• Title, Summary, Keyword: egg shell calcium

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Egg Shell and Oyster Shell Powder as Alternatives for Synthetic Phosphate: Effects on the Quality of Cooked Ground Pork Products

  • Cho, Min Guk;Bae, Su Min;Jeong, Jong Youn
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.571-578
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to determine the optimal ratio of natural calcium powders (oyster shell and egg shell calcium) as synthetic phosphate replacers in pork products. Ground pork samples were subjected to six treatments, as follows: control (-) (no phosphate added), control (+) (0.3% phosphate blend added), treatment 1 (0.5% oyster shell calcium powder added), treatment 2 (0.3% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.2% egg shell calcium powder added), treatment 3 (0.2% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.3% egg shell calcium powder added), and treatment 4 (0.5% egg shell calcium powder added). The addition of natural calcium powders resulted in an increase in the pH values of meat products, regardless of whether they were used individually or mixed. The highest cooking loss was observed (p<0.05) in the negative control samples, whereas the cooking loss in samples with natural calcium powder added was similar (p>0.05) to that in the positive control samples. CIE $L^*$ values decreased as the amount of added egg shell calcium powder increased. CIE $a^*$ values were higher (p<0.05) in samples containing natural calcium powder (treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4) than in the positive control. The combination of oyster shell calcium powder and egg shell powder (treatment 2 or 3) was effective for the improvement of textural properties of the pork products. The findings show that the combined use of 0.2% oyster shell calcium and 0.3% egg shell calcium should enable the replacement of synthetic phosphate in the production of cooked pork products with desirable qualities.

Effect of Types of Egg Shell Calcium Salts and Egg Shell Membrane on Calcium Metabolism in Rats (난각 칼슘염의 종류와 난막의 존재유무가 흰쥐의 칼슘대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Noh, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Ma, Jie;Zhou, Yusi;Kim, Jae-Cherl;Kim, Myo-Jeong;Song, Young-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.853-859
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of egg shell calcium salt types and egg shell membrane on calcium metabolism in rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats, 4 weeks of age, were fed on free-calcium diets for 2 weeks after adjustment period. Rats weighing approximately $247{\pm}2.3g$ were divided into 6 groups and were fed on the experimental diets containing 0.2% calcium for 4 weeks. Experimental groups were as follows; {ES(M+)} (egg shell powder diet with egg shell membrane), {ES(M-)} (egg shell powder diet without egg shell membrane), {AC(M+)} (egg shell calcium acetate diet with egg shell membrance), {AC(M-)} (egg shell calcium acetate diet without eg shell membrane), {GC(M+)} (egg shell calcium glucuronate diet with egg shell membrane) and {GC(M-)} (egg shell calcium glucuronate diet without egg shell membrane). Bone length of femur was significantly different by the types (p<0.05) of egg shell calcium salts. Bone mineral density of femur showed the highest level in AC(M-) group. Calcium content of femur and calcium absorption rate were higher in egg shell calcium salt groups than in eg shell powder groups. Calcium absorption rate and retention were significantly different (p<0.05) among the types of eg shell calcium salts and were higher in the AC(M-) group than in the other groups. Alkaline phosphatase activity, parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin levels of serum showed no significant difference among the experimental groups. From the above results, it is concluded that bioavailability of calcium is higher in groups of egg shell calcium salts compared to those in egg shell powder, even though egg shell membrane has no effect on calcium metabolism. Thus, these findings suggest the possibility of using egg shell calcium salts as a functional food material related to calcium metabolism.

Studies of Egg-Shell Calcium (I) - The Effects of Elution Condition of Egg-Shell Calcium on Elution Quantity and Ionization Rate - (난각칼슘에 관한 연구(I) - 난각칼슘의 용출 조건이 용출량과 이온화율에 미치는 영향 -)

  • 이숙경;박종호
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.183-187
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to investigate the utility of egg-shell calcium with calcium soak egg-shell in the vinegar. We compared examination eluted quantity with ionization rate in each condition. The results were as follows. 1 The degree of elution and ionization of calcium was proportional to the amount of vinegar and added acetic acid in the vinegar for elution. And ionization rate was the most high in case of 200 ml vinegar volume. 2. fluted quantity were increased in the rank order to 4$0^{\circ}C$ > 3$0^{\circ}C$ > 2$0^{\circ}C$ by temperature but the rank order of ionization of calcium was 3$0^{\circ}C$ > 2$0^{\circ}C$ > 4$0^{\circ}C$ by temperature. The occurrence of unacceptable flavor resulting from the immersion at 4$0^{\circ}C$ was another obstacle to adopt. 3. Eluted quantity and ionization rate of the egg-shell calcium were appeared excellent in case of the brewage vinegar at ventilation condition. The case of brown rice vinegar did not show a considerable difference, but eluted quantity and ionization rate were appeared the most excellent to the other sample. 4. The optimum condition for elution and ionization of the egg-shell calcium was appeared Immersing egg-shells in the brewed rice-bran vinegar at 3$0^{\circ}C$ for three days.

Preparation of Calcium Lactate from Ostrich Egg Shell (타조알 껍질로부터 젖산칼슘의 제조)

  • 고민경;노홍균
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.241-245
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    • 2002
  • To effectively utilize ostrich egg shell as a calcium source, various conditions for preparation of calcium lactate from ashing powder (ashed for 15 min at 90$0^{\circ}C$) were evaluated. Optimal conditions involved treatment of ashing powder with 30 mL lactic acid solution at room temperature for 15 min with a CaO : lactic acid ratio (mol/mol) of 1:2. Calcium lactate contained 39.70% calcium comparable to that (40.98%) in ostrich egg shell. Solubility of calcium lactate, 97.7%, was considerably higher than those (0.58% and 3.43%, respectively) of ostrich egg shell and ashing powder, indicating that the former can be utilized more effectively as a calcium source than the two latter.

Utilization of Egg-shell for Bread-making (제빵시 난각의 이용에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Joong-Man;Kim, Yong-Seob;Yang, Hee-Chon;Choi, Yong-Bae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.160-166
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    • 1989
  • This study was conducted to investigate whether egg-shell may be used as a mineral sourceor leavening agent in breadmaking. In Korea the waste volume of egg shell has been estimated at about 28,694 tons per year. Carbon dioxide generation maxima were established for barking powder$(153{\pm}3ml/g)$, egg-shell(205in reaction with lactic acid) and yeast$(115{\pm}3ml/sugar\;g)$. Gas release time required for each substance to reach $CO_2$ maximum was, for baking powder 7 minutes, for egg-shell 45 mins and for yeast 240 mins. Particle size of egg-shell in breadmaking was suitable more than 20 mesh (-). When egg-shell only was added to the basic formular without including lactic acid, no leavening effect was observed. However, when lactic acid and egg-shell were used together, the leavening effect was more or less equivalent to that of yeast(control). Addition of egg-shell was found to increase calcium content of bread products without noticeable altering flavor, as compared with control. Joint use of egg-shell was organic acids in breadmaking was shown to have potential in time saving, volume increase and yeast saving.

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A Study on the Bending and Compressive Strength of Mortar using Waste Calcium Material as a Filling Material (폐칼슘 재료를 채움재로 사용한 모르타르의 휨·압축강도에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Han-Nah;Kim, Bong Joo;Jung, Ui In;Seo, Eun-Seok;Hong, Sang Hun;Shin, Dong Uk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • pp.64-65
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    • 2020
  • Oyster shells are difficult to grind, while oyster shell powders have coarse and coarse grains, whereas egg shell powder, the same high calcium material, has small and soft particles and has opposing properties. In order to study the change in flexural and compressive strength by designing different mixing ratios using 50% of oyster shell powder and egg shell powder as a filling material. As a result of the experiment, there is almost no difference in the result.

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Effects of egg shell calcium treatments on the short-term storage of cut Kimchi cabbage (난각 칼슘 소재 처리에 의한 절단배추 단기 저장 효과)

  • Seong, Gi-Un;Chung, Hun-Sik;Chung, Shin-Kyo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg shell calcium treatments on short-term storage of cut Kimchi cabbage. Egg shell ash powder (ESP-2) had the greatest calcium contents. Calcium solubility was greater in citric acid than acetic acid and ascorbic acid. Cut Kimchi cabbages ($3{\times}3cm$) were treated with 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% egg shell powder (ESP-1), and egg shell ash powder (ESP-2), and 0.5% citric acid, put inside polyethylene (PE) bags, and stored at $5^{\circ}C$ for 6 weeks. Weight loss was about 99.85-99.90%, and the ratio was the lowest upon 0.5% ESP-2 treatment (p<0.05). The reduction ratios of soluble solids were 21.3-43.4%, and decreased in the order of 1.0% ESP-2 treatment and 0.5% ESP-1. The $L^*$ values decreased, whereas $a^*$ and $b^*$ values of Hunter colorimetry increased in all treatments. ${\Delta}E$ values were lowest upon 0.5% ESP-2 treatment. 0.5% ESP-2 treatment showed better quality characteristics than other treatments. Thus, egg shell calcium treatments could effectively enhance the shelf-life of cut Kimchi cabbage.

Effects of Calcium Powder Mixtures and Binding Ingredients as Substitutes for Synthetic Phosphate on the Quality Properties of Ground Pork Products

  • Cho, Min Guk;Jeong, Jong Youn
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.1179-1188
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed to investigate the combined effect of using natural calcium mixtures and various binding ingredients as replacers for synthetic phosphate in ground pork products. We performed seven treatments: control (0.3% phosphate blend), treatment 1 (0.5% natural calcium mixtures [NCM, which comprised 0.2% oyster shell calcium and 0.3% egg shell calcium powder] and 0.25% egg white powder), treatment 2 (0.5% NCM and 0.25% whey protein concentrate), treatment 3 (0.5% NCM and 0.25% concentrated soybean protein), treatment 4 (0.5% NCM and 0.25% isolated soybean protein), treatment 5 (0.5% NCM and 0.25% carrageenan), and treatment 6 (0.5% NCM and 0.25% collagen powder). All the treatment mixtures had higher pH and lower cooking loss than the control, which was treated with phosphate. We found that NCM and binding ingredients had no negative effects on the moisture content, lightness, and yellowness of the cooked ground pork products. Treatments 3 and 4 showed significantly lower CIE $a^*$ values than the control. Treatments 2 and 6 improved the textural properties of the products. In conclusion, the combination of NCM with whey protein concentrate or collagen powder could be suitable for producing phosphate-free meat products.

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE UTILIZATION OF CALCIUM BETWEEN LAYING TSAIYA DUCK AND LEGHORN HEN

  • Chen, Woan-Lin;Shen, Tlan-Fuh
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 1989
  • Studies were conducted to compare the utilization of dietary calcium between brown laying Tsaiya duck and Leghorn hen. Birds were fed corn-soybean diets containing 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0% calcium, respectively, with five birds per treatment. The metabolizability of calcium was determined by the indicator method. Experiments were conducted three times each at the age of 27, 31 and 36 weeks. Results appeared that duck eggs were heavier with better shell quality in comparison with hen eggs. Ducks fed 1% calcium diet resulted in severely depressed egg production (19%), but not for hens which still had 56% egg production. The metabolizability of calcium for hens was significantly higher than that for ducks (P<0.05) when both were fed diets containing 1 or 2% calcium. As the dietary calcium level was increased to 3 to 5%, there was no significant difference in calcium metabolizability between ducks and hens. When the dietary calcium was between 2 to 5%, the ducks retained more calcium than did the hens. Plasma calcium content for both hens and ducks fed 1% calcium diet was about the same. When the amount of the dietary calcium was increased to 2-5%, the plasma calcium level of ducks was approximately 7-10 mg/dl higher than that of hens. The calcium content in the egg shell of duck was significantly higher than that of hens, too. As the dietary calcium level was increased, there was a decreased magnesium content in the eggshell of hens, but not for ducks. The magnesium level in the eggshell was higher in hens than that in ducks. It is concluded that ducks could retain significantly more calcium and maintain higher plasma calcium level which might be the reason for larger eggs with better shell quality by ducks.

Preparation of the Tofu Coagulant from Egg-shell and It's Use (난각으로부터 두부응고제 제조와 그 이용에 관하여)

  • Kim, Joong-Man;Baek, Seung-Hwa;Hwang, Ho-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 1988
  • The crude calcium acetate (CCA) was made from egg-shell and acetic acid to use the CCA as a coagulant for Tofu (soy bean curd). Amount of CCA. $CO_2$ and residue made from 5.6g egg-shell (average weight of a egg-shell) and 10% acetic acid(50m1) was 3.8g, $300{\pm}10ml(at\;25^{\circ}$ and 2.1g. respectively. Tofu formable minimum concentration of the CCA was about 0.14% similar to that of $CaCl_2$, $MgCl_2$. Volume, hardness, taste and content f protein and lipid of Tofu by addition of CCA were not significantly different in those of Tofu that magnesium chloride and calcium chloride were used.

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