the importance of inventory management in terms of energy efficiency.

Decomposition and Super-efficiency in the Korean Life Insurance Industry Employing DEA

  • Lee, Hyung-Suk;Kim, Ki-Seog
    • International Journal of Contents
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2008
  • The Korean life insurance industry has undergone profound changes, such as the beginning of the variable insurance in July 2001 and the bancassurance enforcement in August 2003. However, little empirical research has analyzed data that includes the bancassurance of life insurance companies operating in Korea. In response to this lack of research, this paper applies DEA (data envelopment analysis) models to measure and decompose their efficiency. We discovered that life insurance companies operating in Korea are a little different in their composition ratio of inputs and outputs, due to the increased variety of distribution channels and new products. We provided efficiency scores, return to scale, and reference frequencies. We also decomposed CCR, BCC, and SBM efficiency into scale efficiency and MIX efficiency. So, we try to investigate whether the sources of inefficiency were caused by the inefficient operation of DMU, disadvantageous conditions, the difference of the composition ratio in inputs and outputs with reference sets, or any combination of the above. Most companies in the sample display had either constant or decreasing returns to scale. The efficiency rankings were less consistent among models and efficient DMUs. In response to this problem, we used the super-efficiency model to rank them and then compared the rankings of the DMUs among the various models. It was also concluded that the availability of panel data, rather than cross-sectional data, would greatly improve the validity of the efficiency estimates.

Numerical Study on the Clocking Effect in a 1.5 Stage Axial Turbine (1.5단 축류 터빈에서의 Clocking 효과에 관한 수치적 연구)

  • Park, Jong-Il;Choi, Min-Suk;Baek, Je-Hyun
    • 유체기계공업학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.473-480
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    • 2005
  • Clocking effects of a stator on the performance and internal flow in an UTRC 1.5 stage axial turbine are investigated using a three-dimensional unsteady flow simulation. Six relative positions of two rows of stator are investigated by positioning the second stator being clocked in a step of 1/6 pitch. The relative efficiency benefit of about 1% is obtained depending on the clocking positions. However, internal flows have some different characteristics from that in the previous study at the best and worst efficiency positions, since be first stator wake is mixed out with the rotor wake before arriving at the leading edge of the second stator. Instead of the first stator wake, it is found that the wake interaction of the first stator and rotor has a important role on a relative efficiency variation at each clocking position. The time-averaged local efficiency along the span at the maximum efficiency is more uniform than that at the minimum efficiency. That is, the spanwise efficiency distribution at the minimum efficiency has larger values in mid-span but smaller values near the hub and casing in comparison to those at the maximum efficiency. Moreover, the difference between maximum and minimum instantaneous efficiencies during one period is found to be smaller at the maximum efficiency than at the minimum efficiency.

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A Study on the Technology Transfer Efficiency for Public Institutes Using DEA Model (DEA 모형을 이용한 공공연구기관의 기술이전 효율성 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Hyon, Man-Sok;Yoo, Wang-Jin
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.94-103
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    • 2008
  • This study measured technology transfer efficiency for public institutes. The study made use of DEA being one of the non-parametric linear programming to evaluate technology transfer efficiency for public institutes and to measure technology efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. The measurement of the technology transfer efficiency for public institutes was as follows: The cause of the technology transfer inefficiency was affected by pure technical inefficiency more than by scale inefficiency. Public institutes' RTS(Return To Scale) value varied depending upon the features of the organizations than the features of the regions. Public research institutes' RTS value is more effective than universities' RTS value. We compared the RTS group with the RTS of Projected DMU groups. The RTS group had constant returns to scale effect while the RTS of the Projected DMU had increasing returns to scale effect. The technology transfer efficiency of public institutes varied depending upon the features of the organizations and regions : The technology transfer efficiency of public institutes were as follows : public research institutes at the metropolitan area, public research institutes at the local areas, universities at the metropolitan area and universities at the local areas. In other words, the technology transfer efficiency was affected by organizational characteristics more than by regional characteristics at the place where public institutes were located.