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Phosphorus Removal Characteristics by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Wastewater (산업폐수로부터 분리한 인제거 미생물의 인 제거 특성)

  • Kim, Hee-Jung;Lee, Seok-Eon;Hong, Hyeon-Ki;Kim, Deok-Hyun;An, Jung-Woo;Choi, Jong-Soon;Nam, Ju-Hyun;Lee, Moon-Soon;Woo, Sun-Hee;Chung, Keun-Yook
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2012
  • Background: The removal of phosphate(P) in the wastewater is essential for the prevention of eutrophication in the river and stream. This study was initiated to evaluate the P removal by three strains of bacteria isolated from industrial wastewater. The three strains of bacteria, A1, A2, and A3, isolated were identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain CUPS 3, Rhodococcus erythropolis strain Sco-C01, Bacillus sp. 3434BRRJ, respectively. METHODS AND RESULTS: The experiments evaluating the effects of temperature, P concentration, aeration, and carbon sources on P removal by Bacillus sp. 3434BRRJ were performed in the following conditions: temperature, 15, 25 and $30^{\circ}C$; P concentrations, 20, 30, and 40 mg/L; oxygen condition, aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic conditions; carbon sources, glucose, acetate and mixture of glucose and acetate. As a result, the best optimum conditions for P removal by Bacillus sp. 3434BRRJ were as follows: temperature, $30^{\circ}C$; P concentration, 20 mg/L; carbon sources, mixture of glucose and acetate; oxygen concentration, anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The P removal efficiencies by Bacillus sp. 3434BRRJ, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain CUPS, and Rhodococcus erythropolis strain Sco-C01 were 99%, 50%, 20%, respectively. CONCLUSION: As a result, the best optimum conditions for P removal by Bacillus sp. 3434BRRJ selected and used in this study were as follows: temperature, $30^{\circ}C$; P concentration, 20 mg/L; carbon sources, mixture of glucose and acetate; oxygen concentration, anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

Photosynthetic Characteristics and Chlorophyll Content of Rhododendron micranthum by the Natural Habitat (자생지에 따른 꼬리진달래의 광합성 특성 및 엽록소 함량)

  • Kim, Nam-Young;Lee, Kyeong-Cheol;Han, Sang-Sub;Lee, Hee-Bong;Park, Wan-Geun
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the photosynthetic R. micranthum by natural habitats. In the results, natural habitats didn't affect values of light saturated point, light compensation point and photosynthetic capacity of R. micranthum. We investigated light response curve and chlorophyll content at each habitat. Light compensation points were 11.8 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$, 11.5 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ and 10.4 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ in Seokpo-ri, Yeonha-ri, and Mt. Worak. Light saturation points showed that R. micranthum is shade tolerant specie which has the light saturation point approximately 500~600 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$. Photosynthetic rates of R. micranthum leaves were 5.5 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$, 5.4 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ and 5.6 ${\mu}mol\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ in Seokpo-ri, Yeonha-ri and Mt. Worak. On the other hand, since between $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$, it appeared that the values of net photosynthetic rates of R. micranthum leaves in all sites were high. Especially, the rates were highest at $25^{\circ}C$. Because of low stomatal transpiration rate in saturation radiance, the moisture utilization efficiency in Yeonha-ri was lower than other habitats. Rates of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content in Mt. Worak were no significant difference. Therefore R. micranthum has characteristic of shade tolerant species. The moderate temperature for R. micranthum is between $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$.

Effect of Organic Matter Ratios in Substrate and Mulching Materials on Growth of Liatris spicata under Non-irrigated Green Roofs (무관수 옥상녹화에서 유기질 비료와 멀칭재에 따른 리아트리스(Liatris spicata) 생육 반응)

  • Ju, Jin-Hee;Yoon, Yong-Han
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.130-137
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    • 2012
  • This research evaluated the effectiveness of organic matter ratios in substrate and mulching materials under mn-irrigated condition green roofs by measuring the effects on growth of Liatris spicata. Four mulching materials were installed, i. e. nun-mulched control(CON), volcanic ash soils(VAS), non-woven black fabric mat(NBM) and pine bark(PAK). Three levels of organic maller volume percentage in an amended soil were evaluated, amended soil: organic matter=100:0($A_1O_0$), amended soil: organic matter=80:20($A_4O_1$) and amended soil: organic matter=50:50($A_1O_1$). Plant height, number of leaves, diameter of flower stalk, number of florets, chlorophyll contents, shoot fresh and dry weight were recorded from April to September, 2010, and survival rate was examined on May 2011 of the following year. In the $A_1O_0$, the number of leaves, number of florets and chlorophyll contents were higher in Liatris spicata grown on NBM than other mulching treatments. Especially, plant height, shoot fresh and dry weight were significantly higher. However, it resulted the lowest survival rate than other mulching treatments. 2. In the $A_4O_1$, the plant height, number of leaves, number of florets, shoot fresh and dry weight were higher than other mulching treatments, but there was no significant difference except for the plant height of Liatris spicata grown on NBM. The survival rate was decreased by 40~60%, compared with $A_1O_0$, after overwintering. 3. In the $A_1O_1$, the plant height, number of leaves, diameter of flower stalk, number of florets, chlorophyll contents, shoot fresh and dry weight were slightly higher than other mulching treatments, but there was no significant difference from Liatris spicata grown on NBM and VAS. The survival rate was observed by 0% over all mulching treatments after overwintering. Therefore, the non-woven black fabric mat(NBM) promoted the Liatris spicata's growth and flowering compared with other mulching treatments. However, the survival rate was decreased significantly, and the organic matter ratios were increased after overwintering under non-irrigated green roofs.

Response of Phytotoxicity on Rice Varieties to HPPD-inhibiting Herbicides in Paddy Rice Fields (HPPD 저해 제초제에 대한 벼 품종별 약해 반응)

  • Kwon, Oh-Do;Shin, Seo-Ho;An, Kyu-Nam;Lee, Yeen;Min, Hyun-Kyeng;Park, Heung-Gyu;Shin, Hae-Ryoung;Jung, Ha-Il;Kuk, Yong-In
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.240-255
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    • 2012
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the levels of phytotoxicity of rice varieties to HPPD (4-hydroxy phenylpyruvate dioxygenase)-inhibiting herbicides known for their efficiency to control the sulfonylureas-resistant weed species:mestrione, benzobicyclone, and tefuryltrione. The twenty-six rice varieties (8-Japonica ${\times}$ Indica-type varieties and 18-Japonica-type varieties) were grown for 25 days on seedling trays and then transplanted to paddy rice fields followed by herbicide treatment i.e. standard and double doses of there respective herbicides at 5, 10, and 15 days after transplanting. Although mestrione, benzobicyclone and tefuryltrione are all HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, the phytotoxicity symptoms of the different rice varieties based on the timing of application and doses of the herbicides were significantly different. The Japonica ${\times}$ Indica-type varieties showed much more phytotoxicity symptoms than Japonica-type varieties in all applied herbicides. Increasing herbicidal doses of mesotrione, and an earlier application of and increasing herbicidal doses of benzobicyclon caused severe phytotoxicity symptoms. On the other hand, phytotoxicity due to tefuryltrione did not exhibit significant differences between rice varieties in either the timing of application or dose of the herbicide. Regardless of timing of application and dose of the herbicides, Hangangchalbyeo-1, Hyangmibyeo-1 and high-yield rice varieties such as Namcheonbyeo, Dasanbyeo, Areumbyeo, and Hanareumbyeo, which belong to the Japonica ${\times}$ Indica-type varieties, showed 5 to 8 levels of phytotoxicity symptoms including albinism, browning, detached leaf, and necrosis to mesotrione and benzobicyclon whereas only 1 to 3 levels of phytotoxicity symptoms (chlorosis, albinism, and browning) were seen with to tefuryltrione application. The Japonica-type varieties exhibited only slight phytotoxicity symptoms (1~2 levels) in conformity with the timing of application and doses of the herbicides. However, there were significant differences among the Japonica-type rice varieties, depending on the type of herbicide. Thirteen-Japonica type rice varieties were sensitive to benzobicyclone while 4-Japonica-type and 7-Japonica-type varieties showed phytotoxicity symptoms such as chlorosis and albinism with mestrione and tefuryltrione application, respectively. Therefore, we suggest that the combined-type herbicides including mestrione, benzobicyclone and tefuryltrione should be rejected in paddy fields where rice is grown for either human consumption (functional or processed rice) or livestock feed because of severe phytotoxicity symptoms on the various rice varieties seen regardless of the timing of application and doses of the herbicides.

Growth Characteristics and Economic Efficiency of Nursery Plants Production According to Transplanting Container for Acclimatization of Mass Propagated Plantlets via Bioreactor Culture of Ever-bearing Strawberry 'Goha' (생물반응기를 통해 대량증식된 사계성 딸기 '고하' 소식물체의 순화용기에 따른 생육특성과 묘생산 경제성)

  • Lee, Jong-Nam;Kim, Hye-Jin;Kim, Ki-Deog;Im, Ju-Sung;Lim, Hak-Tae;Yeoung, Young-Rok
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.437-441
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to find out the optimum container for increasing acclimatization rate of in vitro mass propagated plantlets of Ever-bearing strawberry (Fragaria ${\times}$ ananassa Duch.) via bioreactor. Four types of containers were used such as transparent plastic container (TPC), plug tray (PT), I-pot (IP), and black vinyl pot (BVP). Number of date maintaining soil water content above 10% was five days in TPC, three to four days in BVP, two days in PT, and one day in IP. Survival rate of plantlets was 80% in BVP, 70% in TPC, 55% in IP, and 15% in PT. In TPC, growth increment of plantlets was the greatest among all the tested containers and the lowest in IP. Numbers of runner per plant were 3.3 in BVP, 2.9 in TPC, 1.6 in PT, and 1.2 in IP. Total cost was 44,405,300 won/10 a in BVP, resulting in reducing more 6,659,400 won/10 a than IP's (51,064,700 won/10 a). Around 102,718 plants/10 a were produced by using BVP, suggesting that 30,265.1 plants/10 a more could be produced than IP (72,452.9 plants/10 a). Production cost per plant was 432.3 won in BVP, resulting in reducing 272.5 won than IP's (704.8 won). As a result, BVP was appropriate for acclimatization of in vitro plantlets through bioreactor system.

Problems with ERP Education at College and How to Solve the Problems (대학에서의 ERP교육의 문제점 및 개선방안)

  • Kim, Mang-Hee;Ra, Ki-La;Park, Sang-Bong
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.41-59
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    • 2012
  • ERP is a new technique of process innovation. It indicates enterprise resource planning whose purpose is an integrated total management of enterprise resources. ERP can be also seen as one of the latest management systems that organically connects by using computers all business processes including marketing, production and delivery and control those processes on a real-time basis. Currently, however, it's not easy for local enterprises to have operators who will be in charge of ERP programs, even if they want to introduce the resource management system. This suggests that it's urgently needed to train such operators through ERP education at school. But in the field of education, actually, the lack of professional ERP instructors and less effective learning programs for industrial applications of ERP are obstacles to bringing up ERP workers who are competent as much as required by enterprises. In ERP, accounting is more important than any others. Accountants are assuming more and more roles in ERP. Thus, there's a rapidly increasing demand for experts in ERP accounting. This study examined previous researches and literature concerning ERP education, identified problems with current ERP education at college and proposed how to solve the problems. This study proposed the ways of improving ERP education at college as follows. First, a prerequisite learning of ERP, that is, educating the principle of accounting should be intensified to make students get a basic theoretical knowledge of ERP enough. Second, lots of different scenarios designed to try ERP programs in business should be created. In association, students should be educated to get a better understanding of incidents or events taken place in those scenarios and apply it to trying ERP for themselves. Third, as mentioned earlier, ERP is a system that integrates all enterprise resources such as marketing, procurement, personnel management, remuneration and production under the framework of accounting. It should be noted that under ERP, business activities are organically connected with accounting modules. More importantly, those modules should be recognized not individually, but as parts comprising a whole flow of accounting. This study has a limitation because it is a literature research that heavily relied on previous studies, publications and reports. This suggests the need to compare the efficiency of ERP education between before and after applying what this study proposed to improve that education. Also, it's needed to determine students' and professors' perceived effectiveness of current ERP education and compare and analyze the difference in that perception between the two groups.

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Evaluation of Treatment Efficencies of Pollutants in Juksancheon Constructed Wetlands for Treating Non-point Source Pollution (비점오염원 저감을 위한 죽산천 인공습지의 오염물질 정화효율 평가)

  • Choi, Ik-Won;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Kang, Se-Won;Lee, Sang-Gyu;Seo, Young-Jin;Lim, Byung-Jin;Park, Jong-Hwan;Kim, Kap-Soon;Heo, Jong-Soo;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.642-648
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    • 2012
  • To evaluate the water quality in Juksancheon constructed wetlands for treating non-point source pollution, the removal rates of nutrients in water and the total amounts of T-N and T-P uptakes by water plants were investigated. Chemical characteristics of T-N and T-P in sediment were investigated. The concentrations of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), SS (Suspended Solids), T-N and T-P in inflow were 0.07~1.47, 0.60~2.65, 0.50~4.60, 1.38~6.26 and $0.08{\sim}0.32mg\;L^{-1}$, respectively. The removal rates of BOD, COD, SS, T-N, and T-P were -10, 51, 66, -3 and 5%, respectively. The maximum amount of T-N uptake by water plants in August was $368.7mg\;plant^{-1}$ in the $2^{nd}$ treatment stage by Nymphoides peltata, $1314.6mg\;plant^{-1}$ in the $3^{rd}$ treatment stage by Iris pseudacorus, $1160.4mg\;plant^{-1}$ in the $4^{th}$ treatment stage by Nymphaea tetragona GEORGI, respectively. The maximum amount of T-P uptake by water plants in August was $121.7mg\;plant^{-1}$ by Nymphoides peltata in the $2^{nd}$ treatment stage, $268.7mg\;plant^{-1}$ by Iris pseudacorus in the $3^{rd}$ treatment stage and $212.0mg\;plant^{-1}$ by Nymphaea tetragona GEORGI in the $4^{th}$ treatment stage, respectively. Organic matter contents in sediments were not different. Contents of T-N and T-P in sediments were higher in spring. Microbial biomass C:N:P ratios in sediments in spring, summer, autumn and winter were 117~140:1~4:1, 86~126:5~6:1, 68~101:2~6:1 and 47~138:2~4:1, respectively. We could conclude that Juksancheon constructed wetlands show high removal efficiencies of COD and SS. However, improvements of management in winter season should be considered to improve the removal efficiencies of pollutants.

Study for Clean Energy Farming System by Mass and Energy Balance Analysis in the Controlled Cultivation of Vegetable Crop (Cucumber) (물질 및 에너지 수지 분석을 통한 시설채소(오이)의 청정에너지 농업 시스템 구축을 위한 기초 연구)

  • Shin, Kook-Sik;Kim, Seung-Hwan;Oh, Seong-Yong;Lee, Sang-En;Kim, Chang-Hyun;Yoon, Young-Man
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.280-286
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    • 2012
  • Clean energy farming is the agricultural activity to improve an efficiency of agricultural energy use and to replace fossil fuels. This study was carried out to establish the clean energy farming system in the controlled cultivation of vegetable crop (cucumber) adopting the biogas production facility. In order to design the clean energy farming system, mass and energy balance was analyzed between the controlled cultivation system and the biogas production facility. Net yearly heating energy demands ($E_{YHED}$) of forcing and semi-forcing cultivation types were 48,697 and $13.536Mcal\;10^{-1}$ in the controlled cultivation of vegetable cucumber. To cover these $E_{YHED}$, the pig slurry of 511 and $142m^3\;10a^{-1}$ (biogas volume of 9,482 and $2,636Nm^3\;10a^{-1}$, respectively, as 60% methane content) were needed in forcing and semi-forcing cultivation types. The pig slurry of $511m^3\;10a^{-1}$ caused N 1,788, $P_2O_5$ $511kg\;10a^{-1}$ in the forcing cultivation type, and the pig slurry of $142m^3\;10a^{-1}$ caused N 497, $P_2O_5$ $142kg\;10a^{-1}$ in the semi-forcing cultivation type. The daily heating energy demand ($E_{i,DHED}$) by the time scale analysis showed the minimum $E_{i,DHED}$ of $7.7Mcal\;10a^{-1}\;day^{-1}$, the maximum $E_{i,DHED}$ of $515.1Mcal\;10a^{-1}\;day^{-1}$, and the mean $E_{i,DHED}$ of 310.2 in the forcing cultivation type. And the minimum $E_{i,DHED}$, the maximum $E_{i,DHED}$, and the mean $E_{i,DHED}$ were 5.3, 258.0, and $165.1Mcal\;10a^{-1}\;day^{-1}$ in the semi-forcing cultivation type, respectively. Input scale of biogas production facility designed from the mean $E_{i,DHED}$ were 3.3 and $1.7m^3\;day^{-1}$ in the forcing and the semi-forcing cultivation type. The maximum $E_{i,DHED}$ gave the input scale of 5.4 and $2.7m^3\;day^{-1}$ in the forcing and the semi-forcing cultivation type.

Evaluation of Aquatic Ecological Efficiency in Juam Lake Eco-wetlands for Reducing Non-point Source Pollutants (비점오염물질 저감을 위한 주암호 생태습지의 수생태학적 효율 평가)

  • Lee, Sang-Gyu;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Choi, Ik-Won;Kang, Se-Won;Seo, Young-Jin;Lim, Byung-Jin;Lee, Jun-Bae;Kim, Sang-Don;Heo, Jong-Soo;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.317-324
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    • 2012
  • To reduce non-point source pollutants in Juam Lake eco-wetlands, purification efficiencies of pollutants were investigated at three different systems. The constructed wetlands (CWs) consisted of A system, B system and C system. A system consisted of $1^{st}$ free water surface (FWS) CW, $2^{nd}$ FWS CW, $3^{rd}$ FWS CW, $4^{th}$ subsurface flow (SSF) CW and $5^{th}$ SSF CW. B system consisted of $1^{st}$ FWS CW, $2^{nd}$ FWS CW, $3^{rd}$ FWS CW, $4^{th}$ FWS CW and $5^{th}$ SSF CW. C system consisted of $1^{st}$ FWS CW, $2^{nd}$ FWS CW, $3^{rd}$ FWS CW, $4^{th}$ FWS CW and $5^{th}$ SSF CW. The concentrations of BOD, COD, SS, T-N and T-P in inflow ranged 0.20 ~ 0.91, 1.24 ~ 8.00, 0.60 ~ 8.60, 0.04 ~ 2.50 and $0.001{\sim}0.685mg\;L^{-1}$ from March to October in 2011, respectively. Removal rates of BOD, SS, T-N and T-P were high in Autumn, Spring, Spring and Summer, respectively. In A system, $1^{st}$ FWS CW, $2^{nd}$ FWS CW and $3^{rd}$ FWS CW were dominated by Leersia oryzoides. In B system, $1^{st}$ FWS CW, $3^{rd}$ FWS CW and $4^{th}$ FWS CW were dominated by Leersia oryzoides. In C system, $2^{nd}$ FWS CW and $3^{rd}$ FWS CW were dominated by Nymphaea teragona.

Current status of Brassica A genome analysis (Brassica A genome의 최근 연구 동향)

  • Choi, Su-Ryun;Kwon, Soo-Jin
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.33-48
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    • 2012
  • As a scientific curiosity to understand the structure and the function of crops and experimental efforts to apply it to plant breeding, genetic maps have been constructed in various crops. Especially, in the case of Brassica crop, genetic mapping has been accelerated since genetic information of model plant $Arabidopsis$ was available. As a result, the whole $B.$ $rapa$ genome (A genome) sequencing has recently been done. The genome sequences offer opportunities to develop molecular markers for genetic analysis in $Brassica$ crops. RFLP markers are widely used as the basis for genetic map construction, but detection system is inefficiency. The technical efficiency and analysis speed of the PCR-based markers become more preferable for many form of $Brassica$ genome study. The massive sequence informative markers such as SSR, SNP and InDels are also available to increase the density of markers for high-resolution genetic analysis. The high density maps are invaluable resources for QTLs analysis, marker assisted selection (MAS), map-based cloning and comparative analysis within $Brassica$ as well as related crop species. Additionally, the advents of new technology, next-generation technique, have served as a momentum for molecular breeding. Here we summarize genetic and genomic resources and suggest their applications for the molecular breeding in $Brassica$ crop.