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Effects of Supplementation of Fat Sources, Ca and Mg on In Vitro Fermentation and the Performance of Finishing Hanwoo Bulls (지방의 공급형태와 Ca 및 Mg의 첨가가 In Vitro 발효 및 비육후기 한우의 성장성적에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, H.G.;Lee, D.H.;Choi, N.J.;Lee, S.R.;Choi, Y.J.;Maeng, W.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.613-624
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    • 2004
  • This study was aimed at investigating the effect of fat supplementation with divalent ions such as MgO and $CaCl_2$ on 1) in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and insoluble fatty acid formation, and on 2) animal performance in finishing Hanwoo bulls. In in vitro trial, five different types of diets based on supplementation sources of fat and divalent ions, i.e. T=basal diet+4% tallow, T-Ca=T+0.5% $CaCl_2$, T-Mg=TA+0.5% MgO, T-MgCa = T +0.5% $CaCl_2$+0.5% MgO, T-caS =4% Ca salt tallow, were tested. Higher pH values were observed at 6 hr incubation(P<0.01) while higher amount of VFA were produced in diets 4 and 5 at 12 hr incubation(P<0.05). Nutrients(DM, OM, Crude protein and NDF) degradation tended to increase in divalent ions or Ca-salts treated tallow treatments compared with tallow treatment after 12 h. The amount of insoluble fatty acid increased by adding MgO or $CaCl_2$ to tallow or Ca soap tallow during incubation(P<0.05). In in vivo trial, thirty finishing Hanwoo(average BW 460kg) were divided into three groups based on fat sources and divalent ions, i.e. Control(EE 2.40), T-MgCa = control + tallow + $CaCl_2$ + MgO, T-CaS = control + Ca soap tallow (EE 5.30%). After feeding each diet for 80 days, average daily weight gain showed 0.89, 1.02, 1.17kg in diets 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The highest feed efficiency was observed(0.12) in diet 2 group, followed by diet 3 (0.10) and 1 groups(0.08; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present results could be sununarized that the performance of Hanwoo bulls was improved by tallow with divalent ions without any negative effect on rumen fermentation.

Comparison of Sleep Indices between Both Wrist Actigraphies and Nocturnal Polysomnography (양측 손목에 착용한 Actigraphy와 야간수면다원검사 간의 수면지수 비교)

  • Shin, Byung-Hak;Park, Doo-Heum;Lee, Hyun-Kwon;Yu, Jae-Hak;Ryu, Seung-Ho;Ha, Ji-Hyeon;Shin, Hyeon-Sil;Hong, Seok-Chan
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.20-25
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    • 2007
  • The present study compared the actigraphic indices between both wrist actigraphies (WATGs), and the sleep estimates between each WATG and nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) to assess their differences and consistencies. We studied 22 right-handed subjects (mean age $43.9{\pm}13.3\;years$, M:F=14:8) with untreated primary sleep disorders (primary insomnia=8, simple snorer=2, obstructive sleep apnea=12) undergone by overnight both WATGs and NPSG, simultaneously. Comparison and correlation were analyzed between right and left wrist actigraphic data. In the sleep estimates of both WATGs and NPSG, each WATG was compared and correlated with NPSG in sleep period time (SPT), total sleep time (TST), sleep latency (SL), sleep efficiency (SE) and wake time (WT). Sleep indices between both WATGs showed significant positive correlations with no correlations in SL and fragmentation index (FI). There were no differences in sleep indices between both WATGs. SPTs of both WATGs, SL of left WATG, and TST of right WATG showed positively significant correlations, and SE of right WATG did negatively significant correlation in sleep indices between each WATG and NPSG. As each WATG was compared to PSG, SPTs of both WATGs and WT of right WATG were decreased, and TST and SE of right WATG and SL of left WATG were increased. Inconsistent SL and FI between both WATGs indicate that the activities between both WATGs can differentially happen during wake or arousal. Inconsistent sleep estimates between each WATG and NPSG may indicate the limited usefulness in measuring and analyzing one-night sleep by using WATG.

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Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Parameters in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (폐쇄성 수면무호흡증 환자의 우울증상 정도에 따른 수면 양상)

  • Won, Chang-Yeon;Lee, Seung-Hee;So, Min-Ah;Lee, Jin-Sung;Jeong, Do-Un
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.92-98
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    • 2007
  • Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is the most common form of sleep-disordered breathing and often presents with comorbid depressive symptoms. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between depressive symptoms and sleep parameters as measured by nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) and simultaneous wrist actigraphy. Methods: Two hundred sixty-four subjects with clinically suspected cases of OSAS underwent one-night polysomnography, while simultaneously wearing a wrist actigraphy device. They also completed two questionnaires;the Epworth Sleepiness Scale-Korean version (ESS-K) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Of the cases studied, 105 subjects were proven by NSPG to have OSAS without other sleep disorders. NPSG and wrist actigraphy data from the subjects were analyzed. Pearson correlation and paired t-test were used in order to evaluate the relationship between depressive symptoms and sleep-parameters. Results: Mean age of the subjects was $46.1{\pm}13.1$ years. Means of the ESS-K score and BDI scores were $10.9{\pm}4.7$ and $12.8{\pm}8.1$, respectively. NPSG sleep parameters significantly differed from those of wrist actigraphy. There was no correlation found between subjects' respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and BDI scores. When directly comparing sleep parameters between subjects who were more depressed versus subjects who were less depressed, both total sleep time and sleep efficiency were decreased in the more depressed. A correlation between RDI and ESS-K scores was also found in the more depressed group. Conclusions: Although our findings suggest that there is no relationship between RDI and depressive symptoms, there are other significant differences in the sleep parameters between subjects who are more depressed versus those without depression. We recommend that patients with depression should also be evaluated for clinical symptoms of OSAS.

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Estimation of Terminal Sire Effect on Swine Growth and Meat Quality Traits (돼지 성장 및 육질 형질에 영향하는 종료웅돈의 효과)

  • Kim, H.S.;Kim, B.W.;Kim, H.Y.;Iim, H.T.;Yang, H.S.;Lee, J.I.;Joo, Y.K.;Do, C.H.;Joo, S.T.;Jeon, J.T.;Lee, J.G.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2007
  • A submerged biofilm sequencing batch reactor (SBSBR) process, which liquor was internally circulated through sandfilter, was designed, and performances in swine wastewater treatment was evaluated under a condition of no external carbon source addition. Denitrification of NOx-N with loading rate in vertical and slope type of sandfilter was 19% and 3.8%, respectively, showing approximately 5 times difference, and so vertical type sandfilter was chosen for the combination with SBSBR. When the process was operated under 15 days HRT, 105L/hr.m3 of internal circulation rate and 54g/m3.d of NH4-N loading rate, treatment efficiencies of STOC, NH4-N and TN (as NH4-N plus NOx-N) was 75%, 97% and 85%, respectively. By conducting internal circulation through sandfilter, removal performances of TN were enhanced by 14%, and the elevation of nitrogen removal was mainly attributed to occurrence of denitrification in sandfilter. Also, approximately 57% of phosphorus was removed with the conduction of internal circulation through sandfilter, meanwhile phosphorus concentration in final effluent rather increased when the internal circulation was not performed. Therefore, It was quite sure that the continuous internal circulation of liquor through sandfilter could contribute to enhancement of biological nutrient removal. Under 60g/m3.d of NH4-N loading rate, the NH4-N level in final effluent was relatively low and constant(below 20mg/L) and over 80% of nitrogen removal was maintained in spite of loading rate increase up to 100g/m3.d. However, the treatment efficiency of nitrogen was deteriorated with further increase of loading rate. Based on this result, an optimum loading rate of nitrogen for the process would be 100g/m3.d.

The Effect of Soybean Oil, Tallow and Coconut Oil Supplementation on Growth Performance, Serum Lipid Changes and Nutrient Digestibility in Weaned Pigs (이유자돈에 있어 대두유, 우지 및 코코넛 오일의 첨가가 생산성, 혈청 지질변화 및 영양소 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, J.H.;Kim, H.J.;Chen, Y.J.;Yoo, J.S.;Min, B.J.;Kim, J.D.;Kim, In-Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 2007
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of soybean oil, tallow and coconut oil supplementation on growth performance, serum lipid changes and nutrient digestibility in weaned pigs. One hundred twenty cross-bred [(Yorkshire×Landrace)×Duroc, 6.92±0.01kg average initial BW] were used in a 35 d growth trial. Dietary treatments included CON (5% soybean oil), T0.5 (4.5% soybean oil+0.5% tallow), C0.5 (4.5% soybean oil+0.5% coconut oil) and C1.0 (4.0% soybean oil+1.0% coconut oil). For the whole period and from d 14 to 35, G/F was increased in C0.5 and C1.0 treatments compared with T0.5 treatment (P<0.05). ADG and ADFI were not affected by treatments. On d 14, C1.0 treatment was higher in serum HDL-cholesterol than C0.5 treatment and atherogenic index was increased in C0.5 treatment compared to T0.5 and C1.0 treatments. Digestibility of fat was improved for pigs fed C1.0 diet compared with those fed T0.5 diet on d 35. However, there were no significant differences in digestibilities of DM, N and DE. In conclusion, feeding diets containing soybean and coconut oils in weaned pigs increased feed efficiency and fat digestibility than feeding those containing soybean oil and tallow.

Effect of Microbial Additives on Metabolic Characteristics in Sheep and Milking Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows (미생물제제의 첨가가 면양의 반추대사 및 젖소의 유생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, G.L.;Choi, S.K.;Choi, S.H.;Song, M.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.819-828
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    • 2007
  • Two experiments were conducted to observe the effects of direct fed microbials on metabolic characteristics in sheep and milking performance in dairy cows. A metabolic trial with four ruminally cannulated sheep(60±6kg) was conducted in a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the supplementation effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clostridium butyricum or mixed microbes of S. cerevisiae and C. butyricum on ruminal fermentation characteristics and whole tract digestibility. Sheep were fed 1.25 kg of total mixed ration(TMR, DM basis) supplemented with S. cerevisiae (2.5g/day), C. butyricum (1.0g/day) or its mixture(S. cerevisiae 1.25g/day+C. butyricum 1g/day), twice daily in an equal volume. But control sheep were fed only TMR. A feeding trial with 28 lactating Holstein cattle was also conducted for 12 weeks to investigate the effects of the same microbial supplements as for the metabolic trial on milking performance. The cows were fed the TMR(control), and fed S. cerevisiae(50g/day), C. butyricum(15g/day) or its mixture (S. cerevisiae 25g/day + C. butyricum 7.5g/day) with upper layer dressing method. Total VFA concentration and the digestibility of whole digestive tract in the sheep increased by supplementation of S. cerevisiae, C. butyricum or their combined microbials compare to control group. The proportion of propionic acid at 1h(P<0.039) and 3h(P<0.022) decreased by supplementation of S. cerevisiae while tended to increase acetic acid proportion at the same times. Daily dry matter intake(DMI) was not influenced by the microbial treatments, but milk yield(P<0.031) and feed efficiency(milk yield/DMI, P<0.043) were higher for the cow received C. butyricum than those for other treatments. The milk fat content was higher (P<0.085) when cows fed S. cerevisiae(4.11%) than that fed the control (4.08%), the diets with C. butyricum (3.85%) and the microbial mixture. Based on the results obtained from the current experiments, supplementation of C. butyricum or mixture with S. cerevisiae might be increased milk fat content and milk productivity of lactating daily cows. (Key words:Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clostridium butyricum, Fermentation characteristics,

A Study For Optimizing Input Waveforms In Radiofrequency Liver Tumor Ablation Using Finite Element Analysis (유한 요소 해석을 이용한 고주파 간 종양 절제술의 입력 파형 최적화를 위한 연구)

  • Lim, Do-Hyung;NamGung, Bum-Seok;Lee, Tae-Woo;Choi, Jin-Seung;Tack, Gye-Rae;Kim, Han-Sung
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.235-243
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    • 2007
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma is significant worldwide public health problem with an estimated annually mortality of 1,000,000 people. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is an interventional technique that in recent years has come to be used for treatment of the hepatocellualr carcinoma, by destructing tumor tissues in high temperatures. Numerous studies have been attempted to prove excellence of RF ablation and to improve its efficiency by various methods. However, the attempts are sometimes paradox to advantages of a minimum invasive characteristic and an operative simplicity in RF ablation. The aim of the current study is, therefore, to suggest an improved RF ablation technique by identifying an optimum RF pattern, which is one of important factors capable of controlling the extent of high temperature region in lossless of the advantages of RF ablation. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) model was developed and validated comparing with the results reported by literature. Four representative Rf patterns (sine, square, exponential, and simulated RF waves), which were corresponding to currents fed during simulated RF ablation, were investigated. Following parameters for each RF pattern were analyzed to identify which is the most optimum in eliminating effectively tumor tissues. 1) maximum temperature, 2) a degree of alteration of maximum temperature in a constant time range (30-40 second), 3) a domain of temperature over $47^{\circ}C$ isothermal temperature (IT), and 4) a domain inducing over 63% cell damage. Here, heat transfer characteristics within the tissues were determined by Bioheat Governing Equation. Developed FE model showed 90-95% accuracy approximately in prediction of maximum temperature and domain of interests achieved during RF ablation. Maximum temperatures for sine, square, exponential, and simulated RF waves were $69.0^{\circ}C,\;66.9^{\circ}C,\;65.4^{\circ}C,\;and\;51.8^{\circ}C$, respectively. While the maximum temperatures were decreased in the constant time range, average time intervals for sine, square, exponential, and simulated RE waves were $0.49{\pm}0.14,\;1.00{\pm}0.00,\;1.65{\pm}0.02,\;and\;1.66{\pm}0.02$ seconds, respectively. Average magnitudes of the decreased maximum temperatures in the time range were $0.45{\pm}0.15^{\circ}C$ for sine wave, $1.93{\pm}0.02^{\circ}C$ for square wave, $2.94{\pm}0.05^{\circ}C$ for exponential wave, and $1.53{\pm}0.06^{\circ}C$ for simulated RF wave. Volumes of temperature domain over $47^{\circ}C$ IT for sine, square, exponential, and simulated RF waves were 1480mm3, 1440mm3, 1380mm3, and 395mm3, respectively. Volumes inducing over 63% cell damage for sine, square, exponential, and simulated RF waves were 114mm3, 62mm3, 17mm3, and 0mm3, respectively. These results support that applying sine wave during RF ablation may be generally the most optimum in destructing effectively tumor tissues, compared with other RF patterns.

Ammonia Gas Removal by Bacillus subtilis IB101 and Dctimization of Culture Media (Bacillus subtilis IB101을 이용한 암모니아 가스 제거 및 생산배지 최적화)

  • Kim, So-Young;Noh, Yong-Ho;Kang, Sung-Gak;Kim, Young-Bum;Jang, Woo-Jin;Kim, Dong-Joon;Yun, Hyun-Shik
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.162-167
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    • 2007
  • Ammonia gas is one of the major pollutants which cause environmental pollution and damage to the human and the livestock. The objective of this study was to investigate the important parameters for the development of efficient removal of ammonia gas by Bacillius subtilis IB101 and to optimize the medium composition for the mass production of B. subtilis IB101. The ammonia gas removal efficiency was evaluated at different growth phases and by changing culture conditions (temperature, pH). The effect of $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ concentration in preculture medium was examined. Medium optimization for the mass production of B. subtilis IB101 was performed by using Plackett-Burman design and one factor at a time method. The removal of ammonia gas was more efficient at exponential phase by 20% than at stationary phase. The ammonia gas removal was the highest at pH 4 and 30 $^{\circ}C$. There was not any significant influence of concentration of $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ on the removal of ammonia gas. The components of optimized medium for the production of viable Bacillus subtilis IB101 was yeast extract 10 g/l, soluble starch 2.5 g/l, $MgSO_4$ 6 g/l, $CaCl_2$ 1.55 g/l, $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ 5 g/l, $KH_2PO_4$ 0.75 g/l, soy bean meal 8 g/l.

The Effects of e-Business on Business Performance - In the home-shopping industry - (e-비즈니스가 경영성과에 미치는 영향 -홈쇼핑을 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Sae-Jung;Ahn, Seon-Sook
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.22
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    • pp.137-165
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    • 2007
  • It seems high time to increase productivity by adopting e-business to overcome challenges posed by both external factors including the appreciation of Korean won, oil hikes and fierce global competition and domestic issues represented by disparities between large corporations and small and medium enterprises (SMEs), Seoul metropolitan and local cities, and export and domestic demand all of which weaken future growth engines in the Korean economy. The demands of the globalization era are for innovative changes in businessprocess and industrial structure aiming for creating new values. To this end, e-business is expected to play a core role in the sophistication of the Korean economy through new values and innovation. In order to examine business performance in e-business-adopting industries, this study analyzed the home shopping industry by closely looking into the financial ratios including the ratio of net profit to sales, the ratio of operation income to sales, the ratio of gross cost to sales cost, the ratio of gross cost to selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expense, and return of investment (ROI). This study, for best outcome, referred to corporate financial statements as a main resource to calculate financial ratios by utilizing Data Analysis, Retrieval and Transfer System (DART) of the Financial Supervisory Service, one of the Korea's financial supervisory authorities. First of all, the result of the trend analysis on the ratio of net profit to sales is as following. CJ Home Shopping has registered a remarkable increase in its ratio of net profit rate to sales since 2002 while its competitors find it hard to catch up with CJ's stunning performances. This is partly due to the efficient management compared to CJ's value of capital. Such significance, if the current trend continues, will make the front-runner assume the largest market share. On the other hand, GS Home Shopping, despite its best organized system and largest value of capital among others, lacks efficiency in management. Second of all, the result of the trend analysis on the ratio of operation income to sales is as following. Both CJ Home Shopping and GS Home Shopping have, until 2004, recorded similar growth trend. However, while CJ Home Shopping's operating income continued to increase in 2005, GS Home Shopping observed its operating income declining which resulted in the increasing income gap with CJ Home Shopping. While CJ Home Shopping with the largest market share in home shopping industryis engaged in aggressive marketing, GS Home Shopping due to its stability-driven management strategies falls behind CJ again in the ratio of operation income to sales in spite of its favorable management environment including its large capital. Companies in the Group B were established in the same year of 2001. NS Home Shopping was the first in the Group B to shift its loss to profit. Woori Home Shopping has continued to post operating loss for three consecutive years and finally was sold to Lotte Group in 2007, but since then, has registered a continuing increase in net income on sales. Third of all, the result of the trend analysis on the ratio of gross cost to sales cost is as following. Since home shopping falls into sales business, its cost of sales is much lower than that of other types of business such as manufacturing industry. Since 2002 in gross costs including cost of sales, SG&A expense, and non-operating expense, cost of sales turned out to have remarkably decreased. Group B has also posted a notable decline in the same sector since 2002. Fourth of all, the result of the trend analysis on the ratio of gross cost to SG&A expense is as following. Due to its unique characteristics, the home shopping industry usually posts ahigh ratio of SG&A expense. However, more than 80% of SG&A expense means the result of lax management and at the same time, a sharp lower net income on sales than other industries. Last but not least, the result of the trend analysis on ROI is as following. As for CJ Home Shopping, the curve of ROI looks similar to that of its investment on fixed assets. As it turned out, the company's ratio of fixed assets to operating income skyrocketed in 2004 and 2005. As far as GS Home Shopping is concerned, its fixed assets are not as much as that of CJ Home Shopping. Consequently, competition in the home shopping industry, at the moment, is among CJ, GS, Hyundai, NS and Woori Home Shoppings, and all of them need to more thoroughly manage their costs. In order for the late-comers of Group B and other home shopping companies to advance further, the current lax management should be reformed particularly on their SG&A expense sector. Provided that the total sales volume in the Internet shopping sector is projected to grow over 20 trillion won by the year 2010, it is concluded that all the participants in the home shopping industry should put strategies on efficient management on costs and expenses as their top priority rather than increase revenues, if they hope to grow even further after 2007.

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The Electrochemical Chlorination for Marine Plankton Community Disinfection (해양 플랑크톤 군집의 전기분해 염소소독 효과)

  • Kang, Jung-Hoon;Shin, Kyoung-Soon;Hyun, Bong-Gil;Jang, Min-Chul;Kim, Eun-Chan;Chang, Man
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.127-137
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    • 2007
  • To confirm whether or not the Electrochemical Disinfection System (EDS) meet with the D-2 regulation established by IMO (International Maritime Organization), the biological treatment efficacy of the EDS was assessed using three groups of natural marine plankton (bacteria, $10-50\;{\mu}m$ and $>50\;{\mu}m$ sized organisms). Influent water was passed through the EDS under the flow velocity ($23.8\;m^3/hr$) and test design was consisted of control (no treatment) and experimental (10 ppm and 30 ppm) condition for total residual chlorine (TRC). And the biological condition of the influent water followed the standards established by the guidelines for the approval of ballast water management systems. The disinfection efficacy of the $10-50\;{\mu}m$ sized organisms (phytoplankton) was assessed by three kinds of measurements using photomicroscope, epifluorescence microscope and fluorometer (fumer Designs 10-AU). After being passed through the EDS, all motile phytoplankton lost their motility under photomicroscope, the colour of chlorophyll fluorescence fumed from red into green under epifluorescence, and the high chlorophyll fluorescence (Expt. 1: 6.95, Expt. 2: 7.11) detected by fluorometer decreased into value not detected. These results indicated phytoplankton community was totally killed after electrochemical disinfection treatment. Survivorship of the larger organisms than $50\;{\mu}m$ was determined based on the appendage's movement under a stereomicroscope. Natural assemblage collected from ambient seawater was killed shortly after being passed through the EDS, whereas some Artemia remained alive. However, no live Artemia was found after 24 hour further exposure to each TRC concentration (10 and 30 ppm) under darkness. After electrochemical treatment, the target bacteria such as aerobes, coliform and Escherichia coli were completely killed on the basis of CFU (colony forming unit) on Petrifilm plate ($3\;M^{TM}$) after 48 hr incubation. Moreover, no regrowth was found in the three groups of plankton during five days under additional exposure to the treated water. These results indicated that the disinfection efficiency of the EDS on the three groups of plankton satisfy D-2 regulation.

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