• Title, Summary, Keyword: electrical field stimulation (EFS)

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P2X and P2Y Receptors Mediate Contraction Induced by Electrical Field Stimulation in Feline Esophageal Smooth Muscle

  • Cho, Young-Rae;Jang, Hyeon-Soon;Kim, Won;Park, Sun-Young;Sohn, Uy-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.311-316
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    • 2010
  • It is well-known that electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contraction is mediated by a cholinergic mechanism and other neurotransmitters. NO, ATP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and substance P are released by EFS. To investigate the purinergic mechanism involved in the EFS-induced contraction, purinegic receptors antagonists were used. Suramine, a non-selective P2 receptor antagonist, reduced the contraction induced by EFS. NF023 ($10^{-7}{\sim}10^{-4}M$), a selective P2X antagonist, inhibited the contraction evoked by EFS. Reactive blue ($10^{-6}{\sim}10^{-4}M$), selective P2Y antagonist, also blocked the contraction in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, P2X agonist ${\alpha}$,${\beta}$-methylene 5'-adenosine triphosphate (${\alpha}{\beta}MeATP$, $10^{-7}{\sim}10^{-5}M$) potentiated EFS-induced contraction in a dose-dependent manner. P2Y agonist adenosine 5'-[${\beta}$-thio]diphosphate trilithium salt ($ADP{\beta}S$, $10^{-7}{\sim}10^{-5}M$) also potentiated EFS-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Ecto-ATPase activator apyrase (5 and 10 U/ml) reduced EFS-induced contractions. Inversely, 6-N,$N$-diethyl-D-${\beta}$,${\gamma}$- dibromomethylene 5'-triphosphate triammonium (ARL 67156, $10^{-4}M$) increased EFS-induced contraction. These data suggest that endogenous ATP plays a role in EFS-induced contractions which are mediated through both P2X-receptors and P2Y-receptors stimulation in cat esophageal smooth muscle.

The Influences of G Proteins, $Ca^{2+}$, and $K^+$ Channels on Electrical Field Stimulation in Cat Esophageal Smooth Muscle

  • Park, Jun-Hong;Kim, Hyun-Sik;Park, Sun-Young;Im, Chae-Uk;Jeong, Ji-Hoon;Kim, In-Kyeom;Sohn, Uy-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.393-400
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    • 2009
  • NO released by myenteric neurons controls the off contraction induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in distal esophageal smooth muscle, but in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, contraction by EFS occurs at the same time. The authors investigated the intracellular signaling pathways related with G protein and ionic channel EFS-induced contraction using cat esophageal muscles. EFS-induced contractions were significantly suppressed by tetrodotoxin ($1\;{\mu}M$) and atropine ($1\;{\mu}M$). Furthermore, nimodipine inhibited both on and off contractions by EFS in a concentration dependent meaner. The characteristics of 'on' and 'off contraction and the effects of G-proteins, phospholipase, and $K^+$ channel on EFS-induced contraction in smooth muscle were also investigated. Pertussis toxin (PTX, a $G_i$ inactivator) attenuated both EFS-induced contractions. Cholera toxin (CTX, $G_s$ inactivator) also decreased the amplitudes of EFS-induced off and on contractions. However, phospholipase inhibitors did not affect these contractions. Pinacidil (a $K^+$ channel opener) decreased these contractions, and tetraethylammonium (TEA, ${K^+}_{Ca}$ channel blocker) increased them. These results suggest that EFS-induced on and off contractions can be mediated by the activations Gi or Gs proteins, and that L-type $Ca^{2+}$ channel may be activated by G-protein ${\alpha}$ subunits. Furthermore, ${K^+}_{Ca^-}$ channel involve in the depolarization of esophageal smooth muscle. Further studies are required to characterize the physiological regulation of $Ca^{2+}$ channel and to investigate the effects of other $K^+$ channels on EFS-induced on and off contractions.

The Inhibitory Mechanism of Gentamicin on Electrical Field Stimulation Response in Rat Bladder Smooth Muscle

  • Min, Chang Ho;Wang, YiYi;Bae, Jinhyung;Han, Jung Hoon;Sohn, Uy Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.473-478
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    • 2015
  • To see the inhibitory mechanism of gentamicin in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) using the rat bladder smooth muscle, atropine or guanethidine was treated but had no effect. Methylsergide, a non-selective 5-$HT_1$, 5-$HT_2$ receptor antagonist was also treated but had on effect. Kinase inhibitors, such as chelerythrine (PKC inhibitor), ML-9 (MLCK inhibitor), or Y27632 (rho kinase inhibitor) were pretreated before gentamicin treatment, but did not have effect. For U73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor however, the inhibitory effect to gentamicin was significantly attenuated in all frequencies given by the EFS. Therefore gentamicin induced inhibitory effect on EFS response in rat bladder smooth muscle was not mediated by the activation of adrenergic, cholinergic, or serotonergic receptor. The inhibition of gentamicin might be mediated through the PLC dependent pathway, but not through the PKC, MLCK or rho kinase dependent pathway.

The Study on the Role of Prostaglandin in Contraction of Vas Deferens (정관운동에 있어서 prostaglandin 의 역할에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Won-Kyoo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1983
  • Prostaglandin(PG) is ubiquitously distributed in most mammalian tissue and their actions are complicated. Especially in autonomic nervous system, there are evidences indicating that PGs act as neuromodulators i.e., PGs, which are released in the vicinity of autonomic neuroeffector junctions, influence the release and the response of the neurotransmitter. Present study was undertaken to elucidate the interrelationship between $PGF_{2\alpha}$ and adrenergic ${\alpha}_2-receptor$ function in electrical field stimulation induced contractile response of vas deferens in rat. Male rat, weighing 150{\sim}200\;g, was sacrificed and vas deferens was obtained. The isolated vas deferens strip was placed between two platinum electrodes in temperature controlled $(37^{\circ}C)$ muscle chamber containing Tyrode's solution and the electrical field stimulation(EFS) induced contraction was recorded with Grass Polygraph(Model 7) via force displacement transducer (FT .03, Grass). The results are summarized as follows: 1) Electrical field stimulation for 1sec( 1 msec, 40 cps) induced contraction of vas deferens was completely blocked by tetrodotoxin. 2) Bretylium caused marked inhibition of the EFS-induced contraction, hut tyramine and cocaine augmented the contraction. 3) EFS-induced contraction was inhibited or little affected in distal portion of vas deferens by norepinephrine or methoxamine, but the contraction was rather augmented by the ${\alpha}-agonists$ in proximal portion. 4) Clonidine inhibited the EFS-induced contraction proportionally to the concentration in distal portion, which was blocked by yohimbine pretreatment, but in the presence of $PGF_{2\alpha}$ the blockade by yohimbine was reversed. 5) Indomethacin pretreatment reduced the effect of clonidine, but addition of $PGF_{2\alpha}$ after washing-out the indomethacin caused the contraction to the control level. From these results it is suggested that PG synthesis is a necessary step and the PG itself has a permissive role in ${\alpha}_2-adrenoceptor$ action in rat vas deferens.

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The Mechanism of Contraction Response to EFS in Cat Esophageal Circular Muscle

  • Park, Joon-Hong;Lee, Tai-Sang;Park, Sun-Young;Cho, Young-Rae;Park, Hee-Jung;Sohn, Uy-Dong
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.75.1-75
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    • 2003
  • Low-frequency electrical field stimulation of transmural nerves of cat esophageal circular smooth muscle produces an “off contraction”, which occurs after electirical field stimulation (EFS) of transmural nerves is stopped. We previously examined signal transduction pathways mediating ACh-induced contraction of circular smooth muscle of esophagus. The extracellular Ca$\^$2+/ is needed for the contraction, results in the activation PKC. EFS-induced contraction was abolished by the pretreatments of tetrodotoxin(1 ${\mu}$M) and atropine (1 ${\mu}$M). (omitted)

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Cholinergic Role on Insulin Action in Exocrine Secretion of the Isolated Rat Pancreas

  • Lee, Yun-Lyul;Park, Hyung-Seo;Kim, Myoung-Sub;Kwon, Hyeok-Yil;Park, Hyoung-Jin
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.219-229
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    • 1996
  • In order to investigate intra-pancreatic cholinergic roles on insulin action in exocrine secretion, the pancreas was isolated from rats and continuously perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. Intra-arterial infusion of insulin (100 nM) or cholecystokinin (CCK, 14 pM) alone resulted in stimulation of the volume flow and amylase output. Also insulin potentiated the action of CCK in the exocrine secretion. Tetrodotoxin and atropine completely abolished the potentiating action of insulin and CCK as well as the action of insulin alone, but did not change the action of CCK alone. In order to see an effect of intra-pancreatic neural activation on the insulin action, electrical field stimulation (EFS) with parameters of 20 V, 2 msec and 8 Hz was applied to the isolated pancreas for 10 min under 2.5 or 18 mM glucose background. The EFS voltage-dependently elevated the flow rate and amylase output, and potentiated exocrine secretion in 18 mM glucose infusion compared with 2.5 mM glucose. The potentiating effects of EFS and 18 mM glucose were not observed in the streptozotocin-treated pancreas although it was perfused with 18 mM glucose. However, it was restored when the diabetic pancreas was perfused with porcine insulin(100 nM). Tetrodotoxin and atropine inhibited the pancreatic secretion induced by EFS with the background of 18 mM glucose. The results of present investigation indicate that the intra-pancreatic cholinergic tone exerts a stimulatory influence on the action of insulin in pancreatic exocrine secretion of rats.

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MLCK and PKC Involvements via Gi and Rho A Protein in Contraction by the Electrical Field Stimulation in Feline Esophageal Smooth Muscle

  • Park, Sun-Young;Shim, Jae-Ho;Kim, Mi-Na;Sun, Yih Hsiu;Kwak, Hyun-Soo;Yan, Xiangmei;Choi, Byung-Chul;Im, Chae-Uk;Sim, Sang-Soo;Jeong, Ji-Hoon;Kim, In-Kyeom;Min, Young-Sil;Sohn, Uy-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2010
  • We have shown that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) was required for the off-contraction in response to the electrical field stimulation (EFS) of feline esophageal smooth muscle. In this study, we investigated whether protein kinase C (PKC) may require the on-contraction in response to EFS using feline esophageal smooth muscle. The contractions were recorded using an isometric force transducer. On-contraction occurred in the presence of $N^G$-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), suggesting that nitric oxide acts as an inhibitory mediator in smooth muscle. The excitatory composition of both contractions was cholinergic dependent which was blocked by tetrodotoxin or atropine. The on-contraction was abolished in $Ca^{2+}$-free buffer but reappeared in normal $Ca^{2+}$-containing buffer indicating that the contraction was $Ca^{2+}$ dependent. 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), voltage-dependent $K^+$ channel blocker, significantly enhanced on-contraction. Aluminum fluoride (a G-protein activator) increased on-contraction. Pertussis toxin (a $G_i$ inactivator) and C3 exoenzyme (a rhoA inactivator) significantly decreased on-contraction suggesting that Gi or rhoA protein may be related with $Ca^{2+}$ and $K^+$ channel. ML-9, a MLCK inhibitor, significantly inhibited on-contraction, and chelerythrine (PKC inhibitor) affected on the contraction. These results suggest that endogenous cholinergic contractions activated directly by low-frequency EFS may be mediated by $Ca^{2+}$, and G proteins, such as Gi and rhoA, which resulted in the activation of MLCK, and PKC to produce the contraction in feline distal esophageal smooth muscle.

The Role of Nitric Oxide in Non-adrenergic Non-cholinergic Relaxation in the Rabbit Penile Corpus Cavernosum (토끼 음경해면체의 비-아드레날린 비-콜린성 이완반응에서 산화질소의 역할)

  • Park, Mi-Sun;Kim, Jin-Bo;Hong, Eun-Ju;Hong, Sung-Cheul
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.370-380
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    • 1997
  • The role of nitric oxide (NO) on the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxations induced by the short and prolonged electrical field stimulation (EFS) has been studied in the rabbit corpus cavernosum. In the presence of atropine and guanethidine the prolonged EFS (2-16 Hz) of corpus cavernosal strips precontracted with phenylephrine produced frequency-dependent relaxations, which were abolished by tetrodotoxin as shown in the relaxations induced gy the short EFS, indicating that their orgin is NANC nerve stimulation. $N^G$-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), inhibitor of nitirc oxide synthase, caused a concentration-dependent inhibition to the NANC relaxation, and at 100 M L-NNA the relaxation were virtually abolished. The inhibitory effect of L-NNA was reversed by L-arginine. Hemoglobin abolished the relaxations to NO and also caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NANC relaxation. The hemoglobin-resistant relaxation induced by EFS was eliminated by L-NNA. Methylene blue significantly reduced the NANC relaxation in a conentration-dependent manner. The NANC relaxation was not affected by a VIP-inactivating pepridase, alpha0chymotrypsin, whereas VIP-induced relaxation was completely abolished. NO- and VIP-induced relaxation were not affected by L-NNA. These results indicate that the NANC relaxation induced by prolonged EFS of the rabbit corpus cavernosum is mediated by NO-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate pathway as shown in the relaxation induced by the short EFS, and that VIP release is not essential for the NANC relaxation of the rabbit corpus cavernosum and VIP is not involved the generation fo NO.

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A Role of Endogenous Somatostatin in Exocrine Secretion Induced by Intrapancreatic Cholinergic Activation

  • Park, Hyung-Seo;Park, In-Sun;Kwon, Hyeok-Yil;Lee, Yun-Lyul;Park, Hyoung-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 1998
  • A role of endogenous somatostatin in pancreatic exocrine secretion induced by intrapancreatic cholinergic activation was studied in the isolated rat pancreas perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. Intrapancreatic neurons were activated by electrical field stimulation (EFS: 15 V, 2 msec and 8 Hz). Pancreatic exocrine secretion, including volume flow and amylase output, and release of somatostatin from the pancreas were respectively determined. Somatostatin cells in the islet were stained with an immunoperoxidase method. EFS significantly increased pancreatic volume flow and amylase output, which were reduced by atropine by 59% and 78%, respectively. Intraarterial infusion of either pertussis toxin or a somatostatin antagonist resulted in a further increase in the EFS-evoked pancreatic secretion. EFS also further elevated exocrine secretion in the pancreas treated with cysteamine, which was completely restored by intraarterial infusion of somatostatin. EFS significantly increased not only the number of immunoreactive somatostatin cells in the islet but also the concentration of immunoreactive somatostatin in portal effluent. It is concluded from the above results that intrapancreatic cholinergic activation elevates pancreatic exocrine secretion as well as release of endogenous somatostatin. Endogenous somatostatin exerts an inhibitory influence on exocrine secretion induced by intrapancreatic cholinergic activation via the islet-acinar portal system in the isolated pancreas of the rat.

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Nonadrenergic Noncholinergic Nerve-mediated Contraction of the Longitudinal Muscle of Rat Ileum (랫드 회장 종주근의 비아드레날린 비콜린성 신경에 의한 수축반응)

  • Kim, Tae-wan;La, Jun-ho;Sung, Tae-sik;Kang, Jung-woo;Yang, Il-suk;Han, Ho-jae
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.405-414
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the role of tachykinins (TK) in mediating nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) contractions produced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal muscle of the rat ileum. In the presence of atropine ($1{\mu}M$), guanethidine ($5{\mu}M$), and L-nitroarginine (L-NNA, $200{\mu}M$), EFS (0.5ms pulse duration, 120 V, 1-20 Hz for 2 min) produced a frequency-dependent slowly-developing tonic contraction with superimposed phasic contractions ('on'-contraction) followed by off slowly-decreasing tonic and superimposed phasic contractions ('off'-contraction) of mucosa-free longitudinal oriented muscle strip. These EFS induced responses were blocked by tetrotoxin. $NK_1$ receptor selective antagonist L-732,138 strongly inhibited the EFS-induced excitatory responses. However $NK_2$ receptor selective antagonist, GR 159897 and $NK_3$ receptor selective antagonist SB 222200 did not significantly inhibited the responses. $NK_1$ receptor selective agonist [$Sar^9$,$Met(O_2)^{11}$] Substance P and $NK_2$ receptor selective agonist [${\beta}-Ala^8$]-neurokinin A (4-10) induced tonic contraction with superimposed phasic contractions of longitudinal oriented muscle strip and almost blocked by selective antagonist L-732,138 and GR 159897, respectively. But $NK_3$ receptor selective agonist senktide did not showed any effect. Nifedipine ($1{\mu}M$) abolished the contraction produced either by EFS or by the TK receptor agonists [$Sar^9$,$Met(O_2)^{11}$] Substance P or [${\beta}-Ala^8$]-neurokinin A (4-10). It is concluded that, in the longitudinal muscle of rat ileum, both $NK_1$ and $NK_2$ receptors modulated the responses to exogenous tachykinins, whereas $NK_1$ is mainly involved in NANC neuromuscular contraction.