• Title, Summary, Keyword: electric machine

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Initial Rotor Polarity Detection of Single-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Virtual dq-axis (단상 영구자석 동기 전동기의 가상 dq축 기반 초기 회전자 자극 검출)

  • Seo, Sung-Woo;Hwang, Seon-Hwan;Lee, Ki-Chang
    • Journal of IKEEE
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.1004-1010
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    • 2020
  • This paper proposes an initial rotor magnetic pole detection method for single-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors. The target motor cannot obtain position information based on the back emf in the low speed and stop state. Therefore, an open loop starting process is required, and in this process, initial rotor position information for low current and soft start is need. The proposed initial rotor magnetic pole detection algorithm considers the effect of asymmetric air- gap and magnetic flux. In addition, the high-frequency voltage signal injection and the offset voltage for accurate detection is used. As a result, the permanent magnet poles are is determined by acquiring the maximum value of the induced current using the virtual dq-axis.

Analysis of Changes in Groundwater Level according to Tunnel Passage in Geological Vulnerable Zone (지질취약구간 터널통과에 따른 지하수위 변화량 분석)

  • Choi, Jung-Youl;Yang, Gyu-Nam;Kim, Tae-Jun;Chung, Jee Seung
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2020
  • The section of this study is the geological vulnerable zone where groundwater leakage occurred through the tunnel barrier during excavation of the shield tunnel boring machine(TBM) for the construction of the electric power unit. Therefore, a Three D imensions(3D) numerical analysis was performed to analyze the actual situation from before construction to the time when the change in groundwater level occurred, and to reflect the surrounding ground conditions based on the observed change in groundwater level during construction. As a result of the study, the correlation between groundwater level change and tunnel construction around the site was identified. Therefore, it was similar to the measurement result of groundwater level at the target ground. The amount of groundwater discharge to the entrance of the tunnel construction was also similar to the actual measured result, and the numerical analysis method and modeling in this study were analyzed to reflect the site conditions.

Design of Automatic Guided Vehicle Controller with Built-in Programmable Logic Controller (PLC 내장형 무인 반송차(AGV) 제어기 설계)

  • Lee, Ju-Won;Lee, Byeong-Ro
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.118-124
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    • 2019
  • Recently, the industrial field has been changed to the smart factory system based on information and communication technology (ICT) in order to improve productivity, quality and customer satisfaction. The most important machine to realize the smart factory is the AGV(automatic guided vehicle) and the adoption of AGV is increasing. Generally, AGV is developed using general purpose PLC(Programmable Logic controller), but the price of AGV is expensive and its volume is large. On the other hand, the industrial field due to space constraints in the workplace is required the low cost AGV which can be minimization, expansion of function, and easily reconfiguration. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, this study is proposed a design method of AGV controller with built-in PLC, and evaluated its performance. In the results of the experimentation, it showed good performance (speed control error = 0.021[m/s], posture control error=2.1[mm]) for the speed and posture control. In this way, when applying the proposed AGV controller in this study to the industrial filed, it is possible to reduce the size and reconfigure at low cost.

Correlation among Ownership of Home Appliances Using Multivariate Probit Model (다변량 프로빗 모형을 이용한 가전제품 구매의 상관관계 분석)

  • Kim, Chang-Seob;Shin, Jung-Woo;Lee, Mi-Suk;Lee, Jong-Su
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2009
  • As the lifestyle of consumers changes and the need for various products increases, new products are being developed in the market. Each household owns various home appliances which are purchased through the choice of a decision maker. These appliances include not only large-sized products such as TV, refrigerator, and washing machine, but also small-sized products such as microwave oven and air cleaner. There exists latent correlation among possession of home appliances, even though they are purchased independently. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of demographic factors on the purchase and possession of each home appliances, and to derive some relationships among various appliances. To achieve this purpose, the present status on the possession of each home appliances are investigated through consumer survey data on the electric and energy product. And a multivariate probit(MVP) model is applied for the empirical analysis. From the estimation results, some appliances show a substitutive or complementary pattern as expected, while others which look apparently unrelated have correlation by co-incidence. This research has several advantages compared to previous literatures on home appliances. First, this research focuses on the various products which are purchased by each household, while previous researches such as Matsukawa and Ito(1998) and Yoon(2007) focus just on a particular product. Second, the methodology of this research can consider a choice process of each product and correlation among products simultaneously. Lastly, this research can analyze not only a substitutive or complementary relationship in the same category, but also the correlation among products in the different categories. As the data on the possession of home appliances in each household has a characteristic of multiple choice, not a single choice, a MVP model are used for the empirical analysis. A MVP model is derived from a random utility model, and has an advantage compared to a multinomial logit model in that correlation among error terms can be derive(Manchanda et al., 1999; Edwards and Allenby, 2003). It is assumed that the error term has a normal distribution with zero mean and variance-covariance matrix ${\Omega}$. Hence, the sign and value of correlation coefficients means the relationship between two alternatives(Manchanda et al., 1999). This research uses the data of 'TEMEP Household ICT/Energy Survey (THIES) 2008' which is conducted by Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program in Seoul National University. The empirical analysis of this research is accomplished in two steps. First, a MVP model with demographic variables is estimated to analyze the effect of the characteristics of household on the purchase of each home appliances. In this research, some variables such as education level, region, size of family, average income, type of house are considered. Second, a MVP model excluding demographic variables is estimated to analyze the correlation among each home appliances. According to the estimation results of variance-covariance matrix, each households tend to own some appliances such as washing machine-refrigerator-cleaner-microwave oven, and air conditioner-dish washer-washing machine and so on. On the other hand, several products such as analog braun tube TV-digital braun tube TV and desktop PC-portable PC show a substitutive pattern. Lastly, the correlation map of home appliances are derived using multi-dimensional scaling(MDS) method based on the result of variance-covariance matrix. This research can provide significant implications for the firm's marketing strategies such as bundling, pricing, display and so on. In addition, this research can provide significant information for the development of convergence products and related technologies. A convergence product can decrease its market uncertainty, if two products which consumers tend to purchase together are integrated into it. The results of this research are more meaningful because it is based on the possession status of each household through the survey data.

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Bending strength of alumina coated with bioglass and soda lime glass and the precipitation on the surface of coated alumina in PBS (생체 유리와 소다 유리침투에 따른 알루미나 세라믹의 굴곡 강도 및 PBS에서의 표면 생성물 연구)

  • Yuu, Jae-Yang
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2008
  • Titanium and its alloys are widely used as dental implants materials because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the alumina and zirconia ceramics are preferred to use as the substitute of Ti implants because there is a problems in esthetics and biocompatibility in Ti implant. The the glass infiltrated alumina ceramics are studied to increase the toughness and biocompatibility. The 45S5 and soda-lime glass powder was mixed with ethanol at ratio of 1:1 and brushed on the surface of alumina. Then it was heat treated in the electric furnace at $1400^{\circ}C$ from 30 min. to 5 hours. The glass powder was controlled from 200 to $350{\mu}m$ using ball milling. After heat treatment, the glass infiltrated specimen was tested in universal testing machine to measure the bending strength. The surface microstructure of each specimen was observed with SEM. The biocompatibility of 45S5 and soda-lime glass coated alumina was investigated using PBS at $36.5^{\circ}C$ incubator. The specimen was immersed in PBS for 3, 5, 7, 10 days. After that, the surface morphology was investigated with SEM. As the results of experiment, the 45S5 bioglass infiltrated alumina show the increase of bending strength according to the increasing of heat treatment time from 30 min. to 5 hours at $1400^{\circ}C$ Finally the 1370N bending strength of alumina increased to 1958N at 5 hours heat treatment, which shows 1.4 times higher. In contrast to this, the soda lime glass infiltrated alumina ceramics shows the convex curve according to heat treatment time. Thus it shows maximum bending strength of 1820N at 1 hour heat treatment of $1400^{\circ}C$ It gives 1.3 times higher. However, the bending strength of soda lime glass infiltrated alumina is decreasing with increasing heat treatment time after 1 hour. The precipitation on the surface of 45S5 glass infiltrated alumina was revealed as a sodium phosphate ($Na_{6}P_{6}O_{24}6H_{2}O$) and the amount of precipitation is increasing with increasing of immersion time in PBS. In contrast to this, there is no precipitation are observed on the surface of soda lime glass infiltrated alumina. This implies that 45S5 glass infiltrated alumina brings more biocompatible when it is implanted in human body.

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Reliability Evaluation of ACP Component under a Radiation Environment (방사선환경에서 ACP 주요부품의 신뢰도 평가)

  • Lee, Hyo-Jik;Yoon, Kwang-Ho;Lim, Kwang-Mook;Park, Byung-Suk;Yoon, Ji-Sup
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.309-322
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    • 2007
  • This study deals with the irradiation effects on some selected components which are being used in an Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP). Irradiation test components have a higher priority from the aspect of their reliability because their degradation or failure is able to critically affect the performance of an ACP equipment. Components that we chose for the irradiation tests were the AC servo motor, potentiometer, thermocouples, accelerometer and CCD camera. ACP facility has a number of AC servo motors to move the joints of a manipulator and to operate process equipment. Potentiometers are used for a measurement of several joint angles in a manipulator. Thermocouples are used for a temperature measurement in an electrolytic reduction reactor, a vol-oxidation reactor and a molten salt transfer line. An accelerometer is installed in a slitting machine to forecast an incipient failure during a slitting process. A small CCD camera is used for an in-situ vision monitoring between ACP campaigns. We made use of a gamma-irradiation facility with cobalt-60 source for an irradiation test on the above components because gamma rays from among various radioactive rays are the most significant for electric, electronic and robotic components. Irradiation tests were carried out for enough long time for total doses to be over expected threshold values. Other components except the CCD camera showed a very high radiation hardening characteristic. Characteristic changes at different total doses were investigated and threshold values to warrant at least their performance without a deterioration were evaluated as a result of the irradiation tests.

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Elemental alteration of the surface of dental casting alloys induced by electro discharge machining (치과용 주조 합금의 방전가공에 따른 표면 성분 변화)

  • Jang, Yong-Chul;Lee, Myung-Kon
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.55-61
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    • 2009
  • Passive fitting of meso-structure and super-structures is a predominant requirement for the longevity and clinical success of osseointegrated dental implants. However, precision and passive fitting has been unpredictable with conventional methods of casting as well as for corrective techniques. Alternative to conventional techniques, electro discharge machining(EDM) is an advanced method introduced to dental technology to improve the passive fitting of implant prosthesis. In this technique material is removed by melting and vaporization in electric sparks. Regarding the efficacy of EDM, the application of this technique induces severe surface morphological and elemental alterations due to the high temperatures developed during machining, which vary between $10,000{\sim}20,000^{\circ}C$. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and elemental alterations induced by EDM process of casting dental gold alloy and non-precious alloy used for the production of implant-supported prosthesis. A conventional clinical dental casting alloys were used for experimental specimens patterns, which were divided in three groups, high fineness gold alloy(Au 75%, HG group), low fineness gold alloy(Au 55%, LG group) and nonprecious metal alloy(Ni-Cr, NP group). The UCLA type plastic abutment patterns were invested with conventional investment material and were cast in a centrifugal casting machine. Castings were sandblasted with $50{\mu}m\;Al_2O_3$. One casting specimen of each group was polished by conventional finishing(HGCON, LGCON, NPCON) and one specimen of each group was subjected to EDM in a system using Cu electrodes, kerosene as dielectric fluid in 10 min for gold alloy and 20 min for Ni-Cr alloy(HGEDM. LGEDM, NOEDM). The surface morphology of all specimens was studied under an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The quantitative results from EDS analysis are presented on the HGEDM and LGEDM specimens a significant increase in C and Cu concentrations was found after EDM finishing. The different result was documented for C on the NPEDM with a significant uptake of O after EDM finishing, whereas Al, Si showed a significant decrease in their concentrations. EDS analysis showed a serious uptake of C and Cu after the EDM procedure in the alloys studied. The C uptake after the EDM process is a common finding and it is attributed to the decomposition of the dielectric fluid in the plasma column, probably due to the development of extremely high temperatures. The Cu uptake is readily explained from the decomposition of Cu electrodes, something which is also a common finding after the EDM procedure. However, all the aforementioned mechanisms require further research. The clinical implication of these findings is related with the biological and corrosion resistance of surfaces prepared by the EDM process.

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Study on Pressure-dependent Growth Rate of Catalyst-free and Mask-free Heteroepitaxial GaN Nano- and Micro-rods on Si (111) Substrates with the Various V/III Molar Ratios Grown by MOVPE

  • Ko, Suk-Min;Kim, Je-Hyung;Ko, Young-Ho;Chang, Yun-Hee;Kim, Yong-Hyun;Yoon, Jong-Moon;Lee, Jeong-Yong;Cho, Yong-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.180-180
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    • 2012
  • Heteroepitaxial GaN nano- and micro-rods (NMRs) are one of the most promising structures for high performance optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes, lasers, solar cells integrated with Si-based electric circuits due to their low dislocation density and high surface to volume ratio. However, heteroepitaxial GaN NMRs growth using a metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) machine is not easy due to their long surface diffusion length at high growth temperature of MOVPE above $1000^{\circ}C$. Recently some research groups reported the fabrication of the heteroepitaxial GaN NMRs by using MOVPE with vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique assisted by metal catalyst. However, in the case of the VLS technique, metal catalysts may act as impurities, and the GaN NMRs produced in this mathod have poor directionallity. We have successfully grown the vertically well aligned GaN NMRs on Si (111) substrate by means of self-catalystic growth methods with pulsed-flow injection of precursors. To grow the GaN NMRs with high aspect ratio, we veried the growth conditions such as the growth temperature, reactor pressure, and V/III molar ratio. We confirmed that the surface morphology of GaN was strongly influenced by the surface diffusion of Ga and N adatoms related to the surrounding environment during growth, and we carried out theoretical studies about the relation between the reactor pressure and the growth rate of GaN NMRs. From these results, we successfully explained the growth mechanism of catalyst-free and mask-free heteroepitaxial GaN NMRs on Si (111) substrates. Detailed experimental results will be discussed.

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A Study on the Measurements of Sub-surface Residual Stress in the Field of Linear Stress Gradient (선형구배 응력장에서 표층의 잔류응력 측정에 관한 연구)

  • 최병길;전상윤;이택순
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1632-1642
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    • 1992
  • When a blind hole of small diameter is drilled in the field of residual stress, strain relieved around the hole is function of magnitude of stress, patterns of stress distribution and hole geometry of diameter and depth. Relieved strain coefficients can be calculated from FEM analysis of relieved strain and actual stress. These relieved strain coefficients make it possible to measure residual stress which vary along the depth in the subsurface of stressed material. In this study, the calibration tests of residual stress measurement are carried out by drilling a hole incrementally on the cantilever or on the tensile test bar. Residual stresses can be determined from measured strains around a shallow hole by application of power series method. For the sake of reliable measurement of residual stress, much efforts should be done to measure relieved strains and hole depth more accurately comparing with conventional procedures of gage subject to the external load. Otherwise linear equations converting strains into stresses may yield erratic residual stresses because of ill-conditions of linear equations. With accurate measurements of relieved strains, residual stress even if varying along the depth can be measured. It is also possible to measure residual stress in the thin film of material by drilling a shallow hole.

Water Properties of Electrolytic Machine by Stainless Diaphragm and Effects of Electrolytic Ice Water Storage For Keeping Freshness of Squid, Todarodes pacificus (스테인레스 극판을 이용한 전해수장치의 수질특성과 오징어 선도유지를 위한 전해수 빙장 효과)

  • Lee, Nahme-Gull
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.293-301
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    • 2006
  • This study was undertaken to prolonging the freshness in Squid(Todarodes pacificus) on the effects of ice storage methods(tap water ice, electrolytic water ice) using stainless diaphragm electrolytic instrument and also test an efficiency of instrument. Basically, stainless diaphragm electrolytic instrument studied for changes of pH on difference water flow and ampere. The lower water flower and higher ampere made low pH on acid part of electrolytic instrument. Squid samples were stored in tap water ice, acid part of electrolytic water and base part of electrolytic water and used in studying the changes of VBN and skin color through storage. Acid water had strong sterilization effects and VBN was lower levels of acid water than the others. Base water had not sterilization effects. Tap water ice storage was more sterilizing effects than base water ice storage but less effects than acid water ice storage. Lightness of Squid skin showed getting decrease at storage of ice water of all storage methods but acid water ice storage showed more retarding than the other two storage. From these results, it could be suggested that acid electric water ice storage is effective in extendance the shelf-life of squid at chilled storage.