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Partial transmission block production for real efficient method of block and MLC (Partial transmission block 제작 시 real block과 MLC를 이용한 방법 중 효율적인 방법에 대한 고찰)

  • Choi JiMin;Park JuYoung;Ju SangGyu;Ahn JongHo
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2004
  • Introduction : The Vaginal, the urethra, the vulva and anal cancer avoid the many dose to femur head and the additional treatment is necessary in inguinal LN. The partial transmission block to use inguinal LN addition there is to a method which it treats and produce partial transmission block a method and the MLC which to it analyzes. Material & Methode : The Inguinal the LN treatment patient partial transmission it used block and the MLC in the object and with solid water phantom with the patient it reappeared the same depth. In order to analyze the error of the junction the EDR2 (Extended dose range, the Kodak and the U.S) it used the Film and it got film scanner it got the beam profile. The partial transmission block and the MLC bias characteristic, accuracy and stability of production for, it shared at hour and comparison it analyzed. Result : The partial the transmission block compares in the MLC and the block production is difficult and production hour also above 1 hours. The custom the block the place where it revises the error of the junction is a difficult problem. If use of the MLC the fabrication will be break and only the periodical calibration of the MLC it will do and it will be able to use easily. Conclusion : The Inguinal there is to LN treatment and partial transmission block and the MLC there is efficiency of each one but there is a place where the junction of block for partial transmission block the production hour is caught long and it fixes and a point where the control of the block is difficult. like this problem it transfers with the MLC and if it treats, it means the effective treatment will be possible.

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Evaluation of Cleaning ability and Environmental Evaluation of Commercial Aqueous/Semi-aqueous Cleaning Agents (시판 수계/준수계 세정제의 세정성 및 환경성 평가 연구)

  • Cha, A.J.;Park, J.N.;Kim, H.S.;Bae, J.H.
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.73-87
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    • 2004
  • In most of industrial fields, cleaning is employed for removing soils on their products or parts. Halogenated cleaning agents such as CFC-113, 1,1,1-TCE(1,1,1-trichloroethane), MC(methylene chloride) and TCE (trichloroethylene) have been used as cleaning ones in most of companies in the world since their excellent performance of cleaning ability and good material compatibility. However, CFC-113 and 1,1,1-TCE which are ozone destruction substances are not used any more in the advanced countries because of the which are ozone destruction substances are not used any more in the advanced countries because of the Montreal protocol. MC and TCE are now used restrictively at small part of industrial fields in most of countries since they are known to be hazardous or carcinogenic materials. Thus, it is indispensible that the alternative cleaning agents which are environmental-friendly and safe, and show good cleaning ability should be developed or utilized for replacement of the halogenated cleaning agents. Aqueous/semi-aqueous cleaning agents are evaluated to be promising alternative ones among various alternatives in environmental and economical view point. In this study, commercially available 12 aqueous and 6 semi-aqueous cleaning agents were selected and their physical properties, cleaning abilities, rinsing abilities and recycling of contaminated rinse water were measured and analyzed. Aqueous cleaning agents with higher wetting index showed better cleaning ability compared with those with lower wetting index. However wetting index did not have any correlation with cleaning ability in semi-aqueous cleaning agents. It was observed that soil concentration in aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning agents should be maintained below the certain concentrations which depend on types of clearing agents. More than 70% soils in contaminated rinse water by some of aqueous and semi-aqueous clearing agents could be separated by simple settling method. This means that some cleaning agents with high oil-water separation efficiency will be effiective for recycling oil-contaminated rinse water. It was found that contaminated rinse water with aqueous agents was purified easiy by ultrafiltration method with PAN membrane of 30 kDa.

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Effect of Small Black Soybean Powder on Blood Glucose and Insulin Sensitivity in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (Streptozotocin-유도 당뇨모델을 이용한 쥐눈이콩 분말의 혈당강하 및 인슐린 감수성의 효과)

  • Lee, Dae-Hoon;Kwak, Dong-Hoon;Kim, Sung-Min;Ju, Eun-Jin;Choi, Han-Gil;Kim, Ok-Hee;Hwang, Jin-Bong;Bae, Nahm-Gung;Jung, Kyu-Yong;Han, Jin-Chul;Park, Hum-Dai;Choo, Young-Kug
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.10
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    • pp.1618-1625
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    • 2004
  • Beans are acknowledged to be food resources, which have more abundant proteins and fats. The constituent parts of beans (i.e. aspartic aid, glycine, arginine) are effective against diabetes, and dietary fiber contained in the beans has an important property to maintain insulin sensitivity. Based on these, using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, this study examined how the rat-eye soybean, which is principal products of the Imsil province, is effective to attenuate and/or prevent the development of diabetes mellitus. We divided rats into the non-diabetic and diabetic group, and diabetic group was further subdivided into six experimental groups [DC, diabetic control; DI, diabetes with insulin treatment (4∼6 IU/rat); DB, diabetes with black bean; DY, diabetes with yellow soybean; DS, diabetes with rat-eye soybean; DSS, diabetes with vinegar-fermented rat-eye soybean. All bean treatment (1.5 mg/l g body weight).]. Food efficiency ratio (FER), body weight and insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats were significantly reduced compared to those in normal control animals. These reductions were obviously attenuated by administration of a variety of beans used in this study (20∼30%), and the recovery effects were comparable to the results obtained by insulin treatment. Taken together, this study suggests that all beans used may have an essential property to improve and/or attenuate the development of diabetes mellitus in rats.

Feasibility Study of Wetland-pond Systems for Water Quality Improvement and Agricultural Reuse (습지-연못 연계시스템에 의한 수질개선과 농업적 재이용 타당성 분석)

  • Jang, Jae-Ho;Jung, Kwang-Wook;Ham, Jong-Hwa;Yoon, Chun-Gyeong
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.344-354
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    • 2004
  • A pilot study was performed from September 2000 to April 2004 to examine the feasibility of the wetland-pond system for the agricultural reuse of reclaimed water. The wetland system was a subsurface flow type, with a hydraulic residence time of 3.5 days, and the subsequent pond was 8 $m^3$ in volume (2 m ${\times}$ 2 m ${\times}$ 2 m) and operated with intermittent-discharge and continuous flow types. The wetland system was effective in treating the sewage; median removal efficiencies of $BOD_5$ and TSS were above 70.0%, with mean effluent concentrations of 27.1 and 16.8 mg $L^{-1}$, respectively, for these constituents. However, they did often exceed the effluent water quality standards of 20 mg $L^{-1}$. Removal of T-N and T-P was relatively less effective and mean effluent concentrations were approximately 103.2 and 7.2 mg $L^{-1}$, respectively. The wetland system demonstrated high removal rate (92 ${\sim}$ 90%) of microorganisms, but effluent concentrations were in the range of 300 ${\sim}$ 16,000 MPN 100 $mL^{-1}$ which is still high for agricultural reuse. The subsequent pond system provided further treatment of the wetland effluent, and especially additional microorganisms removal in addition to wetland-pond system could reduce the mean concentration to 1,000 MPN 100 $mL^{-1}$ from about $10^5$ MPN 100 $mL^{-1}$ of wetland influent. Other parameters in the pond system showed seasonal variation, and the upper layer of the pond water column became remarkably clear immediately after ice melt. Overall, the wetland system was found to be adequate for treating sewage with stable removal efficiency, and the subsequent pond was effective for further polishing. This study concerned agricultural reuse of reclaimed water using natural systems. Considering stable performance and effective removal of bacterial indicators as well as other water quality parameters, low maintenance, and cost-effectiveness, wetland- pond system was thought to be an effective and feasible alternative for agricultural reuse of reclaimed water in rural area.

Silicon thin films and solar cells by HWCVD (열선 화학 기상 증착법에 의한 실리콘 박막 및 태양전지 특성)

  • Kim Sang-Kyun;Lee Jeong Chul;Jeon Sang Won;Lim Chung Hyun;Ahn Sae Jin;Yun Jae Ho;Kim Seok Ki;Song Jinsoo;Park S-J;Yoon Kyung Hoon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.205-208
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    • 2005
  • 최근 열선 화학 기상 증착법(HWCVD)은 낮은 온도에서 TFT용 Poly Si 중착을 할 수 있다는 점과 실리콘 박막을 빠른 속도로 증착할 수 있다는 점에서 각광을 받고 있다. 본 연구에서는 HWCVD를 이용하여 태양전지를 제조하고 그 특성을 평가하였다. 조건에 따른 실리콘 박막의 특성 변화를 알기 위해 corning glass 및 실리콘 wafer에 다양한 조건에서 단위 박막(intrinsic layer)을 증착하였고 이 결과를 바탕으로 p/i/n 구조의 태양전지를 제조하였다. Ta 열선 온도는 1700-2000도였고 가스 원료인 $SiH_4$와 수소의 비율을 조절하면서 그 영향을 관찰하였다. 태양전지의 경우 p충과 n충은 PECVD로 증착하였으며 단위박막 및 태양전지 i충 증착시 기판과 열선간의 거리는 7cm, 기판 온도는 $200^{\circ}C$$250^{\circ}C$로 고정하였고 작업압력은 30mTorr였다. 단위 박막 특성 평가를 위해 암/광 전도도, SEM, Raman Scattering, FT-IR등을 사용하였으며 태양전지 특성 평가를 위해 I-V 및 Spectral response를 측정하였다. 열선 온도가 증가함에 따라 증착속도 및 결정화 분율은 증가하였다. 특히 비정질에서 결정질로 전이되는 구간은 매우 좁았으며 여러 분석 방법에서 일치되는 결과를 보였다. $SiH_4$ 유량이 늘어날수록 비정질이 결정질로 바뀌는 열선 온도가 증가하였으며 기판 온도가 낮을 경우 또한 결정으로 바뀌는 열선 온도가 증가하였다. 태양전지의 경우 열선 온도가 증가함에 따라 $V_{oc}$ 및 W가 낮아졌으며 $J_{sc}$, 는 증가하는 경향을 보였으며 결정질 비율이 증가하는 것을 관찰할 수 있었다. 이러한 경향은 quantum efficiency 결과에서도 확인할 수 있었다.용을 반복하면서 석재 내부와 외부의 암석 및 결정에 균열과 미세열극 등이 생성되어 석재 자체의 구조적 안정성에 영향을 주고 있다. 따라서 감은사지 석탑은 지리적 환경 차이로 인해 일반적인 환경의 석조물들과는 다른 형태의 풍화양상을 보이고 있어서 풍화양상 및 풍화형태에 대한 정확한 연구와 이해를 바탕으로 보존대책이 마련되어야 한다.되었다. 이런 모든 시편들을 각 탈염방법에 따라 탈염처리한 후 XRD와 SEM-EDS으로 분석한 결과 인철광과 침철광은 어떠한 변화도 보이지 않았고, 다만 적금광으로 동정된 시편만이 잔존하지 않았다. 철기 제작별 $Cl^-$ 이온 추출량과 탈염효과에 대한 비교 실험은 이온 크로마토그래피 분석 결과와 마찬가지로 단조 철제유물이 주조 철제보다 $Cl^-$ 이온을 많이 가지고 있었으며, 탈염 처리 후에는 $Cl^-$ 이온은 전혀 발견되지 않았다. 이상의 결과 $K_2CO_3$와 Sodium 용액은 탈염처리에서 가장 적합한 탈염처리 용액으로 알수가 있었으며 특히 어떠한 탈염 용액으로 유물을 처리한다 해도 철제유물에 생성된 부식물은 제거되지 않는다는 것을 알게 되었다. 따라서 보존처리자는 유물 표면의 부식 상태만을 보고 처리하기 보다는 철기제작물로 고려하여 처리하는 것이 필요하다. 또한 금속에 부식을 야기시키는 $Cl^-$ 이온과 부식물을 완전하게 제거하여 탈염처리를 하는 것이 유물 부식을 최대한 지연시킬 수 있는 것이라 생각된다.TEX>$88\%$)였다.(P=0.063). 결론: 본 연구에서는 MTHFR C/T & T/T 유전자 다형성이 위암의 발생과 그 위치에 대해 관련이 있는 것으로 여겨지고, 흡연력, 음주력과는 관련이 없는 것으로 여겨진다.험이 커지는 경향을 보였으나, 나이 및 병기, 종양의 크기, MD-BED $Gy_{10}$ 등의 예후 인자를 보정한 다변

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Effect of Feeding Lactobacillus reuteri to Laying Hens on Laying Performance, Availability and Intestinal Microflora (Lactobacillus reuteri의 급여가 산란계의 생산성, 영양소 이용율 및 장내 미생물 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim S. H.;Park S. Y.;Lee S. J.;Ryu K. S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.265-271
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    • 2004
  • A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the influence of feeding Lactobacillus reuteri culture (LR) on productive performance, intestinal microflora and availability in laying hens. Four hundred and eighty, Isa-Brown layers, 49 weeks of age, were fed diets supplemented with LR at the level of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, and $0.4\%$ of the diets for eight weeks. Egg production and egg weight were measured daily. Feed intake was weighed every two weeks. Egg quality was measured three times at the start, mid-term, and end of the experiment. Intestinal microflora were examined for Lactobacillus spp., E. coli and Salmonella at the end of the experiment. Overall egg production was the highest in $0.2\%$ LR (P<0.05), but that of $0.1\%$ or $0.4\%$ LR treatments did not significantly differ from that of control. Egg weight was significantly higher in LR feeding group than the control (P<0.05). Daily egg mass was significantly higher in $0.2\%$ and $0.4\%$ LR treatments compared to the control and $0.1\%$ LR (P<0.05). The number of jumbo and extra large eggs were increased in LR supplemented groups, especially in $0.1\%$ LR. Feed intake of layers fed LR supplemented diets tended to be lower than the control. However, feed conversion ratio significantly improved in LR supplemented groups (P<0.05). Availability of dry matter and crude protein improved significantly in $0.4\%$ LR treatment (P<0.05). But, those of ether extract and crude ash were not significantly different among treatments. Eggshell breaking strength and eggshell thickness were not significantly influenced by LR supplementation, and Haugh unit and yolk index were also similar to the control. Total number of Lactobacillus spp. in ileum and cecum fed LR supplemented diets were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in intestinal E. coli and Salmonella in all treatments. Therefore, it is concluded that dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus reuteri culture can improve the laying performance, feed efficiency and intestinal Lactobacillus.

Effect of Night and Daytime Temperatures on Growth and Yield of Paprika 'Fiesta' and 'Jubilee' (주${\cdot}$야 온도가 착색단고추의 생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi Young Hah;Kwon Joon Kook;Lee Jae Han;Kang Nam Jun;Cho Myeong Whan;Kang Jum Soon
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.226-232
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of night and daytime temperatures on growth and yield of paprika 'Fiesta' and 'Jubilee' under soil culture experiment in the vinyl houses during the 2003 and 2004 season. Total fruit yield was greater in 'Fiesta' than 'Jubilee' Marketable yield was not different between two cultivars, due to lower $\%$ marketable fruits in 'Fiesta'. mean Fruit weight was not different between two cultivars. Difference of yield between cultivars was due to fruit number, harves time and root condition. It was caused by cracked fruits to decrease $\%$ marketable fruits. Total yield was greater in nighttime temperature of $18^{\circ}C\;than\;15^{\circ}C$ and marketable yield was considerably greater because of $\%$ marketable fruits was higher. Mean fruit weight was slightly greater in nighttime temperature of $15^{\circ}C\;than\;18^{\circ}C$. Difference of fruit yield in treatments of nighttime temperature was due to fruit number and harvest time. There was not significant difference of yield between daytime temperature of $28^{\circ}C\;and\;31^{\circ}C$, but in $34^{\circ}C$, total and marketable yields were the least and mean fruit weight was the smallest because of decreased $CO_2$ concentration in the house, accerated vegetative growth, and the least chlorophyll content. There were no significant difference in photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, maximal photochemical efficiency and antioxidant enzyme activities of all temperature treatments in this experiment. However it was clear that a little difference in error range of these results affects the source of crops in any case. It was not acknowledged that compensation effect by high temperature in daytime to the low temperature treatment in nighttime.

Effects of n-Hexane Fraction of Angelica acutiloba on Antioxidative System and Lipid peroxidation in Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity of rats (일당귀 n-hexane분획이 에탄올을 투여한 흰쥐의 항산화계 및 지질과산화에 미치는 영향)

  • Choo Myung-Hi;Choi Hyun-Suk;Seo Young-Nam;Lee Myung-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.364-372
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    • 2004
  • To investigate antioxidative effects of n-hexane fraction of Angelica acutiloba on the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity of rats, Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 $\pm$ 20 g were divided into 5 groups; normal group(NOR), ethanol(10 mL/kg, 35$\%$) treated group(CON), n-hexane fraction of Angelica acutiloba 70 mg/kg treated group(Al), n-hexane fraction of Angelica acutiloba 70 mg/kg and ethanol treated group(A2) and n-hexane fraction of Angelica acutiloba 140 mg/kg and ethanol treated group(A3), respectively. The antioxidative activities of ethanol extract of Angelica acutiloba in vitro were decreased in order of n-hexane > ethylacetate > chlorofonn > n-butanol (>) water fraction. The growth rate and feed efficiency rate decreased by ethanol were gradually increased to the adjacent level of the normal group by administering n-hexane fraction of Angelica acutiloba. It was also observed that the activities of SOD of liver, ALT and AST of serum increased by ethanol were markedly decreased in n-hexane fraction of Angelica acutiloba administered group, and not in activites of XO, catalase, as compared with the control group. The depleted content of GSH by ethanol was increased adjacent to normal level by administering n-hexane fraction of Angelica acutiloba. as a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that n-hexane fraction of Angelica acutiloba has a possible protective effect on the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity of rats.

Estimation of Optimum Application Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer Based on Soil Nitrate Concentration for Tomato Cultivation in Plastic Film House (토양의 질산태 질소 검정에 의한 시설재배 방울토마토의 질소 적정시비량 추정)

  • Kang, Seong-Soo;Hong, Soon-Dal
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.74-82
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to estimate the optimum application rate of fertilizer N based on $NO_3-N$ concentration in soils for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivation in plastic film house. Tomato plants were cultivated with and without fertilizer in twelve soils which have different concentrations of $NO_3-N$ ranging from 46 to $344mg\;kg^{-1}$. Dry weight (DW) of above-ground part of tomato with no fertilizer ranged from 28.9 to $112.5g\;plant^{-1}$, depending on N-supplying capability of soils. The soil $NO_3-N$ was positively correlated with DW ($r=0.83^{**}$) and N uptake ($r=0.78^{**}$) by tomatoes in no fertilizer treatment, and negatively correlated with fertilizer effciencies resulted from the differences of DW and N uptake between fertilized and non-fertilized plot. The relationships between soil $NO_3-N$ concentration and DW, N uptake, and fertilizer efficiency were analyzed to determine the critical levels of soil $NO_3-N$ for tomato cultivation. The limit critical levels of soil $NO_3-N$ were estimated to be more than $280mg\;kg^{-1}$ for no application of fertilizer N and to be less than $50mg\;kg^{-1}$ for recommended application of fertilizer N. These critical levels of soil $NO_3-N$ were nearly the same as those calculated from regression equation between electrical conductivity(EC) and soil nitrate for critical levels of EC in recommendation equation of fertilizer N for tomato under the plastic film house by NationaI Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology. Consequently, the optimal application rate of ferdilizer N for tomato cultivation in the soils containing $NO_3-N$ concentration between $280mg\;kg^{-1}$ and $50mg\;kg^{-1}$ was estimated by the equation Y = -0.4348X+121.74, where Y is the percent(%) to the recommended application rate of N fertilizer and X is the soil $NO_3-N$ concentration ($mg\;kg^{-1}$).

A Study on the Increase of Dental Technicians in Korea and the Regional Distribution of the Korea Dental Technician Association Members (우리나라 치과기공사의 증가현황 및 협회원의 지역별 분포현황 연구)

  • Kwon, Soon-Seog
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Dental Technology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.9-34
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    • 2004
  • The present study reviews the license registration status of dental technicians and dentists from 1970 to 2002, the number of technician members of The Korea Dental Technician Association from 1990 to 2003, and the number of dentist members in 2003. It also considers the yearly membership fluctuations, its growth rates, yearly increase/decrease, the rate of dentist to dental technician, regional distribution of association members, regional yearly increase/decrease of the members, and the regional distribution of dentists and dental technicians. The purpose is to identify and predict the problems in the demand/supply of dental technicians and the regional imbalance of manpower distribution. By doing so, this study attempts to propose the appropriate standard for the supply of dental technicians and point out the necessity of making mid- or long-term plans for ensuring the efficiency of manpower supply and balanced regional distribution. The result is as follows: 1. The number of dental technicians and dentists in 2002 has grown 36.79 and 9.27 times from 1970, and 2.20 and 2.05 times from 1990, respectively. It tool 11 years for the twofold increase of dental technicians from 1990, one year faster than the same increase of dentists. The number of dental technicians per a dentist was the lowest in 1972 (0.21 person), and the highest in 2002 (0.86 person). Specifically, the fastest growth was observed for a year from 1983 (0.47 technician per a dentist) to 1984 (0.6). From 1984 to 1986, the ratio grew by 0.1 every year. Summing up the numbers of dentists and dental technicians who passed the national certification examination, this study predicted the number of dental technicians per a dentist to be 0.88 in 2003, and 0.90 in 2004. 2. From 1990 to 2003, the average distribution of dental technician was 71.76% in the metropolitan areas and 28.24% in other smaller regions. The proportion of dental technicians working in the three major cities (Seoul, Busan, and Daegu) was the lowest in 2001 (52.39%) and the highest in 1996 (62.66%). The majority number of dental technicians who practiced in the metropolitan areas (about 70% of the entire population) were in service in the three major cities. 3. Compared with 1990, the number of dental technicians in 2003 grew 2.28 times in the large cities, and 2.05 times in other smaller regions. The yearly growth rate was the highest in 1994 over the previous year: 26.06% in large cities and 17.86% in the other regions. In the large metropolitan cities, the growth rate was the highest in Incheon (5.8 times for 5 years from 1998 to 2003), In the rest of the regions, the increase of dental technicians was the highest in Gyeonggi (6.5 times from 1990 to 2003). 4. In 2003, as much as 73.40% of all the members of the Korea Dental Technician Association were distributed in the large metropolitan cities, and the rest 26.60% were in other smaller regions. Meanwhile, 54.35% of the dentists practiced in the metropolitan cities, and the rest 45.65% were in service at other regions. This result indicates that more dental technicians than dentists are concentrated in large cities. More than half of all the technician members of the Association are distributed in the three major cities (i.e. Seoul, Busan, Daegu). On the other hand, 42.03% of dentist members are in these three cities and 53.97% of them practice in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Busan. In 2003, the ratio of dentist to dental technician is 1:0.43 in general, while the ratio is 1:0.58 in the metropolitan cities, and 1:0.43 in other regions. In 2003, 33.30% of all the certified dental technicians are the member of the Korea Dental Technician Association, while 66.82% of all the licensed dentists are its members.

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