• Title, Summary, Keyword: electrode material

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Effect of the A-site Deficieny of ABO3 type (La0.75Sr0.25)1-xFeO3-δ Used as Cathode Materials for SOFC on the Electrode Properties (고체산화물 연료전지의 공기극용 ABO3구조의 (La0.75Sr0.25)1-xFeO3-δ의 A-site변화에 따른 전극 특성 연구)

  • Park, Ju-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Bok;So, Hui-Jeong;Lim, Tak-Hyoung;Yoon, Soon-Gil;Shin, Dong-Ryul;Song, Rak-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 2008
  • We synthesized and investigated $(La_{0.75}Sr_{0.25})_{1-x}FeO_{3-\delta}$ perovskite oxides having different stoichiomety (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08) as cathode materials. SEM images and XRD patterns reveal that the synthesized powder has uniform size distribution and high degree of crystallinity. The electrochemical performances of the synthesized powders were investigated by AC impedance spectroscopy. Both the electric conductivity and the electrochemical performance showed the highest properties at the stoichiometry x = 0.02. Finally, we concluded that the variation of A-site deficiency results in the variation of the amount of oxygen vacancy and micro structure, which leads to the variation of electric conductivity and polarization resistance.

The Effect of NH3 Concentration during Co-precipitation of Precursors from Leachate of Lithium-ion Battery Positive Electrode Active Materials (리튬이차전지 양극활물질의 암모니아 침출액에서 공침법에 의한 활물질 전구체의 합성에 대한 암모니아 농도의 영향)

  • Park, Sanghyuk;Ku, Heesuk;Lee, Kyoung-Joon;Song, Jun Ho;Kim, Sookyung;Sohn, Jeongsoo;Kwon, Kyungjung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2015
  • In a recycling scheme of spent lithium ion batteries, a co-precipitation process for the re-synthesis of precursor is essential after the leaching of lithium ion battery scraps. In this study, the effect of ammonia as impurity during the co-precipitation process was investigated in order to re-synthesize a precursor of Ni-rich cathode active material $LiNi_{0.6}Co_{0.2}Mn_{0.2}O_2$ (NCM 622). As ammonia concentration increases from 1 M (the optimum condition for synthesis of the precursors based on 2 M of metal salt solution) to 4 M, the composition of obtained precursors deviates from the designed composition, most notably for Ni. The Ni co-precipitation efficiency gradually decreases from 100% to 87% when the concentration of ammonia solution increases from 1 M to 4 M. Meanwhile, the morphological properties of the obtained precursors such as sphericity, homogeneity and size distribution of particles were also investigated.

Characteristic of Ru Thin Film Deposited by ALD

  • Park, Jingyu;Jeon, Heeyoung;Kim, Hyunjung;Kim, Jinho;Jeon, Hyeongtag
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.78-78
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    • 2013
  • Recently, many platinoid metals like platinum and ruthenium have been used as an electrode of microelectronic devices because of their low resistivity and high work-function. However the material cost of Ru is very expensive and it usually takes long initial nucleation time on SiO2 during chemical deposition. Therefore many researchers have focused on how to enhance the initial growth rate on SiO2 surface. There are two methods to deposit Ru film with atomic layer deposition (ALD); the one is thermal ALD using dilute oxygen gas as a reactant, and the other is plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD) using NH3 plasma as a reactant. Generally, the film roughness of Ru film deposited by PEALD is smoother than that deposited by thermal ALD. However, the plasma is not favorable in the application of high aspect ratio structure. In this study, we used a bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium [Ru(EtCp)2] as a metal organic precursor for both thermal and plasma enhanced ALDs. In order to reduce initial nucleation time, we use several methods such as Ar plasma pre-treatment for PEALD and usage of sacrificial RuO2 under layer for thermal ALD. In case of PEALD, some of surface hydroxyls were removed from SiO2 substrate during the Ar plasma treatment. And relatively high surface nitrogen concentration after first NH3 plasma exposure step in ALD process was observed with in-situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). This means that surface amine filled the hydroxyl removed sites by the NH3 plasma. Surface amine played a role as a reduction site but not a nucleation site. Therefore, the precursor reduction was enhanced but the adhesion property was degraded. In case of thermal ALD, a Ru film was deposited from Ru precursors on the surface of RuO2 and the RuO2 film was reduced from RuO2/SiO2 interface to Ru during the deposition. The reduction process was controlled by oxygen partial pressure in ambient. Under high oxygen partial pressure, RuO2 was deposited on RuO2/SiO2, and under medium oxygen partial pressure, RuO2 was partially reduced and oxygen concentration in RuO2 film was decreased. Under low oxygen partial pressure, finally RuO2 was disappeared and about 3% of oxygen was remained. Usually rough surface was observed with longer initial nucleation time. However, the Ru deposited with reduction of RuO2 exhibits smooth surface and was deposited quickly because the sacrificial RuO2 has no initial nucleation time on SiO2 and played a role as a buffer layer between Ru and SiO2.

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Environment-Friendly Synthesis of Graphene Ball and its Characterization (그래핀 볼의 친환경 제조 및 특성 평가)

  • Park, Su-Ryeon;Jo, Eun Hee;Kim, Sun Kyung;Chang, Hankwon;Jang, Hee Dong
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.54 no.6
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    • pp.786-791
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    • 2016
  • Spherical graphene balls were fabricated by an aerosol spray drying process after reduced graphene oxide was prepared by the liquid phase reaction using glucose as an environment-friendly reducing agent. Spherical morphology of the as-fabricated particles was observed by FE-SEM analysis. Diffraction patterns of spherical particles were found as graphene by XRD analysis. Sphericity of GB was controlled by the variation of operating temperature, amount of glucose, and addition of $NH_4OH$. Higher sphericity of GB was prepared at higher operating temperature in the presence of $NH_4OH$. As the amount of glucose in the liquid phase reaction increased in the presence of $NH_4OH$, sphericity of GB increased. The highest sphericity of GB was 1.1. GB of higher sphericity showed lower aggregation property than that of lower sphericity. Furthermore, as-prepared GBs were found as a potential electrode material for capacitor.

CdZnTe Detector for Computed Tomography based on Weighting Potential (가중 퍼텐셜에 기초한 CT용 CdZnTe 소자 설계)

  • Lim, Hyunjong;Park, Chansun;Kim, Jungsu;Kim, Jungmin;Choi, Jonghak;Kim, KiHyun
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2016
  • Room-temperature operating CdZnTe(CZT) material is an innovative radiation detector which could reduce the patient dose to one-tenth level of conventional CT (Computed Tomography) and mammography system. The pixel and pixel pitch in the imaging device determine the conversion efficiency of incident X-or gamma-ray and the cross-talk of signal, that is, image quality of detector system. The weighting potential is the virtual potential determined by the position and geometry of electrode. The weighting potential obtained by computer-based simulation in solving Poisson equation with proper boundaries condition. The pixel was optimized by considering the CIE (charge induced efficiency) and the signal cross-talk in CT detector system. The pixel pitch was 1-mm and the detector thickness was 2-mm in the simulation. The optimized pixel size and inter-pixel distance for maximizing the CIE and minimizing the signal cross-talk is about $750{\mu}m$ and $125{\mu}m$, respectively.

Analysis of Parameter Characteristic of Parallel Electrodes Conduction-cooled Film Capacitor for HF-LC Resonance (고주파 LC 공진을 위한 병렬전극 전도냉각 필름커패시터의 파라메타 특성 분석)

  • Won, Seo-Yeon;Lee, Kyeong-Jin;Kim, Hie-Sik
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.155-166
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    • 2016
  • It is important to configure capacitance(C) of the capacitor and the induction coefficient(L) of the work coil on the resonant circuit design stage in order to induce heating on the object by a precise and constant frequency components in the electromagnetic induction heating equipment. Work coil conducts a direct induction heating according to heating point and area of the object which has a fixed heat factor so that work coil is designed to has fixed value. On the other hands, Capacitor should be designed to be changed in order to be the higher the utilization of the entire equipment. It is extracted the samples by variation of single electrode capacity from the selection stage of raw materials for capacity to the stage of process design for output of the high frequency LC resonance of 700kHz on 1000 VAC maximum voltage and current to $200I_{MAX}$. It is suggested fundamental experiment results in order to prove relation for the optimal design of HF-LC resonance conduction-cooled capacitor based on the response of frequency characteristics and results of output parameters according to variation of the capacitance size.

Electrochemical Generation of Chlorine Dioxide from Sodium Chlorite Using Un-Divided Electrochemical Cell: Effect of Anode Materials (아염소산나트륨의 무격막 전기분해에 의한 이산화염소 생성: 양전극 재질에 따른 영향)

  • Kwon, Tae Ok;Park, Bo Bae;Roh, Hyun Cheul;Moon, Il Shik
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 2010
  • A characteristic study of aqueous chlorine dioxide generation from sodium chlorite($NaClO_2$) by an undivided electrochemical cell with different anode materials were performed. $IrO_2$-coated Ti, $RuO_2$-coated Ti and DSA were used as anode materials and Pt-coated Ti electrode was used as cathode. Various electrochemical cell operating parameters such as cell residence time($t_R$), initial feed solution pH, sodium chlorite and sodium chloride(NaCl) concentration and applied current for the generation of chlorine dioxide in an un-divided cell were investigated and optimized. Estimated optimal cell residence times in $IrO_2$-coated Ti, $RuO_2$-coated Ti and DSA anode material systems were around 2.27, 1.52 and 1.52 sec, respectively. Observed optimum initial feed solution pH was around 2.3 in all anode material systems. Optimum sodium chlorite concentrations in $IrO_2$-coated Ti, $RuO_2$-coated Ti and DSA anode systems were around 0.43, 0.43 and 0.32 g/L, respectively. Optimum electrolyte concentration and applied current were around 5.85 g/L and 0.6 A in all anode systems. Current efficiencies of $IrO_2$-coated Ti, $RuO_2$-coated Ti and DSA anode systems under optimum conditions were 79.80, 114.70 and 70.99%, respectively. Obtained energy consumptions for the optimum generation of chlorine dioxide were 1.38, 1.03 and $1.61W{\cdot}hr/g-ClO_2$, respectively.

Electro chemical characteristics of $(MnX)O_2$ electrode prepared by thermal decomposition method (열분해법으로 제조된 $(MnX)O_2$ 전극의 전기화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Hyun-Sik;Lee, Hae-Yon;Huh, Jeoung-Sub;Kim, Jong-Ryung;Lee, Dong-Yoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.348-351
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    • 2003
  • 산소 과전압이 낮은 $MnO_2$를 촉매로 사용하여 반도체 산화물계의 산소선택성 전극을 제조하고 산화물 coating층의 미세구조와 전기화학적 특성을 분석하였다. Ti 기판에 열분해 법을 이용하여 $MnO_2$ 피막을 형성하였고, 또한 PVDF : $MnO_2$의 함량비를 1 : 1에서 1 : 40까지 정량적으로 변화시키고 DMF의 함량을 각각의 고정된 PVDF : $MnO_2$의 함량비에서 변화시켜 Pb전극에 1.5 mm/sec의 속도로 5회 dipping하여 $MnO_2$ 피막층을 형성 하였다. $450^{\circ}C$에서 1시간 열분해하여 약 $1\;{\mu}m$$MnO_2$ 피막층이 형성되었으나 Ti 기판과의 접착력이 약하여 피막자체에 대한 전기화학적 특성을 관찰할 수 없었다. PVDF : DMF = 4 : 96인 경우 pb 전극의 피막층이 얇기 때문에 박리현상이 일어났으며 이는 산화물 용제의 낮은 점도 때문인 것으로 판단된다. 또한 PVDF : DMF = 10 : 90의 경우는 5회 dipping 하여 약 $150\;{\mu}m$의 피막층을 형성하였다. PVDF : $MnO_2$의 함량비가 1:1에서 1:6 까지는 DMF의 함량에 무관하게 전극 특성이 나타나지 않았지만 $MnO_2$의 양이 상대적으로 증가하면 cycle이 증가하더라도 거의 일정한 전류 값을 갖고 $MnO_2$와 PVDF의 비가 20:1 이상의 조성에서는 균일한 CV 특성을 나타냈다. 이는 $MnO_2$가 효과적으로 촉매 작용을 한 것으로 판단되며 anodic polarization에 의한 산소 발생 과전압도 약 1.4V 정도로 감소되었다.동등한 MSIL 코드를 생성하도록 시스템을 컴파일러 기법을 이용하여 모듈별로 구성하였다.적용하였다.n rate compared with conventional face recognition algorithms. 아니라 실내에서도 발생하고 있었다. 정량한 8개 화합물 각각과 총 휘발성 유기화합물의 스피어만 상관계수는 벤젠을 제외하고는 모두 유의하였다. 이중 톨루엔과 크실렌은 총 휘발성 유기화합물과 좋은 상관성 (톨루엔 0.76, 크실렌, 0.87)을 나타내었다. 이 연구는 톨루엔과 크실렌이 총 휘발성 유기화합물의 좋은 지표를 사용될 있고, 톨루엔, 에틸벤젠, 크실렌 등 많은 휘발성 유기화합물의 발생원은 실외뿐 아니라 실내에도 있음을 나타내고 있다.>10)의 $[^{18}F]F_2$를 얻었다. 결론: $^{18}O(p,n)^{18}F$ 핵반응을 이용하여 친전자성 방사성동위원소 $[^{18}F]F_2$를 생산하였다. 표적 챔버는 알루미늄으로 제작하였으며 본 연구에서 연구된 $[^{18}F]F_2$가스는 친핵성 치환반응으로 방사성동위원소를 도입하기 어려운 다양한 방사성의 약품개발에 유용하게 이용될 수 있을 것이다.었으나 움직임 보정 후 영상을 이용하여 비교한 경우, 결합능 변화가 선조체 영역에서 국한되어 나타나며 그 유의성이 움직임 보정 전에 비하여 낮음을 알 수 있었다. 결론: 뇌활성화 과제 수행시에 동반되는 피험자의 머리 움직임에 의하여 도파민 유리가 과대평가되었으며 이는 이 연구에서 제안한 영상정합을 이용한 움직임 보정기법에 의해서 개선되었다. 답이 없는 문제, 문제 만들기, 일반화가 가능한 문제 등으로 보고, 수학적 창의성 중 특히 확산적 사고에 초점을 맞추어 개방형 문제가 확산적 사고의 요소인 유창성, 독창성, 유연성 등에 각각 어떤 영향을 미치는지 20주의 프로그램을 개발, 진행하여 그 효과를 검증하고자

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Influence of Sustain Electrode Gap on Excited Xenon Atom in the Metastable State by Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in AC PDP (AC PDP에서 레이저 흡수법을 이용한 유지전극의 위치에 따른 제논 여기종 원자의 밀도 측정)

  • Lee, J.H.;Lim, J.E.;Lee, H.J.;Son, C.G.;Jeong, S.H.;Lee, S.B.;Yoo, N.L.;Han, Y.G.;Oh, P.Y.;Moon, M.W.;Ko, B.D.;Jeoung, J.M.;Moon, H.S.;Park, K.D.;Ahn, J.C.;Hong, J.W.;Cho, G.S.;Choi, E.H.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.131-134
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    • 2005
  • PDP 방전 셀의 최적화 및 진공자외선 발광효율을 향상시키기 위한 목적으로 AC - PDP 미소방전에서 제논 여기종 원자의 밀도를 측정하는 레이저 흡수법을 개발하였다. 본 연구에서는 PDP 셀의 기체 압력을 350Torr, 제논 함량 10%로 고정하고, 전극 위에서의 여러 위치에서 준안정 준위 제논의 밀도를 흡수법으로 측정하였다. 실험 결과 제논 여기종의 밀도의 최대값은 전극의 위치(가장자리에서 안쪽으로의 거리)가 $50{\mu}m$, $120{\mu},\;150{\mu}m$ 일 때 $3.5{\times}10^{12}cm^{-3}$, $2.8{\times}10^{12}cm^{-3}$, $2.2{\times}10^{12}cm^{-3}$로 나타났다.

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Electrochemical Treatment of Dye Wastewater Using Fe, RuO2/Ti, PtO2/Ti, IrO2/Ti and Graphite Electrodes (RuO2/Ti, PtO2/Ti, IrO2/Ti 및 흑연전극을 이용한 염료폐수의 전기화학적 처리)

  • Kim, A Ram;Park, Hyun Jung;Won, Yong Sun;Lee, Tae Yoon;Lee, Jae Keun;Lim, Jun Heok
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.16-28
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    • 2016
  • Textile industry is considered as one of the most polluting sectors in terms of effluent composition and volume of discharge. It is well known that the effluents from textile dying industry contain not only chromatic substances but also large amounts of organic compounds and insolubles. The azo dyes generate huge amount of pollutions among many types of pigments. In general, the electrochemical treatments, separating colors and organic materials by oxidation and reduction on electrode surfaces, are regarded as simpler and faster processes for removal of pollutants compared to other wastewater treatments. In this paper the electrochemical degradation characteristics of dye wastewater containing CI Direct Blue 15 were analyzed. The experiments were performed with various anode materials, such as RuO2/Ti, PtO2/Ti, IrO2/Ti and graphite, with stainless steel for cathode. The optimal anode material was located by changing operating conditions like electrolyte concentration, current density, reaction temperature and initial pH. The degradation efficiency of dye wastewater increased in proportion to the electrolyte concentration and the current density for all anode materials, while the temperature effect was dependent on the kind. The performance orders of anode materials were RuO2/Ti > PtO2/Ti > IrO2/Ti > graphite in acid condition and RuO2/Ti > IrO2/Ti > PtO2/Ti > graphite in neutral and basic conditions. As a result, RuO2/Ti demonstrated the best performance as an anode material for the electrochemical treatment of dye wastewater.