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Investigation on the Amount of Water Evaporation from Composting Facilities Operated in Swine Farms (양돈농가에서 퇴비화시설별 수분변화량 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Kwag, J.H.;Choi, D.Y.;Park, C.H.;Jeong, J.H.;Kim, J.H.;Yoo, Y.H.;Jeon, B.S.;Ra, C.S.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2008
  • The results of the research on the amount of water evaporation from composting facilities operated in swine farms are below. The number of swine per a farm was 1433 head/farm for a Simple Composting Facility (SCF) and 3500 head/farm for a Escalator composting facility(ECF) system. The capacities of the SCF and the ECF were $0.33m^3/head$ and $0.25m^3/head$, respectively. The ECF had 24.2% less capacity than the SCF. The average water contents in the swine manure for the CP and the ECF of the surveyed farms were 86.8% and 85.7%, respectively, which revealed the ECF had 1.3% less average water content than the SCF. Daily water inputs into the SCF and the ECF were $4.1kg/m^3/day$ and $6.5kg/m^3/day$, respectively. The ECF had approximately 36.9% higher water input than the SCF. Fermentation temperatures during the composting period for the SCF and the ECF were up to $45^{\circ}C$ and $70^{\circ}C$, respectively. The decreases in water contents per each square meter for the SCF and the ECF were 3.7 kg and 5.2 kg, respectively. The ECF lost approximately 28.8% more water content than the ECF, which would be caused by the difference of fermentation temperature between two systems. Fertilizer components after composting were examined. Nitrogen contents of the SCF and the ECF were similar (0.84% and 0.86%, respectively) and ${P_2}{O_5}$ contents were 0.78% and 0.74%, respectively, showing the SCF had slightly higher content than the ECF. However, OM and OM/N did not show the difference between two systems. Hence, efforts to increase composting efficiency with considerations of the water content of swine manure, fermentation temperature, and water evaporation potential should be done when the SCF and the ECF were used in swine farms.

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Synthesis and Characterization of Thermally Cross-linkable Hole Transporting Material Based on Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) Derivative (열경화가 가능한 poly(p-phenylenevinylene)계 정공전달 물질의 합성 및 특성)

  • Choi, Jiyoung;Lee, Bong;Kim, Joo Hyun
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.299-303
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    • 2008
  • A thermally cross-linkable polymer, poly[(2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(1,4-phenylenevinylene)] (Cross-PPV), was synthesized by the Heck coupling reaction. In order for the polymer to be cross-linkable, 20 mol% excess divinylbenzene was added. The chemical structure of Cross-PPV and thermally crosslinked Cross-PPV were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. From the FT-IR, UV-Vis, and PL spectral data, thermally crosslinked Cross-PPV was insoluble in common organic solvents. The HOMO and LUMO energy level of thermally cross-linked Cross-PPV were estimated -5.11 and -2.56 eV, respectively, which were determined by the cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectroscopy. From the energy level data, one can easily notice that thermally crosslinked Cross-PPV can be used for hole injection layer effectively. Bilayer structured device (ITO/crosslinked Cross-PPV/PM-PPV/Al) was fabricated using poly(1,4-phenylenevinylene-(4-dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran)-2,6-vinylene-1,4-phenylenevinylene-2,5-bis(dodecyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene (PM-PPV) as the emitting layer, which have HOMO and LUMO energy levels of -5.44 eV and -3.48 eV, respectively. The bilayered device had much enhanced the maximum efficiency (0.024 cd/A) and luminescence ($45cd/m^2$) than those of a single layer device (ITO/PM-PPV/Al, 0.003 cd/A, $3cd/m^2$). The enhanced performance originated from that fact that cross-linked Cross-PPV facilitatse the hole injection to the emissive layer and the injected hole and electron from ITO and Al are recombined in emitting layer (PM-PPV) effectively.

A Study on The Consumer Expectation - Performance according to the Types of Internet Shopping Malls (인터넷 쇼핑몰 유형에 따른 소비자 기대-성과에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, In-Ku;Ryoo, Hak-Soo
    • Korean Business Review
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.63-87
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    • 2004
  • To create and maintain comparative supremacy as a strategic tool of business, many organizations have introduced informational technology and system. By using this system, Some companies got a beneficial value for achieving organizational goals but others could not obtain their effectiveness and efficiency. In particular, a lot of organizations that tried to make strategic supremacy with e-commercial trade are under hard condition because of poor profit. It implies that it is essential to identify and analyse the consumer who uses e-commercial trade. This paper, therefore, focusing on internet shopping malls between business and consumer as one of areas of e-commercial trades, shows the difference between consumer expectation and performance. The results of this study are as follows: First, as for the significant difference of influencing factors to consumer satisfactions according to the types of internet shopping malls, there is a meaningful difference in consumer anxiety and internet usefulness, but not in consumer service. Prior to verify the differences in detail on consumer's anxiety and internet usefulness, we examined that there is any difference between expectation and performance. T-test was used for the variants of consumer anxiety and internet usefulness, and its meaningful probability was 0.000, which means that both showed statistically significant difference. Based on the results, we also found that regardless of the types of internet shopping malls, consumer expectation was greater than performance. although the difference between expectation and performance was not equal according to the internet shopping malls. Second, a regression analysis was performed to understand the relation between consumer service, internet usefulness, consumer anxiety, and consumer satisfaction, it was found that consumer service, internet usefulness, consumer anxiety had significantly effected on consumer satisfaction. Third, To verify the relation between consumer satisfaction and repurchase-intentions, intentions to spread out, Pearson correlation analysis was used. it was found that consumer satisfaction had positive effect on both intentions. This study has some limitations because of the shorts of money and time. since the sample of this study was consumers who have ever bought one or more products via internet shopping mall, this sample was appropriate. but the major parts of sample were college students, and the sample size was so small. therefore this results should carefully be generalized. For further study, it is required to select more precise samples and to include more variables.

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Shape Scheme and Size Discrete Optimum Design of Plane Steel Trusses Using Improved Genetic Algorithm (개선된 유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 평면 철골트러스의 형상계획 및 단면 이산화 최적설계)

  • Kim, Soo-Won;Yuh, Baeg-Youh;Park, Choon-Wok;Kang, Moon-Myung
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.89-97
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study is the development of a scheme and discrete optimum design algorithm, which is based on the genetic algorithm. The algorithm can perform both scheme and size optimum designs of plane trusses. The developed Scheme genetic algorithm was implemented in a computer program. For the optimum design, the objective function is the weight of structures and the constraints are limits on loads and serviceability. The basic search method for the optimum design is the genetic algorithm. The algorithm is known to be very efficient for the discrete optimization. However, its application to the complicated structures has been limited because of the extreme time need for a number of structural analyses. This study solves the problem by introducing the size & scheme genetic algorithm operators into the genetic algorithm. The genetic process virtually takes no time. However, the evolutionary process requires a tremendous amount of time for a number of structural analyses. Therefore, the application of the genetic algorithm to the complicated structures is extremely difficult, if not impossible. The scheme genetic algorithm operators was introduced to overcome the problem and to complement the evolutionary process. It is very efficient in the approximate analyses and scheme and size optimization of plane trusses structures and considerably reduces structural analysis time. Scheme and size discrete optimum combined into the genetic algorithm is what makes the practical discrete optimum design of plane fusses structures possible. The efficiency and validity of the developed discrete optimum design algorithm was verified by applying the algorithm to various optimum design examples: plane pratt, howe and warren truss.

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Effects of Phenolic Compounds of Persimmon Leaves on Antioxidative System and Miscellaneous Enzyme Activities Related to Liver Function in Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity of Rats (감잎의 Phenolic Compounds가 에탄올을 투여한 흰쥐의 항산화계 및 기타 효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 정창주;윤준식;이명렬
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 2004
  • To investigate antioxidative effects of phenolic compounds separated from persimmon leaves(PL)(Diospyros kaki Thunb.) on the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat, Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100-150 g were divided into 5 groups; control group(CON), PL(70 mg/kg) administered group(PEl), ethanol(5 mL/kg, 25%) administered group(ETH), PL(70 mg/kg) and ethanol administered group (PE2), and PL(140 mg/kg) and ethanol administered group(PE3), respectively. The antioxidative activity of persimmon leaves decreased in order of ethylacetate>interphase materials>n-butanol>chloroform>n-hexane>water fraction. The growth rate and feed efficiency ratio decreased by ethanol were gradually increased to the adjacent level of CON by administering PL. The serum activities of ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lactic acid dehydrogenase elevated by ethanol were decreased significantly. It was also observed that the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px of rat liver increased by ethanol were markedly decreased in PL administered group as compared to ETH. The GSH content of liver was decreased by ethanol, but that was increased in PE1 and PE2 compared with ETH as a dose-dependant manner. These results suggested that phenolic compounds separated from persimmon leaves have a possible protective and relievable effect on the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Remediation Design Using Soil Washing and Soil Improvement Method for As Contaminated Soils and Stream Deposits Around an Abandoned Mine (토양 세척법과 석회를 첨가한 토양 안정화 공법을 이용한 폐광산 주변 비소 오염 토양 및 하천 퇴적토 복원)

  • 이민희;이정산;차종철;최정찬;이정민
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 2004
  • Removal efficiencies of soil washing and soil improvement processes to remediate farmland soils and stream deposits around Goro abandoned mine were investigated with batch and column experiments. For As-contaminated farm-land soils around Goro mine, batch tests to quantify As extraction rate from contaminated soils and lime treated contaminated soils were performed. The contaminated soil mixed with lime decreased As extraction rate less than one fourth, suggesting that the soil improvement method mixed with lime dramatically decrease As extraction rate. A storage dam will be constructed in the lower part of the main stream connected to Goro abandoned mine and the amount of As extracted from the bottom soils of reservoir could be the main source to contaminate water of reservoir. The decrease of As extraction amount from the bottom in reservoir, caused by the application of the soil improvement method was investigated from the physically simulated column experiment and results showed that As extraction rate decreased to one forty when 1% lime mixed soil improvement was applied to contaminated soils. For contaminated stream deposits connected Goro mine, the removal efficiency of the soil washing method was investigated with batch experiments. Hydrochloric acid, citric acid, acetic acid and distilled water were used as soil washing solution and 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 N of washing solution were applied to extract As. When washing with 0.05 N of hydrochloric acid or citric acid, more than 99.9% of As was removed from stream deposits, suggesting that As contaminated stream deposits around Goro mine be successfully remediated with the soil washing process. Total volumes of contaminated soils and deposits needed for remediation were calculated based on three different reme-diation target concentrations and the operation cost of soil washing for calculated soil volumes was estimated. Results from this research could be directly used to make a comprehensive countermeasure to remediate contaminated area around Goro mine and also many contaminated areas similar to this research area.

An efficient interconnection network topology in dual-link CC-NUMA systems (이중 연결 구조 CC-NUMA 시스템의 효율적인 상호 연결망 구성 기법)

  • Suh, Hyo-Joong
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartA
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    • v.11A no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2004
  • The performance of the multiprocessor systems is limited by the several factors. The system performance is affected by the processor speed, memory delay, and interconnection network bandwidth/latency. By the evolution of semiconductor technology, off the shelf microprocessor speed breaks beyond GHz, and the processors can be scalable up to multiprocessor system by connecting through the interconnection networks. In this situation, the system performances are bound by the latencies and the bandwidth of the interconnection networks. SCI, Myrinet, and Gigabit Ethernet are widely adopted as a high-speed interconnection network links for the high performance cluster systems. Performance improvement of the interconnection network can be achieved by the bandwidth extension and the latency minimization. Speed up of the operation clock speed is a simple way to accomplish the bandwidth and latency betterment, while its physical distance makes the difficulties to attain the high frequency clock. Hence the system performance and scalability suffered from the interconnection network limitation. Duplicating the link of the interconnection network is one of the solutions to resolve the bottleneck of the scalable systems. Dual-ring SCI link structure is an example of the interconnection network improvement. In this paper, I propose a network topology and a transaction path algorism, which optimize the latency and the efficiency under the duplicated links. By the simulation results, the proposed structure shows 1.05 to 1.11 times better latency, and exhibits 1.42 to 2.1 times faster execution compared to the dual ring systems.

Risk Ranking Analysis for the City-Gas Pipelines in the Underground Laying Facilities (지하매설물 중 도시가스 지하배관에 대한 위험성 서열화 분석)

  • Ko, Jae-Sun;Kim, Hyo
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.54-66
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    • 2004
  • In this article, we are to suggest the hazard-assessing method for the underground pipelines, and find out the pipeline-maintenance schemes of high efficiency in cost. Three kinds of methods are applied in order to refer to the approaching methods of listing the hazards for the underground pipelines: the first is RBI(Risk Based Inspection), which firstly assess the effect of the neighboring population, the dimension, thickness of pipe, and working time. It enables us to estimate quantitatively the risk exposure. The second is the scoring system which is based on the environmental factors of the buried pipelines. Last we quantify the frequency of the releases using the present THOMAS' theory. In this work, as a result of assessing the hazard of it using SPC scheme, the hazard score related to how the gas pipelines erodes indicate the numbers from 30 to 70, which means that the assessing criteria define well the relative hazards of actual pipelines. Therefore. even if one pipeline region is relatively low score, it can have the high frequency of leakage due to its longer length. The acceptable limit of the release frequency of pipeline shows 2.50E-2 to 1.00E-l/yr, from which we must take the appropriate actions to have the consequence to be less than the acceptable region. The prediction of total frequency using regression analysis shows the limit operating time of pipeline is the range of 11 to 13 years, which is well consistent with that of the actual pipeline. Concludingly, the hazard-listing scheme suggested in this research will be very effectively applied to maintaining the underground pipelines.

Effects of Liquid Culture of Coriolus Versicolor on Lipid Metabolism and Enzyme Activities in Rats Fed High Fat Diet (운지버섯 균사체 배양액이 고지방 식이를 급여한 흰쥐의 지질대사 및 효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 문상필;고진복
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.88-94
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    • 2004
  • The effects of liquid culture of Coriolus versicolor on weight gain, food intakes, food efficiency ratios, serum and hepatic lipid concentrations, serum protein levels and serum enzyme activities, were studied in growing male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were given four different types of diets for a succeeding period of 5 weeks, respectively: a normal diet group (7% corn oil), a high fat diet group (7% corn oil+15% lard), a 20% or 30% C. versicolor diet groups (high fat diet+20% or 30% C. versicolor in water) according to the levels of C. versicolor supplementation. The body weight gains of the rats fed the 30% C. versicolor diets were lower than those in the rats fed high fat diet. The epididymal fat pad weight of the rats fed high fat diet and 20% or 30% C. versicolor diets were significantly higher than that of the rats fed normal diet. The concentrations of triglyceride in the serum and the liver of the rats fed the 30% C. versicolor diets were more significantly decreased compared to rats on the high fat diet. The concentrations of total cholesterol in the serum and the liver of rats fed the high fat diet, 20% and 30% C. versicolor diets were similar to those of rats fed the normal diet. The HDL-cholesterol concentration and the HDL-cholesterol/total-cholesterol ratio of the rats fed 20% and 30% C. versicolor diets were significantly lower than those of the rats fed high fat diet. But the antherogenic index of the rats fed 20% or 30% C. versicolor diets were significantly higher than those of the rats fed high fat diet. There were no differences in the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in the serum among the experimental groups. These results showed that the 30% C. versicolor diet feeding decreased the triglyceride in serum and liver of the rats.

Design of Binary Constant Envelope System using the Pre-Coding Scheme in the Multi-User CDMA Communication System (다중 사용자 CDMA 통신 시스템에서 프리코딩 기법을 사용한 2진 정진폭 시스템 설계)

  • 김상우;유흥균;정순기;이상태
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.486-492
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, we newly propose the binary CA-CDMA(constant amplitude CDMA) system using pre-coding method to solve the high PAPR problem caused by multi-user signal transmission in the CDMA system. 4-user CA-CDMA, the basis of proposed binary CA-CDMA system, makes binary output signal for 4 input users. It produces the output of binary(${\pm}$2) amplitude by using a parity signal resulting from the XOR operation of 4 users data. Another sub-channel or more bandwidth is not necessary because it is transmitted together with user data and can be easily recovered in the receiver. The extension of the number of users can be possible by the simple repetition of the basic binary 4-user CA-CDMA. For example, binary 16-user CA-CDMA is made easily by allocating the four 4-user CA-CDMA systems in parallel and leading the four outputs to the fifth 4-user CA-CDMA system as input, because the output signal of each 4-user CA-CDMA is also binary. By the same extension procedure, binary 64 and 256-user CA-CDMA systems can be made with the constant amplitude. As a result, the code rate of this proposed CA-CDMA system is just 1 and binary CA-CDMA does not change the transmission rate with the constant output signal(PAPR = 0 ㏈). Therefore, the power efficiency of the HPA can be maximized without the nonlinear distortion. From the simulation results, it is verified that the conventional CDMA system has multi-level output signal, but the proposed binary CA-CDMA system always produces binary output. And it is also found that the BER of conventional CDMA system is increased by nonlinear HPA, but the BER of proposed binary CA-CDMA system is not changed.