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Removal Effects of Chlorophyll-a and Cyanobacteria Using Laboratory-scale Biomanipulation Tests (실험적 생물조절 기법을 이용한 엽록소 및 남조류 제거 효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Jae;Lee, Jae-Yon;Lee, Jae-Hoon;Bae, Dae-Yeul;Lee, Eui-Hang;Han, Jung-Ho;Hwang, Soon-Jin;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.41 no.spc
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    • pp.86-92
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to determine removal effect on phytoplankton (chlorophyll-${\alpha}$ as whole algae) and cyanobacteria by a fish Pseudorasbora parva and macroinvertebrate Palaemon paucidens in September 2006. Three treatments with 25 (T1), 50 (T2) and 100 (T3) individuals along with control (C1, no input fish), and two treatments with 25 (T4) and 50 (T5) individuals along with control (C1) were made for fish and macroinvertebrate, respectively. The initial concentrations of chlorophyll-${\alpha}$ $(Chl_i)$ in each 10L test tank were set up for the levels of $95{\sim}100{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$ and the daily values were monitored in the test tank during 7 days. In the lab tests, P. parva did not show Chl-${alpha}$ removal effect; the removal rate of Chl-${alpha}$ for P. parva was -58% in T1, -56% in T2, and 61% in T3 during the test period. In contrast, P. paucidens. in the treatments of T4 and T5 removed the phytoplankton effectively and the removal effect were appeared to be 33% and 22%, respectively. Also, P. paucidens showed high feeding efficiency in the removal of cyanobacteria. The levels of cyanobacteria were greatly lowed from 6,048 to 927 cells $mL^{-1}$ in T4 and from 6,539 to 1,053 cells $mL^{-1}$ in T5, resulting in 85% and 84% in the removal effect, respectively. Our results for biomanipulation tests suggest that P. paucidens may be used as a potential candidate organism for algae control in spite of the preliminary results by laboratory tests.

Effects of Tea Beverages on Cadmium Accumulation and Excretion in Rats Given Cadmium (차 음료가 카드뮴 섭취 흰쥐의 카드뮴 축적과 배설에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Tae-Kyung;Park, Bum-Ho;Lee, Sang-Il;Kim, Soon-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 2008
  • The effects tea beverages (TBs) prepared from powdered green tea (Gt), oolong tea (Ot), black tea (Bt), or pure tea (Pt) with lemon, orange, grenadine etc on cadmium toxicity in rats were investigated Sensory evaluations of the TBs are better than those of each water extracted teas. Cadmium (50 ppm) was administered to experimental rats fed a basic diet, or a diet with various TBs (15% w/v), for 5 weeks. Although body weight gains, feed intakes, and fecal weights in all Cd-treated groups were lower than those in the normal control group (NC), feed efficiency ratio, urine volumes, liver weights, and kidney weights did not differ significantly between groups. The serum ALT and AST levels in the Cd-treated control group (Cd-Co) were higher than those in the NC animals. Serum ALT and AST levels in all Cd-treated rats fed TB-supplemented diets were lower than in animals of the Cd-Co group. Tibia and femur weights in Cd-Co animals were lower than those in NC rats. Tibia and femur weights in Cd-treated rats fed TB-supplemented diets were higher than those in Cd-Co animals. There were no between-group differences in tibia lengths; animals in the NC and TB-supplemented diet groups showed femur lengths longer than those of Cd-Co rats. Although the contents of crude ash and cadmium in the femurs of Cd-Co mts was markedly higher than in the femurs of NC animals, the cadmium content in femurs of Cd-Co rats was significantly lower than that in the femurs of NC animals. The changes in mineral levels caused by Cd administration were alleviated by every TB-supplemented diet tested Whereas fecal calcium excretion by Cd-Co animals was significantly higher than that of NC rats, calcium excretion by Cd-treated rats fed TB-supplemented diets was significantly lower than that of Cd-Co animals. Fecal cadmium excretion by all Cd-treated rats fed TB-supplemented diets was significantly higher than that of Cd-Co animals. In conclusion, this study provides experimental evidence that various TBs may regulate cadmium-induced organ toxicity by reducing cadmium accumulation in tissues through the mechanism of increasing the fecal excretion of cadmium.

The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Td booster vaccination in Korean preadolescents, aged with 11-12 years old (국내 11-12세 소아에서 Td 백신 추가접종의 면역원성과 안전성 평가)

  • Lee, Soo Young;Kwak, Ga Young;Mok, Hye Rin;Kim, Jong Hyun;Hur, Jae Kyun;Lee, Kyung Il;Park, Joon Su;Ma, Sang Hyuk;Kim, Hwang Min;Kang, Jin Han
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.11
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    • pp.1185-1190
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : This study was undertaken to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Td booster immunization in early preadolescents of Korea. Methods : Healthy preadolescents, who had been vaccinated with 4 or 5 doses of DTaP vaccines until 6 years old age, were enrolled in this study from August 2006 to April 2007. Diphtheria and tetanus anti-toxoid antibodies in sera were measured by ELISA just before vaccination and 4 weeks after vaccination to evaluate immunogenicity. Local and systemic adverse reactions observed for 4 weeks after vaccination to access reactogenicity. Results : 183 preadolescents were enrolled and mean age was $11.40{\pm}0.51$ years old. All subjects achieved seroprotective diphtheria and tetanus anti-toxoid antibodies (titers ${\geq}0.1IU/mL$) after Td booster vaccination. Among 183 vaccinees, 73.8% showed local adverse reactions and 37.2% systemic adverse reactions. Pain at injection site (66.1%) was the most common local reaction, and the most commonly shown systemic reaction was myalgia (17.5%). The adverse reactions were spontaneously relieved within three days after vaccination. Conclusion : Td vaccine in this study was high immunogenic and showed an acceptable tolerance in Korean preadolescents. Td booster vaccination at 11-12 years old is the most effective method to increase compliance of the vaccination and to decrease the incidence of diphtheria and tetanus.

Characterization of New Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated with Bioactivities to Tobacco Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (담배거세미나방에 살충효과를 나타내는 새로운 Bacillus thuringiensis 균주의 특성)

  • Kim, Da-A;Kim, Jin-Su;Kil, Mi-Ra;Paek, Seung-Kyoung;Choi, Su-Yeon;Jin, Da-Yong;Youn, Young-Nam;Hwang, In-Cheon;Yu, Yong-Man
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2008
  • Bacillus thuringiensis with selected high toxicities against tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura were isolated from domestic soils. When being observed under a phase-contrast microscope, the insecticidal crystal proteins were showed a bipyramidal crystal types. New CAB 109 isolate was identified to B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai in the H serotype. As a results of insecticidal activities between CAB 109 isolate and 3 existing ready-made products against 3rd larva of S. litura, CAB 109 isolate showed 100% mortality with spore concentration $(1.3{\times}10^7cfu/ml)$. It was a very high insecticidal activity compared with a existing ready-made B. t. products. $LD_{50}$ values of CAB 109 isolate was $9.78{\times}10^5,\;6.87{\times}10^6\;and\;1.83{\times}10^7cfu/ml$ spore concentration against 2nd, 3rd and 4th larva of S. litura, respectively. Unlike Plutella xylostella, S. litura was slowly died after application up to 7 days. The weight of S. litura larva applied with CAB 109 isolate were 6-7 times less than controlled group. Even though it didn't die, it did not grow into next larva. The result observed with scanning electron microscope was that CAB 109 isolate of B. t. aizawai formed a typical bipyramidal crystal protein type. Otherwise, when CAB 109 isolate was examined with SDS-PAGE and with trypsin, there was no difference between CAB 109 strain and ready-made products of B. thuringiensis.

Analysis of the Spent Fuel Cooling Time for a Deep Geological Disposal (심지층 처분을 일한 사용후핵연료 냉각기간 분석)

  • Lee, Jong-Youl;Cho, Dong-Geun;Choi, Heui-Joo;Choi, Jong-Won;Lee, Yang
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of the HLW deep geological disposal is to isolate and to delay the radioactive material release to human beings and the environment for a long time so that the toxicity does not affect to the environment. The main requirements for the HLW repository design is to keep the buffer temperature below $100\;^{\circ}C$ in order to maintain its integrity. So the cooling time of spent fuels discharged from the nuclear power plant is the key consideration factors for efficiency and economic feasibility of the repository. The disposal tunnel/disposal hole spacing, the disposal area and thermal capacity required for the deep geological repository layout which satisfies the temperature requirement of the disposal system is analyzed to set the optimized spent fuels cooling time. To do this, based on the reference disposal concept, thermal stability analyses of the disposal system have been performed and the derived results have been compared by setting the spent fuels cooling time and the disposal tunnel/disposal hole spacing in various ways. From these results, desirable spent fuels cooling time in view of disposal area is derived. The results shows that the time reaching the maximum temperature within the design limit of the temperature in the disposal site is likely shortened as the cooling time of spent fuels becomes short. Also it seems that the temperature-rising and-dropping patterns in the disposal site are of smoothly varying form as the cooling time of spent fuels becomes long. In addition, it is revealed that a desirable cooling time of spent fuels is approximately 40-50 years when spent fuels are supposedly disposed in the deep geological disposal site with its structural scale under consideration in this study.

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A Fast 4X4 Intra Prediction Method using Motion Vector Information and Statistical Mode Correlation between 16X16 and 4X4 Intra Prediction In H.264|MPEG-4 AVC (H.264|MPEG-4 AVC 비디오 부호화에서 움직임 벡터 정보와 16~16 및 4X4 화면 내 예측 최종 모드간 통계적 연관성을 이용한 화면 간 프레임에서의 4X4 화면 내 예측 고속화 방법)

  • Na, Tae-Young;Jung, Yun-Sik;Kim, Mun-Churl;Hahm, Sang-Jin;Park, Chang-Seob;Park, Keun-Soo
    • Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.200-213
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    • 2008
  • H.264| MPEG-4 AVC is a new video codingstandard defined by JVT (Joint Video Team) which consists of ITU-T and ISO/IEC. Many techniques are adopted fur the compression efficiency: Especially, an intra prediction in an inter frame is one example but it leads to excessive amount of encoding time due to the decision of a candidate mode and a RDcost calculation. For this reason, a fast determination of the best intra prediction mode is the main issue for saving the encoding time. In this paper, by using the result of statistical relation between intra $16{\times}16$ and $4{\times}4$ intra predictions, the number of candidate modes for $4{\times}4$ intra prediction is reduced. Firstly, utilizing motion vector obtained after inter prediction, prediction of a block mode for each macroblock is made. If an intra prediction is needed, the correlation table between $16{\times}16$ and $4{\times}4$ intra predicted modes is created using the probability during each I frame-coding process. Secondly, using this result, the candidate modes for a $4{\times}4$ intra prediction that reaches a predefined specific probability value are only considered in the same GOP For the experiments, JM11.0, the reference software of H.264|MPEG-4 AVC is used and the experimental results show that the encoding time could be reduced by 51.24% in maximum with negligible amounts of PSNR drop and bitrate increase.

Effects of Dietary Mulberry Leaf on Loperamide-Induced Constipation in Rats (식이뽕잎이 흰쥐의 Loperamide로 유도된 변비에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Joon;Lee, Yu-Mi;Jung, Seoung-Ki;Kim, Keun-Young;Lee, Myung-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.280-287
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    • 2008
  • We investigated the effect of dietary mulberry leaf powder (MP) on loperamide-induced constipation in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given MP in their diets at a concentration of 0% 5% and 10% for 33 days. Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal diet group (NOR), normal diet and loperamide treated group (MPL0), 5% MP and loperamide treated group (MPL5), and 10% MP and loperamide treated group (MPL10). Constipation was induced by subcutaneous injection of loperamide (1.5 mg/kg body weight/day) for the final 5 days of the experiment Supplemental MP had no effect on the food efficiency ratio, but it reduced body weight gain and food intake in a concentration dependent manner. Administration of loperamide decreased food intake. MP had a concentration-dependent effect on decreasing total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides and on increasing HDL-cholesterol. Loperamide had no significant effect on serum lipid profiles. Loperamide decreased the number and wet weight of fecal pellets and fecal water content MP increased the number and wet weight of fecal pellets and fecal water content in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MP increased gut transit time and transit speed, and the guts of mts treated with MP plus loperamide were longer than those of mts treated with loperamide alone. These results indicate that MP is an effective treatment for constipation.

The Clinical and Cost Effectiveness of Medical Nutrition Therapy for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (제2형 당뇨병환자에서 임상영앙치료의 임상적 효과와 비용효과 연구)

  • Cho, Youn-Yun;Lee, Moon-Kyu;Jang, Hak-Chul;Rha, Mi-Yong;Kim, Ji-Young;Park, Young-Mi;Sohn, Cheong-Min
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.147-155
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    • 2008
  • Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is considered a keystone of medical treatment of chronic diseases. However, only few studies have evaluated medical and economical outcome of MNT. The study was performed on the patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus to evaluate the effect of clinical and cost-effective outcomes of MNT. Subjects from two general hospitals were randomly assigned to two different groups; One receiving basic nutritional education (BE) (n = 35), and the other receiving intensive nutritional education (IE) (n = 32) for a 6-month clinical trial. The group which received BE had a single visit with a dietitian, while the other group which received IE had an initial visit with a dietitian addition to two visits during the first 4 weeks of the study periods. Anthropometric parameters, blood components, and dietary intake were measures at the beginning of study period and after 6 month. Cost-effective analysis included direct labor costs, educational materials and medication cost difference during 6 months. After 6 month, subjects from IE group showed significant reduction of body weight (p <0.05) and systolic blood pressure (p <0.05), whereas BE group did not show any significant changes. Result from biochemical indices showed glycated hemoglobin concentration was significantly reduced by 0.7% (p <0.05) only in the IE group. The ratio of energy intake to prescribed energy intake decreased significantly in both groups (p <0.05). Mean time taken for a dietitian to educate the subject was 67.9 ${\pm}$ 9.3 min/person for BE group, while 96.4 ${\pm}$ 12.2 min/person for IE group. Mean number of educational materials was 1.9 ${\pm}$ 0.7/person for BE group and 2.5 ${\pm}$ 0.7/person for IE group. Change in glycated hemoglobin level along the 6 month period of study can be achieved with an investment of \88,510/% by implementing BE and \53,691/% by implementing IE. Considering the net cost-effect of blood glucose control and HbA Ic, IE which provides MNT by dietitian had a cost efficiency advantage than that of BE. According to this study, MNT provided by dietitian had a significant improvements in medical and clinical outcomes compared to that of BE intervention. Therefore, MNT protocol should be performed by systemic intensive nutrition care by dietitian in clinical setting to achieve good therapeutic results of DM with lower cost.

Efficacy of a Respiratory Training System on the Regularity of Breathing (호흡연습장치를 적용한 호흡교정법의 영향 평가)

  • Shin, Eun-Hyuk;Park, Hee-Chul;Han, Young-YIh;Ju, Sang-Gyu;Shin, Jung-Suk;Ahn, Yong-Chan
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. Results: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal regularity and maintaining a more even tidal volume.

Live Load Distribution in Prestressed Concrete I-Girder Bridges (I형 프리스트레스트 콘크리트 거더교의 활하중 분배)

  • Lee, Hwan-Woo;Kim, Kwang-Yang
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.325-334
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    • 2008
  • The standard prestressed concrete I-girder bridge (PSC I-girder bridge) is one of the most prevalent types for small and medium bridges in Korea. When determining the member forces in a section to assess the safety of girder in this type of bridge, the general practice is to use the simplified practical equations or the live load distribution factors proposed in design standards rather than the precise analysis through the finite element method or so. Meanwhile, the live load distribution factors currently used in Korean design practice are just a reflection of overseas research results or design standards without alterations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an equation of the live load distribution factors fit for the design conditions of Korea, considering the standardized section of standard PSC I-girder bridges and the design strength of concrete. In this study, to develop an equation of the live load distribution factors, a parametric analysis and sensitivity analysis were carried out on the parameters such as width of bridge, span length, girder spacing, width of traffic lane, etc. As a result, the major variables to determine the size of distribution factors were girder spacing, overhang length and span length in case of external girders. For internal adjacent girders, the determinant factors were girder spacing, overhang length, span length and width of bridge. For internal girders, the factors were girder spacing, width of bridge and span length. Then, an equation of live load distribution factors was developed through the multiple linear regression analysis on the results of parametric analysis. When the actual practice engineers design a bridge with the equation of live load distribution factors developed here, they will determine the design of member forces ensuring the appropriate safety rate more easily. Moreover, in the preliminary design, this model is expected to save much time for the repetitive design to improve the structural efficiency of PSC I-girder bridges.