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A Modified Technique for Pectus Carinatum Surgery: Partial Costal Cartilage Resection and Pre-sternal Compression with Using a Stainless Steel Bar (새가슴 수술의 변형수기: 부분 늑연골 절제와 스테인리스 금속막대를 이용한 흉골압박)

  • Lee, Seock-Yeol;Oh, Jae-Yun;Lee, Seung-Jin;Lee, Chol-Sae
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.742-746
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    • 2008
  • Background: The surgical treatment of pectus carinatum is usually a modified Ravitch operation that consists of complete costal cartilage resection and sternal wedge osteotomy. We tried a simple and easy technique that is resection of only deformed, protruded costal cartilage and pre-sternal compression with using a stainless steel bar and this is done without sternal osteotomy. Therefore, we performed partial cartilage resection and pre-sternal compression with a stainless steel bar and we observed the effects and the efficiency of treatment. Material and Method: From July, 2006 to June, 2008, 10 patients with pectus carinatum underwent our modified technique of pectus carinatum surgery. The effects of surgery and the complications were reviewed. Result: 5 patients with only pectus carinatum underwent our modified technique of pectus carinatum surgery. 5 patients with pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum underwent our modified technique of pectus carinatum surgery and Nuss surgery. The mean patient age was 13.4+3.3 years old. The mean operation time was 137.6+22.9 minutes for the pectus carinatum patients and 234.0+36.5 minutes for the pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum patients. The mean length of hospitalization was 11.8+1.0 days. The Haller pectus index of pectus carinatum was $2.10{\pm}0.21$ preoperatively and this was increased to $2.53{\pm}0.07$ postoperatively. The only complication was simple partial wound disruption in 1 patient. Conclusion: We performed partial cartilage resection and pre-sternal compression with a stainless steel bar in 10 patients with pectus carinatum and its effects were good. Our modified technique of pectus carinatum is easy and simple as compared with the Ravitch operation. But removal of the stainless steel bar has not yet been performed for these patients and long-term follow up is needed to accurately evaluate the. effects of this surgery in many surgical cases.

An Analysis of Work Stress of Physical Therapist and Reaction (물리치료사의 업무 스트레스 현황과 대응수준 -부산지역을 중심으로-)

  • Dong, Jong Ick;Ryu, Hwang Gun;Bae, Sung-Kwon
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.37-55
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    • 2008
  • This study aims to enhance work efficiency and satisfaction by offering data that make a physical therapist cope with stress coming from the job efficiently by identifying and analyzing the job satisfaction and work stress perceived by a physical therapist, and the level of reaction of a physical therapist. The study distributed survey questionnaires to 300 physical therapists working in medical institutions in Busan via mail and by visit from March 3, 2007 by selecting them simply and randomly from the physical therapist list, and collected the questionnaires by March 20, 2007, 103 respondents were working at 17 general hospitals including a university hospital, 65 respondents at 12 medical centers, and 79 respondents at 39 doctor's offices. The study collected 251 copies, which showed the collection rate of 83.7%, and analyzed 247 copies (82.3%) excluding 4 copies of insincere answers. As a research tool for measuring job satisfaction the study used a tool employed for research into the job satisfaction of physical therapists who work at medical institutions in Gwangju, Jeonnam, and Jeonbuk by Kim Hee-Gwon(1992) and research regarding job satisfaction by Jeong Jeong-Hee(2004) as well as research regarding the factors of job satisfaction by Flippo(1980) & Seberhagen(1970) after adjusting the research tools to the purpose of the study. Also for questions about work stress, the study employed nurses' job stress measurement tool developed by Kim Mae-Ja and em Mi-Ok(1984) by modifying the tool to the purpose of the study, and for a measurement tool for reaction to stress, the study used a tool employed for research into reaction to stress of nurses at general hospitals by Choi Eun-Deok(2005) without modification. For data analysis, the study used the SPSS12.0 as a statistical method, and then used t-test or ANOVA for verifying actual numbers, percentile, average :score, standard deviation, rank, and difference. Also, the study conducted which is a post-test method for variables that show a significant difference at the level of p<.05 level after the analysis. The findings include the following. 1) The respondents' job satisfaction score was 3.21 points on the average (out of 5 full points). The peer relationship ranked the highest, posting 4.02 points on the average, and the job satisfaction with rewards was proven the lowest, posting 2.51 points. For the job satisfaction level by characteristics, there were significant differences (p<.05) in gender, hospital type, weekly working hours, monthly working days, number of patients per day, department in charge of therapy, and number of peers, and there was no significant difference in characteristics other than that. 2) The respondents' work stress score was 2.72 points (out of 5 full points) on the average. The respondents were shown to be under the highest stress when they suffered from excessive workload, posting 3.49 points on the average, and they were shown to be under the least stress when they had a conflict with peers at another department, recording 1.90 points on the average. for the job stress level by the characteristics of job, there was a significant difference in the reflection of job assessment(p<.05). 3) 1n respondents' reaction to stress, most of them were shown to make efforts in coping with stress, posting 2.80 points (out of 5 full points). For their experience of being wider stress, they answered that 'they felt depressed (2.85 points)" for their experience of coping with stress, they answered that 'they were indifferent to it or thought about something else' (2.62 points). Also, for their efforts in coping with stress, they answered that 'they were motivated to remove their strain by taking leave, playing, or using their preferences' (3.52 points), which ranked higher. For the level of reaction to stress by characteristics, there were significant differences by age, gender, marital status, total service years as a physical therapist, monthly working days, and department in charge of therapy(p<.05). It is necessary to offer correct information by conducting an in-depth analysis of the stressful situations of physical therapists who exert efforts in rehabilitating patients at hospitals by factor, and seeking management plans based on the research results. Also, it is necessary to develop a program for coping with stress efficiently for removing stress and to conduct research into the understanding and cooperation of administrators and persons in charge of physical therapists for reducing physical therapists' stress at hospitals.

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The Effects of Chungkookjang Biopolymer on Blood Glucose and Serum Lipid Lowering in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (청국장 점질성 중합체의 첨가 식이가 Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨쥐의 혈당 및 혈청지질 감소에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seong-Ho;Jung, So-Hyoung;Kim, In-Ho;Lee, Yu-Soon;Lee, Jin-Man;Kim, Jong-Guk;Lee, Myung-Chul;Choi, Mi-Ja;Kim, Duk-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Chungkookjang viscous biopolymer supplementation on blood glucose and serum lipid-lowering in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into three experimental groups; a normal group (N), diabetic control group (D), and a diabetic group with the supplementation of Chungkookjang viscous biopolymer (DCB). The groups were given experimental diets for four weeks. The normal group (C) was fed a casein-based diet, and the Chungkookjang viscous biopolymer group (DCB) received 3% biopolymer added to the casein-based diet. In the diabetic group (D), food intake increased significantly, but weight gain decreased significantly. The food efficiency ratio was significantly lower in the diabetic group. Liver weight increased significantly in the D group as compared to the N group. However, the DCB group showed a significant decrease in liver weight when compared to the D group. Blood glucose decreased significantly in the DCB group after receiving the experimental diet for four weeks, as compared to the diabetic control (p<0.05). Serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the DCB group than in the D group, whereas HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher (p<0.05). Total cholesterol was decreased in DCB group, but there were no significant differences. Also, LDL-cholesterol level was not significantly different among the experimental groups. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol were lower in the DCB group with no significant differences among groups. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of Chungkookjang viscous biopolymer improved glucose lowering and lipid metabolism in diabetic rats.

Rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosome aneuploidies in 943 uncultured amniotic fluid samples by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

  • Han, Sung-Hee;Kang, Jeom-Soon;An, Jeong-Wook;Lee, An-Na;Yang, Young-Ho;Lee, Kyu-Pum;Lee, Kyoung-Ryul
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on uncultured amniotic fluid cells offers the opportunity for rapid screening of aneuploidies and has become an integral part of the current practice in many clinical cytogenetics laboratories. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the results of interphase FISH in 943 amniotic fluid samples and assessed the efficiency of FISH for rapid detection of aneuploidies. Methods : Interphase FISH for chromosome 13, 18, and 21 was performed in 943 consecutive amniotic fluid samples for rapid diagnosis of aneuploidies referred from 2004 to 2006. Karyotypes from standard cytogenetic analysis were compared to the FISH results. Results : A total of 45 chromosomal rearrangements (4.8%) were found after conventional cytogenetic analysis of the 943 amniotic fluid. After exclusion of known familiar chromosomal rearrangements and inversions (2.1%, 20/943), 2.7% (25/943) were found to have chromosomal abnormalities. Of this group, 0.7% (6/943) were chromosomal abnormalities not detectable by FISH and 2.0% (19/943) were numerical abnormalities detectable by FISH. All 14 cases of Down syndrome (Classic type, 13 cases; Robertsonian type, 1 case) and 5 cases of trisomy 18 were diagnosed and detected by FISH and there were no false-positive or -negative results (specificity and sensitivity=100%). Conclusion : The present study demonstrates that FISH can provide a rapid and sensitive clinical method for prenatal identification of chromosome aneuploidies. However, careful genetic counseling is essential to explain the limitations of FISH, including the inability to detect all chromosomal abnormalities and the possibilities of uninformative or false-negative results in some cases.

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Optimum Configuration, Filter Media Depth and Wastewater Load of Small-scale Constructed Wetlands for Treating the Hydroponic Waste Solution in Greenhouses (시설하우스 폐양액 처리를 위한 소형 인공습지의 최적 조합방법, 여재깊이 및 폐양액 부하량)

  • Park, Woo-Young;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Lim, Jong-Sir;Park, Seong-Kyu;Cho, Ju-Sik;Heo, Jong-Soo;Yoon, Hae-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2008
  • To obtain optimum configuration, depth and load of constructed wetlands(CWs) for treating of hydroponic waste solution(HWS) which was produced in greenhouses, the study was conducted with 4 kinds of combined systems such as Vertical flow(VF)-Horizontal flow(HF), VF-VF, HF-VF and HF-HF CWs. In four configurations of CWs, the treatment efficiency of pollutants from HWS under depth of HF and VF beds, HWS loading and HWSs were investigated. Removal rate of pollutants under different depth of VF and HF in 2-stage hybrid CWs was in the order of 50 cm < 70 cm regardless of CWs configuration. Removal rate of pollutants under HWS loading in 2-stage hybrid CWs was in the order of $150L\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}{\fallingdotseq}300L\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}\;>\;450L\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}$. The optimum depth and HWS loading were 70 cm and $300L\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}$ in four configurations of CWs, respectively. Using this optimum condition, for various HWSs (cucumber, paprika and strawberry HWS), removal rate of pollutants in HF-HF CWs was higher than that in HF-VF CWs. Optimum configuration of 2-stage hybrid CWs for treating hydroponic waste solution in greenhouses was found out to be HF-HF CWs. Therefore, under the optimum conditions, removal rate of BOD, COD, SS, T-N and T-P in HF-HF CWs were 84, 81, 84, 51 and 93%, respectively.

Effects on Water Quality and Rice Growth to Irrigation of Discharge Water from Municipal Waste Treatment Plant in Rice Paddy during Drought Periods (한발기 벼 재배시 하수종말처리장 방류수 관개에 따른 논의 수질 및 벼 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Joung-Du;Lee, Jong-Sik;Kim, Won-Il;Jung, Goo-Bok;Kim, Jin-Ho;Yun, Sun-Gang;Choi, Chul-Mann
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.225-230
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    • 2008
  • Objective of this study was to access the environmental impacts of the use of discharge water from municipal waste water treatment plant as alternative irrigation resources during drought season for rice cultivation. For the field experiments, it was observed that plant growth and yield characteristics at 20 days of alternative irrigation period with application of FAST (fertilizer application based on soil test) 50% were relatively the same as the control. For the surface water quality, it appeared that $EC_i$ (electrical conductivity of irrigation water) and SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) values of DMWT (discharge waters from municipal wastewater treatment plant) irrigation were twofold higher than those of ground water irrigation as the control regardless of fertilization levels. For the irrigation periods, there were not significantly difference between 10 and 20 days of treatments, but $EC_i$ and SAR values of surface water were highest at 30 days of irrigation periods at initial rice growing stages. Generally, $EC_i$ values of percolation water in all the treatments were gradually increasing until 30days after irrigation, and then decreasing to harvest stage. Overall, it might be considered that there was possibility to irrigate DMWT with application of FAST 50% for 20 days of drought periods at rice transplanting season. Furthermore, efficiency rate of alternative irrigation water for 20 days of drought period was 32.7% relative to the total annual irrigation water for rice cultivation.

An Exploratory Study of Purchasing Decision Making and Adoption on the RFID Purchasing Customer (RFID 구매고객의 구매 의사결정과 수용에 대한 탐색적 연구)

  • Seo, Pil-Su;Jang, Jang-Yi;Shim, Kyeng-Su
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.89-116
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    • 2008
  • RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is regarded as a core technology of ubiquitous computing. Although it has some technical limitations such as technological standardization of RFID tags as well as economical limitations, many companies around the world have already accepted RFID to improve their management efficiency. In this regard, this study is to meet with results that the adoption of RFID technology willbring opportunities that companies' operational process are improved and customer satisfaction is highly strengthened. This research focuses on providing more understanding for building RFID marketing strategy to suppliers who want to sell their RFID products to customers through analyzing purchasing process. The findings are as follows; First, the study shows that buying center members usually take product reliability and precision of technical specification in the case of new-task buying situation while they put their first purchasing priority on prices in the straight rebuy. Second, the finding presents that in new-task buying situation and the straight rebuy purchasing personnel get information about new products through product performance test, organizational engineers, opinions from other companies' purchasing personnel, and checking out samples. Third, this research demonstrates when it comes to purchasing risk in their first purchasing, the persons who are in charge of material purchasing are inclined to be aware of the risk most in technical problems, followed by financial problems and time delay problems in order. And in addition to those risks are mentioned above, once-again-purchasers take the risk like an opportunity loss for better products into consideration. Fourth, the study shows that the role of concerning departments makes no difference in each purchasing stage. Accordingly marketers need to beef up the differentiated strategy to persuade their customers Fifth, the findings of this study demonstrate that purchasing decision making is much influenced by the final users. So suppliers are supposed to perform the most active marketing strategy at the first stage of purchasing through various resources. Finally, the study presents that the suppliers who will have had close relationships with their customers need to give consistent information to them so that their customers can have lower motive in purchasing products from competitors.

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Evaluation of X-ray System for Nondestructive Testing on Radioactive Waste Drums (방사성폐기물 드럼 비파괴 검사를 위한 X-ray 장비 평가)

  • Park, Jong-Kil;Maeng, Seong-Jun;Lee, Yeon-Ee;Hwang, Tae-Won
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.189-203
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    • 2008
  • The physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste drums, which have been temporarily stored on site, should be characterized before their shipment to a disposal facility in order to prove that the properties meet the acceptance guideline. The investigation of NDT(Nondestructive Test) method was figured out that the contents in drum, the quantitative analysis of free standing water and void fraction can be examined with X-ray NDT techniques. This paper describes the characteristics of X-ray NDT such as its principles, the considerations for selection of X-ray system, etc. And then, the waste drum characteristics such as drum type and dimension, contents in drum, etc. were examined, which are necessary to estimate the optimal X-ray energy for NDT of a drum. The estimation results were that: $(R)\acute{A}$ the proper X-ray energy is under 3 MeV to test the drums of 320 ${\beta}\S$ and less; $(R)\ddot{E}$ both X-ray systems of 450 keV and/or 3 MeV might be needed considering the economical efficiency and the realization. The number of drums that can be tested with 450 keV and 3 MeV X-ray system was figured out as 42,327 and 18,105 drums (based on storage of 2006. 12), respectively. Four testing scenarios were derived considering equipment procurement method, outsourcing or not, etc. The economical and feasibility assessment for the scenarios was resulted in that an optimal scenario is dependent on the acceptance guide line, the waste generator's policy on the waste treatment and the delivery to a disposal facility, etc. For example, it might be desirable that a waste generator purchases two 450 keV mobile system to examine the drums containing low density waste, and that outsourcing examination for the high density drums, if all NDT items such as quantitative analysis for 'free standing water' and 'void fraction', and confirmation of contents in drum have to be characterized. However, one 450 keV mobile system seems to be required to test only the contents in 13,000 drums per year.

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Effect of Dietary Combined Probiotics(Any-Lac, ®) Supplementation Contained with Phaffia rhodozyma on the Growth Performances and Meat Quality of Pigs (Phaffia rhodozyma 균주를 포함한 복합생균제(Any-Lac, ®)의 급여가 돼지의 성장과 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kyeong-Su;Lim, Jong-Cheol;Shin, Myeong-Su;Choi, Yang-Il;Lee, Suk-Cheon;Cho, Seong-Ku
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.657-666
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    • 2008
  • This study investigated the effects of dietary probiotics which contained antioxidant astaxanthin on growth performances and meat quality in two pigs farms. A total of 2,400 pigs were gilt and barrow with same number assigned to one of two treatments. The two treatments were control(commercial feed), treatment(probiotics 0.1% feed). Each treatment had 3 replicates. Weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were periodically recorded for 90 days. Survival ratio was shown 99.85% in treatment group. Average daily gain was higher in treatment group(0.91kg) than that of control(0.84kg). Back fat thickness was lower in treatment group than that of control, even though the treatment group tended to be higher carcass weight. The treatment group trended higher carcass weight, back fat thickness was lower in treatment group than control. The ratio of carcass grade A was shown higher in treatment than that of control, respectively. Treatment group showed higher value of fat content and water holding capacity. Treatment showed lower value than control in shear force and cooking loss. Hunter value(a and b) of treatment group in meat color was higher than control. Treatment group was lower cholesterol content than control. Control group was shown higher unsaturated fatty acid(stearic acid(C18:0)) value than treatment. Treatment group was shown lower saturated fatty acid(oleic acid(C18:1)) value than that of control. These results suggested that the supplementation of probiotics contained Phaffia rhodozyma could be used effectively for increase productivity of livestock industry.

Evaluation of the Coating Liquid Sprayed on Landscape Plants to Prevent De-icing Stresses - Focus on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Analysis - (조경수목의 제설제 피해저감을 위한 엽면코팅제 처리효과 분석 - 엽록소 형광분석법을 중심으로 -)

  • Kwon, Hee-Bum;Kim, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2008
  • This study examined the de-icing agents' stresses on Pinus strobus and Pinus thunbergii by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. The assumption of this study was that photosynthetic efficiency was changed by de-icing agents applied onto highways in winter by altering the concentration of the de-icier, types of de-icer and leaf surface coating liquid application. The practical purpose of this study was to investigate the de-icing gents stresses on Pinus strobus by the highway area where de-icing agents were used frequently and to discover out minimizing stratages to prevent further damages. or this simulation study, a sample plot was established in Bogae-myeon, Anseong, Gyeonggi-do and Pinus strobus and Pinus thunbergii were planted for the examination in April, 2005. Five types of de-icing agents - NaCl, $CaCl_2$, T product(NS40:low cWoride de-icer type), NaCl+$CaCl_2$ and T product+$CaCl_2$ - were selected and the their concentration was altered to 0%, 5%, and 9%. Five types of de-icing agents were applied to both trees treated by a leaf surface coating liquid and trees not treated by leaf surface coating liquid. For the fluorescence analysis, the leaf surface coating liquid, which was diluted by 10 times, was sprkinkled onto the two tree species three days prior to gathering samples. Sample leaves from the two tree species were gathered at 10 o'clock in the morning of mid-August, 2006 and brought to the laboratory within three hours to be dipped in different concentrations (0%, 5%, or 9%) of the five de-icing agents for two minutes. Then the eaves were placed on the filter paper dipped in each solution on a petri dish, sealed with polyethylene film and kept in a growth chamber at $22^{\circ}C$ for 72 hours. Out of the growth chamber, the leaves were treated with a chorophyll fluorescence reaction analyzer for 30 minutes to measure the initial light acceptance rate(Fo), maximum light acceptance ate(Fv/Fm), light acceptance usage(F' q/F' m) and optical electron delivery coefficient(qP). As a result, Pinus strobus' initial light acceptance rate(Fo) decreased as T product and NaCl increased in concentration, and $Cal_2$ did not reduce much with the eaf surface coating liquid application. Maximum light acceptance rate(Fv/Fm) and light acceptance usage(F' q/F' m) decreased sharply as T product and NaCl increased in concentration and NaCl+$CaCl_2$ and T product+$CaCl_2$ did not reduce much with leaf surface coating liquid application. Optical electrons delivery coefficient (qP) decreased as T product increased in concentration on trees without the leaf surface coating liquid application and all other de-icing agents did not show much reduction. As for Pinus thunbergii, the initial light acceptance rate(Fo) decreased as T product increased in concentration, but the maximum light acceptance rate(Fv/Fm) was not reduced much by changes in concentration. light acceptance usage(F' q/F' m) decreased as NaCl increased in concentration and optical electron delivery coefficient(qP) decreased as NaCl increased in concentration in both with and without leaf surface coating liquid application. In conclusion, it was possible to plant Pinus strobus if spraying leaf surface coating liquid or cleaning deicing salt to prevent the damage caused by deicing agents was more economical than replacing the trees. If not, it was better to plant Pinus thunbergii. Another way to decrease the deicing gents stresses of landscape plants would be planting the trees further away from the roads even though it might take longer period to display its planting functions.