• Title, Summary, Keyword: electromagnetic force

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Real-time model updating for magnetorheological damper identification: an experimental study

  • Song, Wei;Hayati, Saeid;Zhou, Shanglian
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.619-636
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    • 2017
  • Magnetorheological (MR) damper is a type of controllable device widely used in vibration mitigation. This device is highly nonlinear, and exhibits strongly hysteretic behavior that is dependent on both the motion imposed on the device and the strength of the surrounding electromagnetic field. An accurate model for understanding and predicting the nonlinear damping force of the MR damper is crucial for its control applications. The MR damper models are often identified off-line by conducting regression analysis using data collected under constant voltage. In this study, a MR damper model is integrated with a model for the power supply unit (PSU) to consider the dynamic behavior of the PSU, and then a real-time nonlinear model updating technique is proposed to accurately identify this integrated MR damper model with the efficiency that cannot be offered by off-line methods. The unscented Kalman filter is implemented as the updating algorithm on a cyber-physical model updating platform. Using this platform, the experimental study is conducted to identify MR damper models in real-time, under in-service conditions with time-varying current levels. For comparison purposes, both off-line and real-time updating methods are applied in the experimental study. The results demonstrate that all the updated models can provide good identification accuracy, but the error comparison shows the real-time updated models yield smaller relative errors than the off-line updated model. In addition, the real-time state estimates obtained during the model updating can be used as feedback for potential nonlinear control design for MR dampers.

Effect of Magnetic Force on Rheological and Compressive Properties of Magneto-Rheological Rubber Composites with Iron Particle and Carbon Nanotubes (자기력이 철 분말 및 탄소나노튜브 강화 자기유동 고무 복합재료의 유동 및 압축 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Sang Ryeoul;Lee, Dong Joo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 2013
  • An orthotropic magneto-rheological rubber composite (MRRC) based on a general-purpose rubber can be manufactured by using an electromagnetic device during the curing processes of rubber mixtures. The magnetic transmissivity of MRRCs increases with the iron particle (IP) content, and that of aligned MRRCs with a 2-T magnetic field is 1.8 to 2 times higher as compared to that of randomly dispersed MRRCs. The effect of a 2-T magnetic field on carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced MRRC has been identified clearly, and the magnetic transmissivity is found to be 3.7%. The compressive stress of MRRC (IP 90 + CNT 5, 2 T alignment) under a magnetic field of 0.49 T is 2.1 times higher as compared to that of the matrix. The MR effect of MRRC increases with the IP content, and that of aligned MRRC with the IP 90 and 2 T magnetic field is 20.4%. It is confirmed that the magnetic field when making the specimen and when performing the compression test greatly impacts the compression characteristics.

Numerical Design of Shielded Encircling Probe for RFEC Testing of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Tube (핵연료 피복재 튜브의 원격장와전류 탐상을 위한 차폐된 관통형 탐촉자의 수치해석적 설계)

  • Shin, Young-Kil;Shin, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.650-657
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    • 2001
  • This paper explains the process of designing a shielded encircling remote field eddy current (RFEC) probe to inspect nuclear fuel cladding tubes and investigates resulting signal characteristics. To force electromagnetic energy from exciter coil to penetrate into the tube, exciter coil is shielded outside by laminations of iron insulated electrically from each other. Effects of shielding and the proper operating frequency are studied by the finite element analysis and the location for sensor coil is decided. However, numerically simulated signals using the designed probe do not clearly show the defect indication when the sensor passes a defect and the other indication appeared as the exciter passes the defect is affected by the shape of shielding structure, which demonstrates that the sensor is directly affected by exciter fields. For this reason, the sensor is also shielded outside and this shielding dramatically improves signal characteristics. Numerical modeling with the finally designed probe shows very similar signal characteristics to those of inner diameter RFEC probe. That is, phase signals show almost equal sensitivity to inner diameter and outer diameter defects and the linear relationship between phase signal strength and defect depth is observed.

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Dredging Material High Efficiency Transport Technology Test by Using the Electro Magnetic Field and Development of the Technical Design Manual (전자기장을 이용한 준설토 고효율 이송기술 실증 및 기술 지침 개발)

  • Kim, Dong-Chule;Kim, Yu-Seung;Yea, Chan-Su;Kim, Sun-Bin;Park, Seung-Min
    • Journal of Coastal Disaster Prevention
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.173-182
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    • 2018
  • As the research about increasing the efficiency of dredging soil transport, the technology, which reduce the friction between pipe wall and fluid in the pipe and disturbed generating pipe blockage, has been developed. So for the purpose of applying this technology to real construction site, main test has been tried at the real scale test in field. As a test result, this paper will show 30% flow efficiency increasing by permitted electro magnetic force to the pipe. And test result was evaluated as a ultra sonic velocity profiler. To propose the design technique and the execution manual of the high efficiency dredging material transport technic, this research have confirmed flow status changing depending on a soil material kind under electro-magnetic field and analyze the effect of electro-magnetic field which affects to each dredged soil material transportation. For achieving this research, EMF(Electro-Magnetic Field) generator is installed on the dredger(20,000HP) and through monitored flow status, dredging soil flow rate and sampled material specification is confirmed. Also dredger operating condition is measured and dredger power for soil transportation, hydraulic gradient and flow rate are compared, as transportation efficiency is calculated by this parameter, it is possible to check transportation efficiency improvement depending on each dredged soil material under electro-magnetic field. To verify the technique of dredged soil transfer using electromagnetic field, which is the core technique of the high efficiency dredged soil transfer, and the technique of expert system for pipeline transfer and the flow state. This could lead to a verification of transfer efficiency according to the characteristics of the dredged soil (sand, clay, silt) and the transfer distance (5km, 10km, 15km), which is planned to be used for a technology development of pump power reduction and long-distance transfer applying the high efficiency dredged soil transfer technology.

Japan's Missile Detection Capability using Electromagnetic Wave in free space (일본의 자유공간에서 전자파를 이용한 미사일 탐지능력)

  • Lee, Yongsik
    • Journal of Satellite, Information and Communications
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.78-86
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    • 2017
  • Japan has a lot of interest about weapons systems development of surrounding national and has invested heavily in securing intelligence assets to get information about them, because of conflict issues between Japan and Russia with four northern islands, China with Senkaku Islands and entry policy into the Pacific. Japan has used a large budget to detect and intercept ballistic missile for reasons of the launch of the Taepodong missile in 1998. After took over SIGINT equipments which U.S. force had operated in 1950s~1960s, Japan made a technological analysis and advanced IT technology to produce superior equipments. Japan's SDF has installed them in 19 locations across Japan. In addition, Japan's JASDF has installed advanced early warning RADAR to detect aircraft and high speed ballistic missile entering JADIZ with S-band in 28 locations across Japan. It is possible to detect missile launch preparations, engine tests, and launch moments at any time for operation of 6 satellites high resolution reconnaissance system and 6 aegis ships. In close cooperation with the US, Japan is accessible to the SBIRS networks which detects the launch of a ballistic missile in neighboring countries. In the future, Because the United States wants Japan to act as part of the United States in East, south Asia, it is believed that the exchange of intelligence on the surrounding countries between two countries will be enhanced.

Research Trend of Soft Magnetic Composite Materials with High Energy Efficiency (고에너지효율 연자성 복합 분말 소재의 연구개발 동향)

  • Kim, Hwi-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2011
  • The use of soft magnetic materials have been increasing in the various industrial fields according to the increasing demand for high performance, automatic, miniaturing equipments in the recent our life. In this study, we investigated the effect of factors on the core loss and magnetic properties of electrical steel and soft magnetic composites. Furthermore, we reviewed the major efforts to reduce the core loss and improve the soft magnetic properties in the two main soft magnetic materials. Domain purification which results from reduced density of defects in cleaner electrical steels is combined with large grains to reduce hysteresis loss. The reduced thickness and the high electrical conductivity reduce the eddy current component of loss. Furthermore, the coating applied to the surface of electrical steel and texture control lead to improve high permeability and low core loss. There is an increasing interest in soft magnetic composite materials because of the demand for miniaturization of cores for power electronic applications. The SMC materials have a broad range of potential applications due to the possibility of true 3-D electromagnetic design and higher frequency operation. Grain size, sintering temperature, and the degree of porosity need to be carefully controlled in order to optimize structure-sensitive properties such as maximum permeability and low coercive force. The insulating coating on the powder particles in SMCs eliminates particle-to-particle eddy current paths hence minimizing eddy current losses, but it reduces the permeability and to a small extent the saturation magnetization. The combination of new chemical composition with optimum powder manufacturing processes will be able to result in improving the magnetic properties in soft magnetic composite materials, too.

Microwave Irradiation as a Way to Reutilize the Recovered Struvite Slurry and to Enhance System Performance (회수된 MAP 슬러리의 재이용과 공정효율 향상을 위한 도구로서의 극초단파 조사)

  • Cho, Joon-Hee;Lee, Jin-Eui;Ra, Chang-Six
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.337-342
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    • 2009
  • The feasibility of reutilization of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) or struvite slurry recovered from the process through microwave irradiation was studied in this experiment. For this purpose, 4 different operations were performed with or without Mg source addition and different levels of MAP recycled in a batch reactor. Dissolution rate of MAP, ${NH_4}^+$ elimination pattern and physicochemical changes of MAP during microwave irradiation were also studied. The result showed that only 33% orthophosphate ($PO_4-P$) and 27% $NH_4-N$ removal occurred without adding any external Mg source (run A), whereas 87% $PO_4-P$ and 40% $NH_4-N$ removed when 1.0 M ratio of $MgCl_2$ (run B) was added based on $PO_4-P$ in influent. Although the addition of 1.0 molar ratio of microwave irradiated MAP (Run C) removed lower $PO_4-P$ and $NH_4-N$ than 1.0 M $MgCl_2$ (run B), $PO_4-P$ removal was double when compared with no Mg addition (run A). Addition of half MAP and half $MgCl_2$ (run D) showed the similar removal efficiency (88% $PO_4-P$ and 35% $NH_4-N$) with sole $MgCl_2$ addition (run B). Based on these results, the reutilization of MAP irradiated by microwave would be a feasible way to enhance the removal efficiencies of N and P, as well as curtail the Mg chemical usage. Track study showed that $NH_4-N$ gradually increased at initial stage of microwave irradiation of MAP, and then started eliminating from liquor as temperature increased over $45^{\circ}C$. Dissolution rate of ${PO_4}^{-3}$ during microwave irradiation was proportional to the initial MAP concentration, having $0.0091x^{0.6373}$ mg/sec. It was found from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) study that physical structure of MAP crystal started breaking down into small cube granules within very short time by electromagnetic vibration force during microwave irradiation and then gradually melted down into solution.