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Assessment of 1,4-Dioxane Removal in Polyester Wastewater by Activated Sludge and Its Microbial Property by 16S rDNA (폴리에스테르 중합폐수의 활성슬러지 공정에서의 1,4-다이옥산 제거 및 16S rDNA에 의한 미생물 군집특성 평가)

  • Han, Ji-Sun;So, Myung-Ho;Kim, Chang-Gyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.393-400
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    • 2008
  • 1,4-Dioxane($C_4H_8O_2$), which is used as a solvent stabilizer, could make harmful effects on ecosystem because of its higher solubility, toxicity and carcinogenic by US EPA. From 2011, its discharge limit to waterbody will be regulated at 5 mg/L by Ministry of Environment Republic of Korea. It was thus to investigate that the currently operating activated sludge in polyester manufacturing processes in Gumi can properly treat it to meet with the regulation standard. For that purpose, the removal rate of 1,4-dioxane and its microbial properties were assessed for a few companies(i.e. K, H and T). Its removal efficiency was the most highly recorded in H as 98% and then 77% for K, which met with the regulation standard. However, concentration of 1,4-dioxane of T was 23 mg/L in the effluent, which is more than the regulation standard. Aside from, microbial degradation test was done for 100 ppm of 1,4-dioxane in BSM (Basal salt medium) inoculated with each of activated sludge. After 7 days, 1,4-dioxane was completely removed in the test bottle inoculated with H sludge, 67% in T and 52% in K, which could confirm that the given activated sludge might have different biodegradability against the amount of 1,4-dioxane. Therefore, microbial diversity in each company was investigated by 16s rDNA cloning methods where a species, e.g. Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, was the greatest observed from H and in lesser from K, but it was not detected from T. Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is known to efficiently degrade ether like methyl tertiary-butyl ether(MTBE). It is concluded that the activated sludge in H can be most effectively adopted for a biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in the concern of industrial sector.

A Study on Characterization of Formation and Reduction of THMs in Water Treatment Process (정수처리공정별 THMs 발생특성과 저감방안에 대한 연구)

  • Ka, Gil-Hyun;Bae, Min-Ho;Lee, Jun-Ho;Ahn, Chi-Hwa;Han, Ihn-Sup;Min, Byung-Dae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.721-728
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    • 2008
  • DBPs(Disinfection By-Products) are most formed through the reactions between chlorine and NOM(Natural Organic Matter) in water treatment. In this study, occurrence of DBPs including THMs(Trihalomethanes) is evaluated. Also, influencing factors by the seasons and raw water quality were investigated for correlation among them and the characteristics of THMs formation by prechlorination process. This study investigated the operation condition for THMs removal depending on raw water quality. Water treatment plant from intake station to gauging well flows for about 10 hours in Y Water Supply Office. It is limited to control of THMs formation because of excessive reaction time between chlorine and THMs precursors in the intake station. Therefore, as multi-points prechlorination from intake station to gauging well, THMs formation was decreased in the water treatment, and it was willing to prevent overdosage of chlorine. The concentration of THMs was 0.021 mg/L in the summer, 0.015 mg/L in the winter, respectively. Also, THMs formation showed that 0.013 mg/L in the water of gauging well after prechlorination, 0.014 mg/L in the flocculation/sedimentation/filtration, 0.016 mg/L in the water after postchlorination, respectively. THMFP(Trihalomethane Formation Potential) removed 42.7% and 50% through the flocculation/sedimentation and filtration, respectively, and it is similar TOC removal efficiency. In this study, multi-points prechlorination from intake station to gauging well decreases in contact time and concencrations of NOM and chlorine. Also, it decreases in THMs and amount of chlorine uesd. In the result of multi-points prechlorination in the summer, the concentration of THMs was 0.013mg/L in the treated water. In view of these facts, THMs formation can be decreased approximately 50%.

Effect of Temperature on the Nitrogen Removal of Municipal Wastewater in a Pilot-scale Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor with Waste-tire Media (폐타이어 담체를 이용한 파일럿 규모 유동상 생물막 공정에서 하수의 질소제거에 미치는 온도 영향)

  • Park, Woon-Ji;Ahn, Johng-Hwa;Lee, Chan-Ki
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.507-516
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    • 2008
  • This research was conducted to elucidate the effect of temperature on the nitrogen removal of municipal wastewater with waste-tire media. The experiments were carried out in laboratory-scale batch reactor and pilot-scale moving bed biofilm reactor filled at a 0.15 filling ratio with waste-tire media, respectively. In batch tests, specific nitrification rate(SNR) with media was 3.4 mg NH$_4^+$-N/g Mixed-Liquor Volatile Suspended Solid(MLVSS)$\cdot$hr, compared with 1.7 mg NH$_4^+$-N/g MLVSS$\cdot$hr without media. In pilot-scale test with media, total nitrogen removal efficiency increased from 53 $\pm$ 8% to 76 $\pm$ 5% as the temperature increased from 9$\sim$10$^{\circ}C$ to 20$\sim$24$^{\circ}C$. At the temperature of 9$\sim$10$^{\circ}C$, 10$\sim$20$^{\circ}C$, and 20$\sim$24$^{\circ}C$, the SNRs were 0.8 $\pm$ 0.5, 3.1 $\pm$ 1.9, and 3.4 $\pm$ 2.1 mg NH$_4^+$-N/g MLVSS$\cdot$hr and the specific denitrification rates(SDNR) were 0.6 $\pm$ 0.2, 1.1 $\pm$ 0.6, 1.4 $\pm$ 0.6 mg NO$_3^-$-N/g MLVSS.hr, respectively. The overall activities of biomass in anaerobic, anoxic, and oxic zones at 20$\sim$24$^{\circ}C$ increased to 22, 20, and 15%, compared with those at 9$\sim$10$^{\circ}C$, respectively. The activity distribution of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter also increased with the increase of temperature.

The Study on the Change of Iron Concentration and the Reaction Mechanism of the 1,4-Dioxane Degradation using Zero Valent Iron and UV (영가철(Fe$^0$)과 UV를 이용한 1,4-dioxane 분해 반응시 철농도의 변화와 반응 메커니즘의 연구)

  • Son, Hyun-Seok;Im, Jong-Kwon;Zoh, Kyung-Duk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.323-330
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    • 2008
  • The study presents the results of 1,4-dioxane degradation using zero valent (Fe$^0$) or Fe$^{2+}$ ions with and without UV. During the reaction, the change of [Fe$^{2+}$] and [Fe$^{2+}$]/[Fe(t)], the concentration ratio of ferrous ion to total iron ion in solution was measured. Less than 10% degradation of 1,4-dioxane was observed by UV-only, Fe$^0$-only, and Fe$^{2+}$-only conditions, and also the changes of [Fe$^{2+}$] and [Fe$^{2+}$]/[Fe(t)] were minimal in each reaction. However, the oxidation of Fe$^0$ was enhanced with the irradiation of UV by approximately 25% and the improvement of 1,4-dioxane degradation was observed. Fenton reaction ($Fe^{2+}+H_2O_2$) showed higher degradation efficiency of 1,4-dioxane until 90 min, which of the degradation was stopped after that time. In the reaction of Fe$^{2+}$ and UV, the ratio of [Fe$^{2+}$]/[Fe(t)] decreased then slowly increased after a certain time indicating the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe$^{2+}$. In case of Fe$^0$ in the presence of UV, the first-order rate constant was found to be 1.84$\times$10$^{-3}$ min$^{-1}$ until 90 min, and then changed to 9.33$\times$10$^{-3}$ min$^{-1}$ when the oxidation of Fe$^{2+}$ mainly occurred. In this case [Fe$^{2+}$]/[Fe(t)] kept decreasing for the reaction. However, the addition of perchlortae (ClO$_4^-$) in the reaction of Fe$^0$ and UV induced the continuous increase of [Fe$^{2+}$]/[Fe(t)] ratio. The results mean the primary degradation factor of 1,4-dioxane is the oxidation by the radicals generated from the redox reaction between Fe$^{2+}$ and Fe$^{3+}$. Also, both UV and ClO$_4^-$ played the role inducing the reduction of Fe$^{3+}$, which is important to degrade 1,4-dioxane by enhancing the generation of radicals.

Lime (CaO) and Limestone ($CaCO_3$) Treatment as the Stabilization Process for Contaminated Farmland Soil around Abandoned Mine, Korea (폐광산 주변 중금속 오염 농경지 토양 복원을 위한 석회(CaO)와 석회암($CaCO_3$)의 안정화 효율 규명)

  • Lee, Min-Hee;Lee, Ye-Sun;Yang, Min-Jun;Kim, Jong-Seung;Wang, Soo-Kyn
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2008
  • The mixing treatment process using lime (CaO) and limestone ($CaCO_3$) as the immobilization amendments was applied for heavy metal contaminated filmland soils around Goro abandoned Zn-mine, Korea in the batch and pilot scale continuous column experiments. For the batch experiments, with the addition of 0.5 wt.% commercialized lime or limestone, leaching concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn from the contaminated filmland soil decreased by 70, 77, 94, and 95 %, respectively, compared to those without amendments. For the continuous pilot scale column experiments, the acryl column (30 cm in length and 20 cm in diameter) was designed and granulated lime and limestone were used. From the results of column experiments, with only 2 wt.% of granulated lime, As, Cd, and Zn leaching concentrations decreased by 63%, 97%, and 98%, respectively. With 2 wt.% of granulated limestone, As leaching concentration reduced from 135.6 to 30.2 ${\mu}g/L$ within 5 months and maintained mostly below 10 ${\mu}g/L$, representing that more than 46% diminution of leaching concentration compared to that without the amendment mixing. For Cd and Zn, their leaching concentrations with only 2 wt.% of limestone mixing decreased by 97%, respectively compared to that without amendment mixing, suggesting that the capability of limestone to immobilize heavy metals in the filmland soil was outstanding and similar to that of lime. From the column experiments, it was investigated that if the efficiency of limestone to immobilize heavy metals from the soil was similar to that of lime, the limestone could be more available to immobilize heavy metals from the soil than lime because of low pH increase and thus less harmful side effect.

2-D/3-D Seismic Data Acquisition and Quality Control for Gas Hydrate Exploration in the Ulleung Basin (울릉분지 가스하이드레이트 2/3차원 탄성파 탐사자료 취득 및 품질관리)

  • Koo, Nam-Hyung;Kim, Won-Sik;Kim, Byoung-Yeop;Cheong, Snons;Kim, Young-Jun;Yoo, Dong-Geun;Lee, Ho-Young;Park, Keun-Pil
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.127-136
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    • 2008
  • To identify the potential area of gas hydrate in the Ulleung Basin, 2-D and 3-D seismic surveys using R/V Tamhae II were conducted in 2005 and 2006. Seismic survey equipment consisted of navigation system, recording system, streamer cable and air-gun source. For reliable velocity analysis in a deep sea area where water depths are mostly greater than 1,000 m and the target depth is up to about 500 msec interval below the seafloor, 3-km-long streamer and 1,035 $in^3$ tuned air-gun array were used. During the survey, a suite of quality control operations including source signature analysis, 2-D brute stack, RMS noise analysis and FK analysis were performed. The source signature was calculated to verify its conformity to quality specification and the gun dropout test was carried out to examine signature changes due to a single air gun's failure. From the online quality analysis, we could conclude that the overall data quality was very good even though some seismic data were affected by swell noise, parity error, spike noise and current rip noise. Especially, by checking the result of data quality enhancement using FK filtering and missing trace restoration technique for the 3-D seismic data inevitably contaminated with current rip noises, the acquired data were accepted and the field survey could be conducted continuously. Even in survey areas where the acquired data would be unsuitable for quality specification, the marine seismic survey efficiency could be improved by showing the possibility of noise suppression through onboard data processing.

Effects of the cis-Acting Element in the 3' End of Porcine $\beta$-Casein Gene on the Expression in Mammary Epithelial Cells (돼지 $\beta$-Casein 유전자의 3' 말단 부위의 cis-Acting Element가 유선 상피 세포내의 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hwi-Cheul;Kim, Byoung-Ju;Byun, Sung-June;Lee, Seung-Hoon;Kim, Min-Ji;Chung, Hee Kyoung;Lee, Hyun-Gi;Jo, Su-Jin;Chang, Won-Kyong;Park, Jin-Ki;Lee, Poong-Yeon
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2008
  • Tissue-specific and temporal regulation of milk protein gene expression is advantageous when creating transgenic animal that produces foreign protein into milk. Gene expression, i.e. protein production, is regulated not only by promoter strength but also mRNA stability. Especially, poly A tail length by polyadenylation affects in vivo and in vitro mRNA stability and translation efficiency of the target gene. In the present study, nucleotide sequence of 3'-UTR was analyzed to evaluate the effects of mRNA stability on the target gene expression. Based on the poly A signal of 3' -untranslated region (UTR), nucleotide sequences of putative cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) and downstream elements (DSEs: U-rich, G-rich, GU-rich) were analyzed and used to construct 15 luciferase reporter vectors. Each vector was transfected to HC11 and porcine mammary gland cell (PMGC) and measured for dual luciferase expression levels after 48 hours of incubation. Luciferase expression was significantly higher in construct #6 (with CPE 2, 3 and DSE 1 of exon 9) and #11 (with CPE 2, 3 and DSE 1, 2 and 3 of exon 9) than construct #1 in the PMGC. These results suggest that expression of target genes in PMGC may be effectively expressed by using the construct #6 and #11 on production of transgenic pig.

Determinants of the Location and Relocation of Domestic Logistics Firms in Korea (focused on complementary commodity flow survey for 2006) (우리나라 국내 화주기업의 입지 및 재입지 선택 특성 분석 (2006년 물류현황보완조사를 중심으로))

  • Do, Hwa-Yong;Jang, Hoon;Kim, Chan-Sung;Won, Jai-Mu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.37-49
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    • 2008
  • In general, most of the firms do not settle down in one place for their pursuit of profit. There are many reasons for the relocation of the firms; procurement of raw material, market area, transportation cost and housing cost. The aspect of national policy, firm relocation has been systemically promoted for the purpose of logistics system efficiency. Nowadays balanced regional development has been issue. Another aspect, many countries have struggled for the preoccupancy of new place because of its production cost saving and curtailment of expenditure. The aim of this article is qualitative and quantitative analysis of relocation influence factors of domestic goods firms in Korea. This article dynamically analyzed the relocation influence factors for domestic goods firms in Korea. For the analysis this article made use of complementary survey (2006) out of the 3rd national logistics survey (2005). The complementary survey conducted pre-business district, business period, relocation reason, etc. This article dynamically analyzed from the three aspects; observation of average residence time in one business district, relocation factors, influence of market area. Analysis shows that relocation of firm is very high rate and the reasons of relocation play compositeness role. The results of determinants of location, firms approach the established market area closely and the firm's relocation is influenced by market area.

Scaling up Hydrothermal Synthesis of Na-A Type Zeolite from Natural Siliceous Mudstone and Its Heavy Metal Adsorption Behavior (규질 이암으로부터 Na-A형 제올라이트의 scale-up 수열합성 및 중금속흡착)

  • Bae, In-Kook;Jang, Young-Nam;Shin, Hee-Young;Chae, Soo-Chun;Ryu, Kyoung-Won
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.341-347
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    • 2008
  • The feasibility of commercializing the hydrothermal synthesis of Na-A type zeolite from siliceous mudstone has been conducted using a 50-liter bench-scale autoclave and the application of the zeolite as an environmental remediation agent. Siliceous mudstone, which is widely distributed around the Pohang area, was adopted as a precursor. The siliceous mudstone is favorable for the synthesis of zeolite because it contains 70.7% $SiO_2$ and 10.0% $Al_2O_3$, which are major ingredient of zeolite formation. The synthesis of zeolite was carried out under the following conditions that had been obtained from the previous laboratory-scale tests: 10hr reaction time, $80^{\circ}C$ reaction temperature, $Na_2O/SiO_2$ ratio = 0.6, $SiO_2/Al_2O_3$ ratio = 2.0 and $H_2O/Na_2O$ ratio= 98.6. The crystallinity and morphology of the zeolite formed were similar to those obtained from the laboratory-scale tests. The recovery and cation exchange ion capacity were 95% and 215 cmol/kg, respectively, which are slightly higher than those obtained in laboratory scale tests. To examine the feasibility of the zeolite as an environmental remediation agent, experiments for heavy metal adsorption to zeolite were conducted. Its removal efficiencies of heavy metals in simulated waste solutions decreased in the following sequences: Pb > Cd > Cu = Zn > Mn. In a solution of 1500 mg/L total impurity metals, the removal efficiencies for these impurity metals were near completion (> 99%) except for Mn whose efficiency was 98%. Therefore, the synthetic Na-A type zeolite was proven to be a strong absorbent effective for removing heavy metals.

Characterization and Feasibility Study of the Soil Washing Process Applying to the Soil Having High Uranium Concentration in Korea (우라늄 함량이 높은 국내 토양에 대한 토양학적 특성 규명 및 토양세척법의 적용성 평가)

  • Chang, See-Un;Lee, Min-Hee
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.8-19
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    • 2008
  • The physicochemical properties of soils having high uranium content, located around Duckpyungri in Korea, were investigated and the lab scale soil washing experiments to remove uranium from the soil were preformed with several washing solutions and on various washing conditions. SPLP (Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure), TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), and SEP (Sequential Extraction Procedure) for the soil were conducted and the uranium concentration of the extracted solution in SPLP was higher than Drinking Water Limit of USEPA (30 ${\mu}g$/L), suggesting that the continuous dissolution of uranium from soil by the weak acid rain may generate the environmental pollution around the research area. For the soil washing experiments, the uranium removal efficiency of pH 1 solution for S2 soil was about 80 %, but dramatically decreased as pH of solution was > 2, suggesting that strong acidic solutions are available to remove uranium from the soil. For solutions with 0.1M of HCl and 0.05 M of ${H_2}{SO_4}$, their removal efficiencies at 1 : 1 of soil vs. washing solution ratio were higher than 70%, but the removal efficiencies of acetic acid, and EDTA were below 30%. At 1 : 3 of soil vs. solution, the uranium removal efficiencies of 0.1M HCl, 0.05 M ${H_2}{SO_4}$, and 0.5M citric acid solution increased to 88%, 100%, and 61% respectively. On appropriate washing conditions for S2 soil such as 1 : 3 ratio for the soil vs. solution ratio, 30 minute for washing time, and 2 times continuous washing, TOC (Total Organic Contents) and CEC (Cation Exchange Capacity) for S2 soil were measured before/after soil washing and their XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) results were also compared to investigate the change of soil properties after soil washing. TOC and CEC decreased by 55% and 66%, compared to those initial values of S2 soil, suggesting that the soil reclaimant may need to improve the washed soils for the cultivated plants. Results of XRF and XRD showed that the structural change of soil after soil washing was insignificant and the washed soil will be partially used for the further purpose.